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1655. W\ 

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JUNL28, 1938 


MAY 10 1974 









Thk Chronicle of Flofe ** as s 

to English aistorjr, with two ■ * 
period from the depart* n ? & 

the twenty-third year of toe . 01 u*<n > i. « '^96. it 
is founded on an earii • ' c "s 

Scotus, one of the many ± 10 

41 Island of Saints," beti un j < ,p « 

Marianus entered the J 01 

Cologne about the year K two y a raras v 
drew into complete secli n at Fulda, and removed in iOoy, 
still as a recluse, to Mencz, where he ended his days ; his 
death being variously assigned to the years 1083 or 1086. 
This long seclusion afforded him leisure for composing a 
Chronicle, extending from the creation of the world to the 
close of his own life; but which is of comparatively little 
interest to ourselves, as even the latter portion of it relates 
almost entirely to the German empire or the Popedom, and 
contains only a few short references to events connected with 
this island. 

Florence has preserved these, in making the work of 
Marianus the basis of his own Chronicle. The rest of his 
materials for the earlier period of English history are chiefly 
supplied by Bede, the Saxon Chronicle, the Lives of Saints, 
and Asser's Life of Alfred j 1 of the latter of which he gives 

1 Florence copied Asser so literally that he has twice adopted 
expressions employed by the former, which might lead us to sup- 
pose that the chronicler had personally examined the positions on 
which two of the battles he describes were fought. See pp. 63 and 70 
of the present volume. 







? • 





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1055. \\<\ 

Ha.-.v; - ; •.;;• V- •.! .KARY 

T.{.:. 7 i... ;: ..•, OF 
. tfKo. li 1 1 if ;;/ v vl;; U06S 
JUNt 28, 1938 


MAV 10 1974 









The Chronicle of Florence of Worcester, so far as it relates 
to English history, with its two Continuations, embraces the 
period from the departure of the Romans in the year 446, to 
the twenty-third year of the reign of Edward I. in 1295. It 
is founded on an earlier Chronicle, compiled by Mar i anus 
Scotus, one of the many learned Irishmen sent forth from the 
" Island of Saints," between the sixth and eleventh centuries. 
Mar i anus entered the Irish monastery of St. Martin at 
Cologne about the year 1056 ; two years afterwards he with- 
drew into complete seclusion at Fulda, and removed in 1059, 
still as a recluse, to Mentz, where he ended his days ; his 
death being variously assigned to the years 1083 or 1086. 
This long seclusion afforded him leisure for composing a 
Chronicle, extending from the creation of the world to the 
close of his own life; but which is of comparatively little 
interest to ourselves, as even the latter portion of it relates 
almost entirely to the German empire or the Popedom, and 
contains only a few short references to events connected with 
this island. 

Florence has preserved these, in making the work of 
Marianus the basis of his own Chronicle. The rest of his 
materials for the earlier period of English history are chiefly 
supplied by Bede, the Saxon Chronicle, the Lives of Saints, 
and Asser's Life of Alfred j 1 of the latter of which he gives 

1 Florence copied Asser so literally that he has twice adopted 
expressions employed by the former, which might lead us to sup- 
pose that the chronicler had personally examined the positions on 
which two of the battles he describes were fought. See pp. 63 and 70 
of the present volume. 

almost an exact transcript, carrying t ! i o .series of events 
[own to the year 888. He then reverts to the Saxor 
Chronicle, which continues to be his main resource until lit 
approaches his own times; not, however, exclusively, for 
during one period he has scarcely extracted any thing fron 
it, and in treating of events of later times, especially thus 
of the reign of Edward the Confessor, his narrative i 
much mure circumstantial than any to be found in th 
existing manuscripts of that record. Florence has ala 
largely collected from other sources, and selected his material* 
with groat fidelity, industry, and judgment. He is therefore 
justly ranked nest to Bede, and the compilers of the Saxon 
Chronicle, anion;: the authorities for early Kuidish history, auo 
even on the ground which they travel together, his work, fa 
from being superseded, forma a valuable supplement to 

"On the nones [the 7th] of July, 1118, died Florence 
the monk of Worcester, whose acute observation and inde- 
fatigable industry have rendered this Chronicle of Chronicles 
preeminent," Such is the brief record, inserted by John, 
who was also a monk of Worcester, in his continuation c" 
le Chronicle, which supplies nearly all the information w 
Dssess respecting our eminent annalist. Orderieus Vital!, 
ideed, who flourished about the same period, notices the 
Chronicle, but in terms which have occasioned some per- 
plexity to the editors of Florence. The passage, certainly, 
contains no less than two grave errors; but, allowing 
for these, there appears less difficulty than has been 
supposed in reconciling it with the probable state of the 

Ordericus informs us that during his visit to England, 
met with a work at Worcester, of whieli he gives the follow 
ing account ; — " John of Worcester, a native of England, ; 
a monk of Worcester, a man of venerable character and grea 
learning, in the additions which he has made to the chronicles 
of Marianus Scot us, has gathered faithful accounts of kin| 
William, and of the events which occurred in his reign, am 
in those of his sons, William Rufus and king Henry, to the 
present day," Then, after a very exact account of the chro- 
nicle of Marianus, lie says: — ."John of Worcester, who fol 
lowed, recorded the events of nearly a century, and, by order 


of the venerable Wulfstan, bishop rind monk, appended his 
continuation to the chronicle of Marianus, succinctly relating 
many things worthy of observation in the histories of the 
Romans [the popedom], the French, Germans, and other 
nations." 1 

In this passage, Ordericus incorrectly describes the " con- 
tinuation of the chronicle of Marianus," which he saw at Wor- 
cester, as recording the events of nearly a century, while, as 
it will presently appear, it could only have embraced a period 
of about thirty-four years. He has also committed the more 
serious error of attributing the work to a person whose 
share, if any, in it was very small, suffering the name of Flo- 
rence, the real author, to escape his observation. This has 
led Mr. Thorpe to suggest, " that during Wulfstan's lifetime, 
and while Florence was engaged on his work, the labours 
of John were bestowed on the original Chronicle of Marianus, 
and that the manuscript containing those labours is no longer 
known to exist." 8 But the theory of bishop Wulfstan's 
distribution of the task between the two monks of 
Worcester, and of John's being employed on the original 
chronicle of Marianus, is, it should seem, sufficiently refuted 
by John's express statement already quoted, that it was 
" Florence's knowledge and industry which raised- the Chro- 
nicle of Chronicles," meaning clearly the whole work, to 
its pitch of pre-eminence; and it would still leave us 
in the same dilemma as to Ordericus's omission of any 
reference to the labours of Florence, whatever they may 
have been. 

The learned editor proceeds to inquire, " Can any part 
of any copy of the Chronicle of Marianus Scotus, embodying 
Florence of Worcester, be pointed out as answering the de- 
scription given by Orderic of the labours of the monk John?" 
The reply is, that the Chronicle of Florence of Worcester, 
in the existing manuscripts, embodying Marianus Scotus, to 
reverse the phrase, does precisely answer the description 
given by Ordericus, as far as regards its general character, 
with the exception of the two errors into which he has fallen. 

1 Ordericus Vitalis, b. iii. c. 15 ; pp. 493, 494, in Bonn's edition. 
3 Preface to the English Historical Society's edition of Florence, 
d. iv. 

viii PREFACE. 

There is sufficient ground for inferring that Floren 
commenced his work at the instance of bishop Wulfst 
and we find his additions to, and " continuation " 
Miuiiiiiiis, comprising events, both domestic and t'nivkn, 
the specific periods corresponding with the description 
Orderieus, namely, the reign of William and hia twf 
sons ; although the Norman historian has unaccountably repro* 
tented that period as extending in round numbers to 
hundred years. 

The misapprehension of the passage of Orderieus appear 
to have arisen from connecting two paragraphs which have n« 
such connection in the pages of the Norman monk. I 
fifteenth Chapter of his third Book, Orderieus gives a shot 
account of some authors who had written of the times of kinj 
William and his two sons; and he mentions first, William of 
Poitiers, and Guy, bishop of Amiens. He then proceeds," 
the next paragraph, to describe the labours of Marianua, ai 
the monk of Worcester, whom ho calls John ; but without 
any further reference to those of William of Poitiers and 
Guy of Amicus. Mr. Thorpe, however, reads the passage of 
Orderieus differently. He says : "After due praise bestowed 

on those works he then goes on to say, that a monk 

of Worcester, named John, faithfully extracted from William 
of Poitiers, and Guy of Amiens, that which he added to the 
Chronicles of Marianus Scotus concerning William the Con- 
queror and his sons," &c. It may be doubted whether either 
of the two monks of Worcester ever saw the works of th* 
French authors here referred to, and, probably, there are no 
parts of the Chronicle which can be traced to them ; but 
the words here printed in Italics are not contained in Orde- 
rieus, and we venture to think that the passage will not bear 
the turn they give it. 1 If this view be correct, the ground* 
on which the genuineness of Florence's work is questioned 
will be so far narrowed. 

A little attention to dates will put the matter in a clear 
light. Jt appears from internal evidence that Orderieus, a 
monk of fit, Evroult, in Normandy, commenced his own great 
work some time before the year 1123, perhaps about 1120. 
He seems to have made no great progress when he undertook 


iey to England for the purpose, it may be supposed, of 
ing materials for the English annals, which are closely 
oven with those of Normandy during the latter portion 

history. He informs us that he spent five weeks at 
ind, in the time of abbot Geoffrey ;* and as we find in 
►urse of his work that this abbot died on the 5th June, 
; we are able to fix within limits sufficiently accurate 
e present purpose the period of Ordericus s journey 
gland, during which he made the visit to Worcester. 
) Wulfstan was raised to that see in 1062, but as Mari- 
timself carried on his Chronicle to 1083, it must have 
ubsequently to the latter year that the bishop employed 
ice in the labour of amplifying and continuing it. Wulf- 
lied in 1095, but Florence survived till June, 1117, so 
lere was ample time between the death of Marianus and 
n, a period of upwards of thirty-four years, for a recluse 

industry and intelligence to have completed the task. 
Icus himself only lived to 1141 or 1142, so that it is 
iible that he could have seen a Continuation containing 
ents of a century after the death of Marianus, that is, 
ling to the year 1183 ; far in the reign of the third, 
1 of the second, Henry, 
iters standing thus, and Ordericus coming to Wor- 

according to these calculations, some three or four 
after the death of Florence, he would find the Chro- 
)f Marianus in the state in which he describes it, as aug- 
d and carried forward to the reign of Henry I. It 

naturally be in the hands of the monk John, who 
nployed in further continuing it ; and there being, as 

i Scoti chronicis adjecit, de r^ege Gulielmo, et de rebus quae sub 
sub filiis ejus Gulielmo Rufo et Henrico, usque hodie con- 
it, honeste deprompsit." In the editions, both of Duchesne and 
nete d* Histoire de France, the passage forms the commence- 
>f a new paragraph, and, as the words in his evidently apply to 
'onicle of Marianus, and cannot well be referred to deprompsit, 
is nothing in the sentence to connect the latter word with 
n of Poitiers, and Guy of Amiens. M. Dubois, the French 
tor of " Ordericus," thus reads it : " Jean de Worcester . . 
i parle convenablement, dans les additions aux chroniques de 
tais Marien, tant du roi Guillaume que des evenements qui sont 
sous lui, et sous ses fils Guillaume le Rous et Henri, jusqu'a 


a B. iv. c. 16. 3 B. xiii. 


appears from the manuscripts, no break in the annals c 
quent on the change of authors, wo can only suppose, « 
Sir. I'ctrie, that these circumstances led him to ascribe 
merit of the whole work to the surviving continuato 
Ma.ria.uus, with whom lie conversed ; or that, 
having tailed liim, or his notes being imperfect, lie confusi 
the name of John, his personal acquaintance, with that ( 
Florence, when ho gnt back to Normandy and resumed h 
own labours. However this may be, tin.- statement .if (lid 
rleus, possibly originating in a slip of his memory, or his pe 
can hardly be allowed to cast a shadow of doubt c 
genuineness of [lie t.'lironicle, us being the work of Florenc 
when it is weighed airuiiist the direct testimony of his broth 
monk of the same house, writing on the spot, and immediate 
after ins death, 1 

This view of the case disarms the criticism that the e 
tinuator, John of Worcester, "is hardly identical with 
other monk of the same name and place spoken of by Ordfl* 
ricus Vitalia;"* to say nothing of the improbability of the 
being two such persons engaged in the work at nearly t 
same period. 

With respect to the authorship of the first Continu* 
tion — independently of what may be gathered from 
careful examination of the passage in Ordericus, — the 
is internal evidence that it was compiled by a monk 
Worcester named John, who was eotemporary with the cvei 
which he records. One of these circumstances is sulhcien 
indicated by an entry under the year 1038, in which the w 

That ho was eotemporary with the occurrences which lie 
lates, appears incidentally from his mode, of speaking of 1 " 
Stephen, where he says: "He was, uay is, at the pre 

1 M. Le Prevest, the learned editor of the Ordericus pu'uli 
by the French Historical Society, says hi his note on the pas 
jn dispute :— '' i'loreiit de Worcester, el nun pas J win, a continue 
cli M) nil lie 1 Je sen ilevaiic'u-r J'3Iarianus"|, nun pas pi'mlanl |ui'. i' 
sicole inais du IOS3 a HIT, en y ajoutant heaucoup dfl fails "-'-*■ 
l'histoire li'Anglcterrt 1 ." - Tome ii. p. 160. 

* Preface tu the E. H. Society's edition of Florence, p. vi: 


_* moment, desirous of peace;" and he mentions Henry de 
^ Blois, bishop of Winchester, 1 and Milo, earl of Hereford, 2 as 
i ; living characters from whom he had received certain informa- 
"' tion; whence we also learn that he had access to the 
highest sources of intelligence. The most striking passage 
,!" in the volume is, perhaps, that in which he paints, as an eye- 
witness, the fearful scenes which occurred during an assault 
i on Worcester by the partisans of the empress Maud, when an 
i infuriated rabble burst into the' abbey church whilst he and 
" the rest of the monks were chanting primes in the choir. 8 
i" Indeed, like his predecessor Florence, he is naturally more 
diffuse and circumstantial than other chroniclers respecting 
i p occurrences connected with Worcestershire, the neighbouring 
" I counties, and the borders of Wales. 

The first Continuation of Florence brings the annals down 

( to the close of the year 1141, the period of Stephen's cap- 

thi ^vity, after losing the battle of Lincoln. As several of the 

v| manuscripts, however, terminate with the year 1131, it "has 

h J teen supposed that the history of the last ten years was the 

r £ work of another cotemporary writer ; but so far from there 

j being internal evidence of any such change, the entry in which 

[ John, the monk of Worcester, introduces his own name, was 

inserted as late as 1138. While, therefore, there is no reason 

. i J to doubt that the original Chronicle is the genuine pro- 

, f duction of Florence, the authorship of the first Continu- 

4 ation may be safely ascribed to John, the monk of Worcester, 

■ The work of continuation appears to have been now sus- 

■ pended, and the interval between the years 1141 and 1152, 
; when Henry II. ascended the throne, is filled up in one of the 
; best manuscripts by a transcript from the History of Henry of 

he i*j Huntingdon. The scene of labour was then shifted from 
Worcester to Bury St. Edmund's, as appears from the fre- 
quent entries of occurrences connected with that locality 
j inserted in the second Continuation, which was compiled by 
>lisM JqJjjj <j e Baxter, a monk of Bury. Like most other chronicles, 
* ^ his work begins with the creation ; but it is only from the 
s d'li year 1 152, where the continuation of Florence commences, 

1 a.d. 1134 and 1137 ; pp. 249 and 253 of the present vol. 
2 a.d. 1140 j p. 282, ih. * a.d. 1139 ; pp. 270, 271. 

fl who was probably his disciple, and on whom his mantle 
^y worthily fell. 

that it is of any value. De Taster carries on the 
through the reigns of Henry IT., Richard I., and John, to th* 
year 1205, the forty-ninth of Henry III., in which the battli 
of Evesham was fought. 

The remainder of the second Continuation appears to hav* 
been also the work of a monk of Bury, from its constant r»i 
ference to matters connected with that town and abbey. 
These notices, more or less dispersed throughout this portion 
of the Chronicle, are not without interest, particularly iron 
the light they throw ou the exactions levied by the Norman 
kings on the religious houses, a subject on which the writers 
appear to have been very sensitive. Much curious informa- 
tion is also furnished on the general taxation of the kingdom, 
and monetary affairs of the time. The history is carried 
on through the latter years of the reign of Henry III., until 
nearly the close of that of Edward I.; where it terminates 
abruptly in the year 1295. 

This second Continuation of the Chronicle, which is no* 
for the first time presented to the English reader, has been 
translated from the text of the Historical Society's edition, 
printed from a manuscript, once the property of lor! 
William Howard, 1 and now belonging to the College of Arms. 
The Society's text has also been used in translating the 
Chronicle and the first Continuation ; its basis being a valu- 
able Manuscript in the library of the C. C. College, Oxford, 
which appears to have formerly belonged to the abbey of 

The Chronicle of Florence of Worcester, with its first Con- 
tinuation, was originally published in 1392, by lord William 
Howard, from two manuscripts then in his possession, and 
now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, and was 
reprinted at Frankfort, in 1601, with Matthew of West- 

Prefixed to all the copies, are lists of the popes from St. 
Peter to Honorius II,, who died in 1130; of the seventy 
disciples ; of the Jewish high-priests, both before and after 
the captivity; and of the archbishops and bishops of tho 
several English sees, from the time of St. Augustine to that rf 

' Lord William Howard was the? third son of Thomas, duke of 
Norfolk, warden of the Scottish marches} tho "Belted Will" ' 
Walter Scott's Lay of tbe List iliastrel. 


irchbishop Theobald. These are followed by genealogies of 
he Anglo-Saxon kings, with short accounts of the origin 
ind limits of the several kingdoms of the Heptarchy, and 
their division into bishoprics. The list of the popes is found 
in Marianus ; the others were probably added by Florence, 
as they occur in all the manuscripts. Translations of all the 
lists connected with English history are appended to the 
present edition. 

6tt October, 1854. 




[a.l. 446.] Thb Britons, being unable to endure the in- 
cursions of the Picts and Scots, sent messengers to Rome, 
imploring aid against their enemies, and promising submission 
for themselves. A legion, dispatched to their aid without 
loss of time, slaughtered vast numbers of the enemy and 
drove the rest beyond the borders of Britain. The Romans 
then, on the point of being withdrawn, recommended th 
Britons to build a wall across the island between the two 
seas, for their own defence; but as they had no one of 
efficient skill to direct such works, more turf than stone was 
used in the construction, and the labour spent on it was 
thrown away. No sooner were the Romans departed, than 
the enemy, landing in boats, levelled, trampled down, and 
swept off, whatever came in their way, as if they were reaping 
corn ripe for the harvest. Again the Romans, listening to 
the prayers of the Britons, flew to their succour, and having 
defeated the enemy, forced them to recross the straits ; and 
then, in conjunction with the Britons, instead of the former 
earthen rampart, constructed a solid wall of stone, from frith 
to frith, between the towns which had been built there as a 
security against hostile inroads. They also erected watch- 
towers, at intervals, along the south coast, commanding views 
of the sea, as the enemy threatened them also in that quarter. 



Tbe Romans then bid the Britons farewell, telling themthey 
should not again return. 

No sooner, however, were the Roman troops withdrawn, 
than the Seots and Picts again issued from the north, and, 
expelling the natives, occupied Ihe whole island as far as the 
wall. Nor did they stop there ; for slaying, driving off, or 
taking prisoners, those who were stationed to guard the wall, 
the fierce ravagcrs broke through it in places, and even, 
swept off an immense booty from within its line of defence. 
In consequence, a laerymose epistle, full of complaints, was 
addressed to a man in high authority at Rome, _3ilius, then 
consul for the third time, in the twenty-third year of the 
emperor Theodosius, imploring succour, which was not 

Meanwhile, a severe famine, which was ■ 
tressed the fugitive Britons, compelling s 
deliver themselves up to their enemiei 
sheltering themselves in the mountains, c 
made an obstinate resistance. The Scots r 
own country, intending to return shortly; the Picts occupied 
the remotest part of the island; where they then first, and for 
over afterwards, settled. The famine already mentioned was 
succeeded by a very abundant harvest; with plenty came 
excess and recklessness ; then followed a deadly pestilence; 
and, to crown all, a still severer inllietion at the hands of th» 
Angles, new enemies, who, by the unanimous counsels of th» 
Britons, under tbeir king Vortigern, were invited to coma 
over to defend the country ; instead of which, they invaded 
and subdued it. In consequence, during the reign of tha 
emperor Morcian, people of* the race of the Saxons or Angle* 
crossed over to Britain in three long ships, and were followed 
by a stronger force, when the news of their prosperous voyagB 
reached home. These, uniting with the first body, in tha 
first instance expelled the enemy they were summoned K> 
encounter, and then, turning their arms against their allies, 
overran with fire and sword nearly the whole island from east 
to west, that is. the central districts, on the false pretenoS 
that the Britons had not given them adequate subsidies fo* 
fighting their unities. 

[a.d. 447—449.] 

ery general, dis- 
me of them to 
while others, 
,ves, and woods,' 
! treated to their 




[a.d. 450.] According to Bede, 1 the Anglo-Saxons landed 
in Britain from three long ships in the reign of the Em- 
peror Marcian; the people who came over belonging to 
three of the most powerful tribes in Germany, that is to say, 
the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes. The Kentish-men and the 
inhabitants of the Isle of Wight derive their origin from 
the Jutes ; those of Sussex, Middlesex, and Wessex from the 
Saxons; and the East- Angles, the Mid- Angles, the Mercians, 
and the whole Northumbrian race, with the rest of the 
English population, are descended from the Angles, that is, 
they sprung from the c6untry called Angle. It is reported 
that two brothers, Hengist and Horsa, were their first chiefs. 
They were the sons of Victigils, whose father was Witta, the 
son of Vecta, the son of Woden ; from which stock the royal 
line of many provinces derived its origin. 

>.d. 451—454.] 

a.d. 455.] ^Hengist and Horsa fought against Vortigern, 
king of the Britons, at a place called iEgcles-threp [Ayles- 
ford], and, although Horsa was slain in the battle, Hengist 
gained the victory, and after these events reigned jointly with 
his son CEsc. 

a.d. 456/ 

a.d. 457.] Hengist and CEsc engaged in battle with the 
Britons at a place called Creccanford [Cray ford] and put four 
thousand of them to the sword ; the rest of the Britons then 
abandoned Kent, and fled to London in great terror. 

>.d. 458 — 464.] 

a.d. 465.] Hengist and (Esc fought against the Britons 
near Wippedesfleote, [Ebbsfleet,] which means the place 
where Wipped crossed the water. They slew twelve chiefs 
of the enemy's army, with many others, while on their side 
only one thane, whose name was Wipped, fell in the battle. 

a.d. 466—472.] 

a.d. 473.] Hengist and CEsc fought with the Britons for 

1 j&qcles. Hist. b. i. c. 15, where Bede assigns the year 449 (it should 
be 450) for the commencement of the Emperor Marcian' s reign of 
seven years, during which he fixes the sera of the arrival of the Anglo- 
Saxon tribes in Britain. The Saxon Chronicle agrees with this 
statement of Bede, who, however, incidentally referring to this event 
in other parts of his history, places it about the year 446 or 417. 

B 2 

4 IXOItENCE OF WOKC2STCH. [a.D. 47-1—507. 

the fourth time, and, gaining the victory, took spoils without 
number ; in which battle the Britons fled before the Angles 
as they would from fire. 

[a.d. 474—476.] 

[aj>. 477.] iElla and his three sons, Cymen, Wencing, 
and Cissa, came to Britain in three ships, from which they 
landed at a place called Cymenes-ora, and there slew many 
of tlia Britons, and drove the rest into the forest called 
Andredes-leuge. 1 

[a.d. 478—484.] 

[a.d. 485.] iElla, fighting the Briton3 near Mearcrede* 
human, that is Mom-credo's Brook, slew numbers of them 
and put the rest to flight, 

[a.d. 480, 487.] 

[a.d. 488.] Hengist. haying governed the kingdom of 
Kent with the greatest vigour during thirty-four years, ended 
his life. His son tEsc succeeded to the throne, and reigned 
twenty-four years. 

[a.d. 489, 490.] 

[a.d. 491.] St. Patrick, Archbishop of Ireland, made % 
blessed end, aged one hundred and twenty-two years. iEll*» 
with his son Cissa, stormed Andredes-ceaater,' after a long 
siege, and put all the inhabitants to the sword, from the> 
eldest to the youngest. 

[a.d. 492 — 194.] 

[a.d. 495.] This year, two chiefs, namely, Cerdic and hi» 
eon Cynric, crossed over to Britain with five ships, and. 
landing at a place called Cerdices-ora [Yarmouth ?], fought 
the Britons the same day, and having defeated them put 
them to flight. 

[a.d. 496—500.] 

[a.d. 501.] Port, and his two sons Byda and Ma^gla* 
arrived in Britain, with two ships, at a place called Ports- 
mouth, and slow a British youth of very high rank, besides 
many others. 

[ajj. 50*2—507.] 

1 Keynor in Seised, nsnr West Wi'lorins. The forest of Andrei., 
now the Weald of Susses and Kent. See Henry of Hnntuigda^B 
BisL, pp. 41, 133, Bnha'i Jnli//. Lib. 

1 Pevensey ! Cf, Henry of Huutiagdon, p. 15. 

A.D. 508 — 544.] KINGDOM 09 WESSBX FOUNDED, 5 

[a.d. 508.] Cerdic and his son Cynric slew Natanleod, 
king of the Britons, and five thousand men, with the edge 
of the sword ; from that king all the country as far as Cer- 
dices-ford l derived its name of Natanleod. 

>.d. 509—513.] 

'ad. 514.] The West-Saxons, sailing to Britain with three 
ships, landed at Cerdices-ora. -Their chiefs, Stuf and Wihtgar, 
were Cerdic's nephews. Shortly afterwards they engaged in 
battle with the Britons, some of whom they slew, and put 
the rest to flight. 

a.d. 515—518.] 

a.d. 519.] Cerdic and Cynric began to reign [in Wessex], 
and the same year they fought and conquered the Britons at 

>.d. 520.] 

a.d 521.] St. Bridget, the Scottish nun, died in Ireland. 

>.D. 522—526.] 

a.d. 527.] Cerdic and Cynric, for the fourth time, fought 
with the Britons at Cerdices-leage. 

[a.d. 528, 529.] 

[a.d. 580.] Cerdic and Cynric conquered the Isle of 
Wight, which they gave to their nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar; 
a few men were slain in Wihtgara-birig, [Carisbrook Castle], 

a.d. 531—583.] 

a.d. 554.] Cerdic, the first king of the West-Saxons, 
departed this life ; and his son Cynric was, after his death, 
sole king for twenty-six years. 

>.d. 535—537.] 

"a.d. 538.] There was an eclipse of the sun on the 
fourteenth of the calends of March (16th February), from 
the first to the third hour. 

[a.d. 539.] 

[a.d. 540.] There was an eclipse of the sun on the 
twelfth of the calends of July, (20th June,) and the stais 
were visible about half-an-hour before the third hour of 
the day. 

>.d. 541—543.] 

a.d. 544.] Wihtgar, the nephew of Cerdic, king of the 

1 Cliarford, in Hampshire. 


W^st- Saxons died, and was buried at Will tgara-bi rig, that is, 
Wibtgai's town. 

[a.d. 546, 546.] 

[a.d. 547.] Ida began to rule in the province of the Bep 
nicians, anil reigned twelve years. He bad six sous bom d 
bis queens, Adda, Balric, Theodric, (Ethelric, Theodhere, 
and Osmar ; and six by concubines, Oec, Alric, Ecci, 
Oswald, Sogor, and Sogether; from whom descended thj 
royal line of the Northumbrians. Ida was son of Eoppa, 
■who was son of Esa, who was son of Ingui, who was Bon ol 
Angenwit, who was son of Aloe, who was son of Benoc, who 
was son of Brand, who was son of Bealdeag, who was sofl 
of Woden, who was son of Frithelaf, who was son ol 
Frithulf, who was son of Fiun, who was son of Godulf, who 
was son of Geata. 

[A.D. 54tt— 561.] 

[a.d. 552.] Cynric, king of the West- Saxons, fought with 
the Britons, and routed thein at a place called Seares-byrig : 
bis father was Cerdic, who was the son of Elesa, who was 
son of Eslo, who was son of Gewis, who was son of Wig, who 
was son of Freawine, who was son of Freothegar, who was son 
of Brand, who was son of Bealdeag, who was son of Wodea 

[a.d. 553—555.] 

[a.d. 550.] Cynric and Ceaulin fought a battle against 
the Britons at Bo ran-! iv rig, end defeated them. 

[a.d. 557, 55R.] j-Ella begun to reign in the province oi 
Deira, and governed it with the utmost vigour for nearly 
thirty years. [Gregory I. observing some English youths 
offered for sale in the Forum at Rome, said, in allusion to the 
name of this province*; " Alleluiah ! ' the praise of God thfl 
Creator ought to he sung in those parts."] Meanwhile, when 
iElla was living, the following kings reigned in Bernicia: 
Adda, the eldest son of Ida, seven years; Clappa, five; 
Theodulf, one; Theodulf, seven; and lEthelric, two years. 
On jElla's death, and lus son Edwin being driven from the 
throne, (Ethelric reigned five years over both provinces. 
jElla was the son of Iffa, whose father was Wuscfiea, the 

1 Not in allusion to the name of tlie prnvinco, but lo that of tlii 
king -Ella. That of tlie province iras plajed upou diflurently, "it 
irt," Jic. Cf. BeJe Eed. Hist, b. ii., c. 1. 

vAD. 560 — 584 J WARS WITH THE BRITONS. 7 

Bon of Wilgils, the son of Westorwalcna, the son of Seomel, 
the son of Swearta, the son of Seafugel, the son of Seabald, 
the son of Siggeot, the son of Swebdeag, the son of Siggar, 
the son of Weagdeag, the son of Woden. 

[a.d. 560.] Ceaulin, the son of Cynric, succeeding to the 
kingdom of the West-Saxons, reigned thirty-three years. 

[a.d. 561.] Ethelbert, king of Kent, began to reign, and, 
according to Bede, he reigned fifty-six years. 

a.d. 562 — 564.] 

[a.d. 565.] Columba, priest and abbot, came out of 
Ireland into Britain, and during the reign of Bride, the most 
powerful king of the Picts, converted the northern Picts to 
the faith of Christ ; in consequence, he received from them a 
grant of the island of Hii, for the purpose of building a 

a.d. 566—567.] 

a.d. 568.] Ethelbert, king of Kent, while he was engaged 
in a war with Ceaulin, king of the West-Saxons, and his 
son Cutha, was driven back by them into Kent, his two 
ealdormen, Oslaf and Cnebba, being slain at Wibbandune 

[a.d. 569—570.] 

a.d. 571.] Cuthulf, the brother of king Ceaulin, fought 
with the Britons at Bedford, and gaining the victory took 
from them four royal vills, namely, Liganburh, [Leighton or 
Lenbury,] Eglesburh, [Aylesbury,] Bensingtun, [Benson,] 
and Egnesham, [Eynsham,] and he died the same year. 

>.d. 572—576.] 

a.d. 577.] Ceaulin, king of the West-Saxons, and his 
son Cuthwine fought with the Britons at a place called 
Deorham, l and slaying their three kings, Coinmeail, Con- 
didan, and Farinmoeil, with many of their people, took their 
three cities, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath. 

a.d. 578—583.] 

a.d. 584.] Ceaulin, king of the West-Saxons, and his 
son Cutha, fought with the Britons at a place called Fethan- 
leah, 2 in which battle Cutha fell, fighting bravely where 

1 Dirham, in Gloucestershire. 

2 Fretherne, Gloucestershire. Cf. Henry of Huntingdon (b. iv.) for 
a more circumstantial account of this battle. 

5 — 59?. 


OF WORCESTER. [i.D. 58i 

the throng was thickest. Notwithstanding this, 

gained the victory, and taking much booty, seized on many 

of their rills. 

[a.d. 585—587.] 

[a.i>. 588.] jEUa, king of Deira, died in the thirtieth 
year of his reign, and after him (Etheliic, the son of Ida; 
reigned five years over both provinces. 

[a.d. 589.] The holy father Columban came to Burgundy 
from Ireland, the island of saints, with St. Gall, and other 
tried disciples, and there, by permission of king Theodoric, 
huilt the monastery of Luxeuil. Driven thence by Brunhilde, 
he went to Germany, where he left St. Gall, but he himself 
crossed into Italy, where he founded the monastery of Bobbio, 
and became the parent of many convents of monks. 

[a.d. 590.] 

[a.d. 591.] Ceol, the son of Cuthwulf, brother of king 
Ceaulin, began to reign, and he reigned over the West-Saxons 
five years. 

[a.d. GQ2.] A battle was fought at a place called Wodnea- 
beorh, [Wansborough '?] that is, Woden's Mount, in which 
there was a great slaughter, and Ceaulin was driven from 
his kingdom in the thirty-third year of his reign. 

[a.d. 593.] Ceaulin, Cwichelm, and Crida perished. 
(Ethelric, king of Northumbria died ; upon which his sob 
(Ethelfrhh assumed tho reins of government and held them 
twenty-four years. He had seven sons, Eanfrith, Oswald, 
Oslaf, Oswin, Oswy, Offa, Oswudu, aDd Oslac, with one 
daughter nimii'cl (Ebbe. 

[a.d. 594, 595.] 

[a.d. 596.] In the 147th year after the. arrival of the 
English in Britain, the 14th indiction, pope Gregory, by 
divine inspiration, sent Augustine the servant of God, with 
several other devout monks in his company, to preach the 
word of God to the English nation. 

[a.d, 597.] According to Bede, the aforesaid teachers 
arrived in Britain this year, and converted Ethelbert, king of 
Kent, to the faith of Christ in the thirty-fifth year of his 
reign. The king did net long defer the grant of an episcopal 
see to his teacher Augustine, in his metropolis of Canterbury, 
and, with royal assistance, he restored a church which ha<_ 

JU>. 598-604.] ceolwtjlp, king of wbbbbx. 9 

been formerly erected there by the exertions of the faithful 
among the Romans, and consecrated under the name St 
Saviour's. Ceolwulf, son of Cutha, king Ceaulin's brother, 
succeeding to the kingdom of the West- Saxons, governed it 
fourteen years ; during which he was continually engaged in 
wars, either with the Angles or the Britons, the Scots or the 
Picts. Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, who was son of 
Cynric, son of Cerdic 
[a.d. 598, 599.] 

a.d. 600.] St. Ive the apostolical doctor, and a really 
inspired messenger from heaven and eminent bishop, de- 
parted to the Lord. His origin was in Persia, where he 
rose like the star in the east, but his course was divinely 
directed to the western regions in Britain. 

[a.d. 601.] Gregory writing to Augustine, in the nine- 
teenth year of Maurice, the fourth indiction, decreed that 
the bishops of London and York, receiving the pallium 
from the apostolical see, should be metropolitans in the same 
manner [as the archbishops of Canterbury]. 
a.d. 602.] 

[a.d. 603.] Ethelfrith, a king of great bravery and am- 
bitious of renown, crushed the Britons more than any of the 
English chiefs who preceded him ; and exterminating or 
subjugating the native inhabitants, he either settled vast 
tracts of their territories with people of English race, or 
made the Britons tributaries to them. Boused by these 
proceedings, Aedan, king of the Scots, marched against him 
at the head of a vast aimy, but being defeated, few only 
accompanied his flight. Ethelfrith gained this battle at a 
place called Degsastan [Dalston?], in the eleventh year of 
his reign, and the first of the emperor Phocas. Assembling 
an army, a long time afterwards, at Chester, which the 
Britons call Carlegion, in execution of Divine justice, and as 
St. Augustine, the archbishop, had predicted, 1 he first slew 
twelve hundred British priests, who had joined the army to 
offer prayers on their behalf, and then exterminated the re- 
mainder of this impious armament. 
[a.d. 604.] Augustine consecrated Mellitus and Justus 

1 Eccles. Hurt., ii. 2. Cf. Sax. Chron., a*d. 607. 


bishops : of whom Mellitus was to preach in the province 
the East-Saxons, who having received the word of truth 
from his instructions, with their king Sehert, king Etheh 
bert's nephew, Ethelbert, himself, erected the church of St, 
Paul the apostle, in London, Sebert's metropolis. Justus 
was consecrated by Augustine, as bishop of Rochester, which 
the English cull Hrovecenster. Having also consecrated the 
priest Lawrence as archbishop, to supply his own place, 
Augustine shortly afterwards, on Tuesday the seventh of tho 
calends of June (26th May), was translated to the heavenly 

[a.d. 605.] Pope St. Gregory, the apostle of the English. 
and the honour of Rome, after having most gloriously 
governed the see of the Roman and apostolic church for 
thirteen years, six months, and ten days, was translated to 
an eternal seat in the kingdom of heaven, on Friday the 
fourth of the idea (the 12th) of March. 

[ad. 606.] 

[a.d. 607.] Ceolwulf, king of the West-Saxons, mada 
war against the East-Saxons. 

[a.d. 608—610.] 

[a.d. 611.] King Ceolwulf died, and was succeeded by 
Cytiegils, bis brother Ceol's son. He reigned thirty- two 
years, being son of Ceol, who was son of Cutha, son of 
Cynric, son of Cerdic. 

[a-d. 612,613.] 

[a.d. 614.] Cynegils and his son Cuichelm, marched an 
army n^ninst the Britons at Beanduno [Hampton?], and 
rnjin^in^ them in battle slew two thousand and forty -six of 
their number. 

[a.d. 615.] 

[a.d. 616.] Ethelbert, liing of Kent, who was son of 
Irmi'Yiric, wtiose father was Octa, the son of Oric. sumamed 
Oisc, who was son of Hsngist, ascended to the realms ot 
heavenly bliss, on the twenty-fourth of February, in th6 
fifty-sixth year of his reign, being the twenty-first after h* 
was converted to the faith. His son Eadbald succeeding 
him not only refused to embrace Christianity, but took to 
wife the widow of bis father. Redwald, kiiig of the East- 
Angles, slew Etheli'ritb, king of Deira and Bernicia in ■ 

A.B. 617—625.] ANGLO-SAXON BISHOPS. 11 

battle fought near the river Idle. 1 Edwin succeeded him, 
according to a prediction he had received, and expelled the 
seven sons of Ethelfrith. Sebert, king of the East-Saxons, 
being removed to the heavenly kingdom, left his three sons, 
who persisted in heathenism, heirs of his kingdom in this 
world. They immediately made open profession of idolatry, 
and drove Mellitus, bishop of London, out of their territory. 
Mellitus retired into Kent, and after consulting La\* rence, the 
archbishop, withdrew into Gaul, accompanied by Justus, 
bishop of Rochester. However, the kings who had driven 
from their presence the herald of truth, were not long per- 
mitted to devote themselves to the worship of >demons ; for 
having engaged in an expedition against the Gewissae, they 
all fell in a battle, as well as their troops. Lawrence being 
on the point of following Mellitus and Justus in their 
secession, that very night, Peter, prince of the Apostles, 
appeared to him and severely scourged him. In the morning, 
he repaired to king Eadbald, and exhibited to him the 
extent of the lacerations the stripes had made. On seeing 
this, the king was much terrified, and prohibiting all ido- 
latrous worship under the penalty of a curse, and repudi- 
ating his incestuous marriage, embraced the Christian faith, 
and, sending to France, recalled Mellitus and Justus. 
[a.d. 617—620.] 

a.d. 621.] St. Lawrence, archbishop, departed to the 
'Lord, during the reign of Eadbald, on the fourth of the 
nones (the 2nd) of February. He was succeeded by Mellitus, 
the bishop of London, who became the third archbishop of 
Canterbury from Augustine. Cedd, the brother of Ceadda, 
succeeded Mellitus in the see of London. 2 

a.d. 522—624.] 

a.d. 625.] Mellitus, the archbishop, having governed the 
church five years, died on the eighth of the calends of May 
(24th April), in the reign of Eadbald. He was succeeded 

1 Near Retford, in Nottinghamshire. Cf. Henry of Huntingdon, 
h. Hi. and Bede's Eccl. Hist. b. 12, who place this battle in 620 ; the 
Sax. Chron. R. Wendover in the Flores Hist, in 617. For the " oracle" 
here alluded to, see the romantic legend of Edwine in Bede, b.ii., c.12 

2 The date should have been 619. Cf. Bede's Eccl. Hist., ii. 7, and 
the Saxon Chron. 

12 FLORENCE OF WOKCESTEB. [i.D. 626—628. 

by Justus, bishop of Rochester, who consecrated Romanus 
bishop in his stead.' 

[a.d. 890.] Paulinus, a man beloved by God, who had 
been sent by St. Gregory with the rest to preach in England, 
and in course of time became the third bishop of Rochester, 
having been consecrated by Justus to become archbishop of 
the Northumbrian people, mas sent to Edwin, king of thst 
nation, in attendance on his bride, king Ethelbert's daughter, 
by king Eadbald the maiden's brother. 

[a.d. 637.] An assassin named Eomer, sent by Cuichelm 
king of the West-Saxons, presented himself at the court of 
king Edwin on Easter Sunday, and drawing a dagger from 
under his garment attempted to stab the lung. The blow 
was intercepted by Lilla, one of Edwin's most devoted 
attendants, who protected him by interposing bis own 
person, but the assassin pranged his weapon with such force 
that the king was wounded through the body of hie thane, 
who was killed on the spot. On the night of the same 
Easter-day the queen bore Edwin a daughter, who was the 
first of the Northumbrian race baptised by bishop Paulinus, 
and received the name of Eanfled. 

Penda succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia in the fiftieth 
year of his age, and governed it thirty years. He was the 
son of Wibha, the eon of Crida, the son of Cynewald, the 
son of Onebba, the son of Icel, the son of Gomer, the son of 
Augengeat, the eon of Offa, the son of Wermund, the son 
of Wightleag, the son of Waga, the son of Wothelgeat, the 
son of Woden. 

[A.n. 628.] In the sixteenth year of the emperor Herac- 
lius, the fifteenth induction, Edwin the most illustrious king 
of the English in Britain, who reigned over the nation to 
the north of the H umber, received with his people the word 
of salvation at the preaching of Paulinus, the bishop sent 
from Kent by archbishop Justus, This occurred in the 
eleventh year of his reign, and about t«-o hundred and thirty 
years,' more or less, alter the English tribes arrived in 
Britain. The king himself founded the episcopal see of 


fork in favour of Paulinus. His temporal power increased 
q token of his embracing the faith and inheriting the 
leavenly kingdom, as he, first of the English princes, reduced 
he whole of Britain, except Kent, under his dominion. 

At this time, pope Honorius wrote a letter confuting the 
trror of the Quarto-decimans respecting the observance of 
Saster, which had originated among the Scots ; John also, 
vho succeeded Severinus' successor, disputed the same matter 
frith them. For, before he was elected pope, he wrote to 
:hem on this Easter question, as well as concerning the 
Pelagian heresy, which had revived among them. 

Cynegils, and his son Cuichelm, the kings of the West- 
Saxons, fought a battle near Cirencester, with Penda king of 
the Mercians, and, peace being made and ratified, withdrew 
their troops. 

>.d. 629—631.] 

a.d. 632.] Eorpwald, son of king Redwald, son of 
Tytel, son of Uffa, by the persuasion of king Edwin, 
abandoned his idolatrous superstition, and embraced the 
Christian faith and sacraments with all his people ; but he 
was slain by a pagan named Ricbert. 

[a.d. 633.] The illustrious king Edwin, having glori- 
ously reigned seventeen years over both nations, Britons as 
well as English, was killed on the fourth of the ides (the 
12th) of October, in the forty-eighth year of his age, by 
Penda, the heathen king of Mercia, a prince of distin- 
guished bravery, and Cedwal king of the Britons, a still 
more savage heathen, in a pitched battle severely contested 
on the plain of Heathfield. Affairs in Northumbria being 
thus thrown into confusion, Paulinus, taking with him queen 
Ethelburga, returned to Kent by sea, and was received with 
honour by Honorius the archbishop and Eadbald the king. 

[a.d. 634.] Cedwal, king of the Britons, having first 
slain king Osric, king Edwin's cousin, with all his army, after- 
wards put to death Eanfrith, son of king Ethelfrith, who had 
some to him to sue for peace. On his death, his brother 
Oswald advanced with his army, which, though small in 
numbers, was strong in the faith of Christ, and slaughtered 
the impious British chief with his immense army, which he 
roasted nothing could withstand. Oswald then assumed the 



;. <m. 

government of both kingdoms, and, in the course of tinn 
received the submission of nil the nations and provinces c 
Britain. At that time the people of Wesscx, under the' 
king Cynegils, embraced the Christian Faith, the word beinj 
preached to them by bishop Birinus. St. Wilfrid v 

[a.d. 635.] King Oswald applied to the elders of 1 
Scots to send him bishops. Aidau was sent; by whom, a 
the most illustrious and king Oswald himself, the churc 
of Christ was first founded and established in the provin 
of Bernicia. Birinus was sent by pope Honorius 
in England, and under his teaching of the gospel in Wesse 
king Cynegils ;md his suljects became believers-; then 
victorious king Oswald was bis sponsor at. the baptismal fon 
From these kings the same bishop received Dorchester fi 
the seat of his bishopric. 

[a.d. 636.] Sigebert, brother of Eorpwald. king of tha 
East-Angles, a prince in all respects most Christian and most 
learned, early in his reign took measures for causing hi* 
whole province to partake of the faith and sacraments. 
Bishop Feliv, a native of Burgundy, who had become very 
intimate with Sigebert, king of the East-Angles, while ho 
was an exile in France, encouraged his designs, and accom- 
panying him to England after Eorpwald's death, was ap- 
pointed by him bishop of the East-Angles, and having 
converted that province to the faith of Christ, and procured 
an episcopal see to he founded, in the city of Dun with, pre* 
sided for seventeen years over that nation. 

At that time a most holy man, named Fursey, came from 
Ireland to East-Anglia, and being received with honour by 
the aforesaid king, preached there the word of life, and con- 
verting many of the unbelievers to Christ, afterwards built a 
noble monastery. Meanwhile, the king having given up tha 
administration of affairs, and entrusted them to his cousin 
Ecgric, retired to the monastery he had founded, and receiv- 
ing the tonsure, was for a long time enlisted in the servie* 
of the King Eternal. But when Pen da, the heathen king 
of Mercia, made war against the East-Angles, he was drawn, 
from the convent against his will, and, being reluctantly led 
to battle with only a staff in his band, he was slain as well 
as king Ecgrig. Anna, son of Eui succeeded to the throne. 

A.D. 637 — 645.] ANGLO-SAXON KINGS, 15 

Cuichelm, the son of king Cynegils, was baptised by bishop 
Birinus, in the city of Dorchester, and died the same year. 

[a.d. 637, 638.] 

[a.d. 639.] Bishop Birinus baptised Cuthred, the son of 
king Cuichelm, in the city of Dorchester, and received him 
from the font of regeneration. 

[a.d. 640.] Eadbald, king of Kent, departed this life in 
the twenty-fifth year of his reign, leaving the government of 
his kingdom to his son Erconberht. He was the first of the 
English kings who ordered the idols to be forsaken and de- 
stroyed throughout his whole kingdom, and at the same time 
he commanded the fast of forty days to be observed. His 
daughter, Ercongote, by his queen St. Sexburg, was a virgin 
endowed with sublime virtues. 

a.d. 641.] 

a.d. 642.] The most Christian king Oswald, the nephew 
of king Edwin, and son of king Ethelfrith, a prince who was 
always humble, gracious, and liberal to pilgrims and the 
poor, was slain in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and the 
ninth of his reign, by Penda, the heathen king of Mercia, in 
a great battle fought at a place called Maserfeld. 

[a.d. 643.] His brother Oswy, a young man about thirty 
years of age, shortly afterwards succeeded to his kingdom, 
and maintained himself in it by incessant struggles for 
twenty-eight years. Cenwalch, son of Cynegils, succeeded 
the same year to the kingdom of Wessex, which he held 
twenty-one years. He built the church at Winchester, in 
which is the bishop's seat. 

, [a.d. 644.] Paulinus, formerly bishop of York, but then 
of Rochester, departed to the Lord on the sixth of the ides 
(the 10th) of October. He had been a bishop eighteen years, 
two months, and twenty-one days. Honorius, the archbishop, 
the successor of Justus, ordained Ithamar bishop of Rochester 
in the place of Paulinus. 

[a.d. 645.] Cenwalch, king of Wessex, being attacked 
by Penda, king of the Mercians, for having divorced his sister, 
was dethroned, and took refuge with Anna, king of East- 
Anglia. Likewise this same year king Oswin, son of Osric, 
cousin-german to Edwin, — a prince of graceful aspect, tall in 
stature, courteous and affable, of gentle manners, liberal to 

„.g.„ ,. 


all, the humblest of kings, awl generally belovt 

reign in the province of Deira, and governed it seven yttn. 

[a.d. 646.] King Ceuwalch was baptised in East-Angtta, 
by Bishop Felix. 

[a.d. 6+7.] Felix, the first bishop of the East-Anglei 
died; in whose place archbishop Honorius consecrated his 
deacon, Thomas ; who also departing this life, after being 
bishop five years, was succeeded by Boniface. 

[a.d. 648.] King Cenwalch returned from East-Anglia to 
Wessex, and the same year made a large grant of lands to bii 
nephew Cuthred, son of king Cuickelm. 

[a.d. 049.] 

[a.d. 660.] Bishop Egilbert, a native of France, was 
appointed to the see of Wessex by king Cenwalch, after tba 
death of Birinus, and exercised episcopal authority in that 
province for many years. 

[a.d. 651.] St. Cuthhert entered the monastery of Mail- 
roBe, being admitted by Eiita, the most reverend abbot of 
that chiiTch. Oswin king of Deira, a man of the deepest 
humility and eminent, piety, was slain in a detestable manner 
on the thirteenth of the calends of September IHOth August), 
at the command of king Oswy, by his ealdorman Ethelwin ; 
having been treacherously betrayed by earl Hunwald, m 
whom he confided as a devoted friend. He was succeeded 
by Ethel wold, son of king Oswald. After the murder of 
king Oswin, bishop Aidan departed to the realms of bliss on 
the Becond of the calends of September (August 31st). 
Cuthbert, an excellent young man. beheld his soul carried to 
heaven by angels. Finan was raised to the bishopric in bis 
place, being consecrated and sent by the Scots. 

[A.». 652.] 

[a.d. 653.J Benedict, surnamed Biscop, a thane of king 
Oswin, aud an Englishman of noble birth, quitted his 
home and kindred, Ins; possessions and native country, for 
the love of Christ, at the age of twenty-five years, and be- 
taking himself to Rome, came back advanced in learning. 
Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life on 
the second of the calends of October (30th September). HS- 
was succeeded in the see, at the expiration of a year and six 
months, by Deusdedit the sixth archbishop from Augustine, 


part of his army, and leaving part at home, as was his wont, 
while some were stationed as garrisons in the castles and eities, 
marched in all haste for Kent; where he pitched his camp 
between the two Pagan armies on a spot which was naturally 
strong, being surrounded on all sides by water, flowing with 
strong eddies, with high rocky banks and overhanging woods ; 
so that if the enemy took the field for the purpose of plunder- 
ing or fighting, he could give them battle without delay. 
They, however, went about plundering in bands, which were 
sometimes on horseback, sometimes on foot, resorting for their 
prey to those districts which they ascertained were not 
occupied by the king's troops. But not only some of the 
royal army, but those who were in the towns, fell on them by 
surprise, night and day, with much slaughter, and so harassed 
them, that, abandoning Kent after again ravaging it, they 
all in a body broke up from their quarters, for they had gone 
out together to pillage when they first sat down in these parts. 
But this time they swept off a more valuable booty, and 
resolved on crossing the river Thames with it into Essex, 
and there meet their fleet, which they had sent forward. 
But the king's army getting before them, gave them battle 
near Farnham, and, putting them to flight, recovered the 
booty and took the horses which they had brought from 
beyond sea. Crossing the Thames where there were no 
guards, they took refuge in an island surrounded by the 
windings of the river Colne, in which they were blockaded, 
until provisions failed in the king's army, and the time came at 
which they were to be disbanded, and another come to relieve 
them. Those troops, therefore, returned home, and king 
Alfred bringing up the other half of his army in all haste, the 
Pagans, in consequence of their king being so severely 
wounded that they could not remove him, held their ground. 
While, however, king Alfred was on his march to attack the 
enemy, news was brought that the Pagans of Northumbria 
and East-Anglia had collected a fleet of two hundred ships, 1 
part of which, to the number of one hundred, had sailed round 
the south coast of England, and another division consisting of 
forty ships, had steered for the northern coast of Devonshire to 

1 An error probably for 140, as we may judge from what follows ; 
and see Saxon Chronicle under the year 894. 



lay siege to some castle there, while the former besieged Exe 
with a powerful force. Wheu the king heard this, lie was I 
alarmed at the enemy's bold raano?uvres, though he was n 
indignaut that his people should be at the mercy of 1 
ljt>.sioaina armivs. Colloeting, therefore, all his cavalry wi 
out loss of time, lie rode to Exeter, leaving a small force 
oppose the enemy he was previously m:in:hing against. T 
force proceeding to London, and Uiiu* joined by the cirize 
and those who had come to their aid from the west of Englu 
marched to ISenrleet; for they heard that a large detachmi 
of the army stationed at Appledore had concentrated iti 
there with king Hiesten, who, advancing with his force fr 
Milton, bad constructed a fortified camp in that position ; 1 
in the meantime, they hoard he had again gone on a piedat< 
expedition. This king had a short time before made pe 
with king Alfred, and siven several hostages, and allowed 
two sons to be regenerated in the laver of baptism, as k 
Alfred desired ; one of them being held at the font by 
khig himself, the Other by the illustrious ealdornian Ether 
But on his arrival at Benfleet, King Hiesten quickly fortify 
bis eninp, began immediately to ravage the borders of 
kingdom of his son's god-father. A severe battle was tht 
fore fought with the Pagans, and the Christians put them 
flight at the first unset, destroyed their works, mid seizing 
all they could find carried it oft', with their wives and cliiidr 
tb London. Some of their ships they broke up, others t! 
burnt, and conducted the rest either to London or .Roches 1 
They also took Hapten's wife and two sons before be retun 
to Benfleet from plundering ; and these they carried to k 
Alfred, but he did them no harm, because, as we said befi 
one of the boys was his own godson, and the other £ there 
but renewing the peace, and taking hostages, not only resto 
Hiesten his wife and sons, as he requested, but gave hit 
large sum of money. 

Afterwards the king went to Exeter, at the earnest entro 
of his people there; and the Pagans, terrified at his comi 
retire! to their ships, and then returning to their old quarti 
began to ravage the country near Chichester, in the provi 
of the South-Saxons. But they were driven off from the 1 
by the townsmen, great numbers of them having been kil 
and wounded, and many of their ships were taken. Me 

aj). 894, 895.] wars with the daxes. 83 

while, the Pagan army being expelled by the Christians from 
Benfleet, as we mentioned, went to a town called in Saxon 
Sceobyrig (Shoebury), and there built for themselves a strong 
fortress. Many of the Pagans from East-Anglia and North- 
unibria having joined them, they pillaged first the banks of 
the Thames and then those of the Severn. The noble 
earldormen Ethered, Athehn, and Athelnoth, and others of 
the king's thanes to whom he had committed the custody of 
the forts, towns, and cities, not only on the eastern side of the 
Parret, but also westward of Selwood, and not only on the 
north but also on the south of the Thames, resenting their 
fierce irruptions, assembled a considerable force against the 
enemy, the Welsh, who dwelt on the banks of the Severn, 
coming to their aid. These troops being united, they marched 
in pursuit of the enemy and came up with them at Buttington, 
on the banks of the Severn, and immediately laid siege to the 
fortress into which they had retired, from both sides of the river. 
After the lapse of many weeks, some of the Pagans died of 
hunger ; others, having devoured their horses, broke out of 
their fortress and attacked the enemy's division stationed on 
the other side of the river ; but vast numbers of the Pagans 
were slain in this engagement, and the rest taking to flight, 
the Christians remained masters of the field of death. In this 
battle, Ordeah, a noble of the highest rank, and many of the 
king's thanes felL The Pagans who fled having retreated to 
Essex and reached their fortresses and ships, on the approach 
of winter they again gathered a large army out of East-Anglia 
and Xorthumbria, and giving their wives, their wealth, and 
their ships, in charge to the settlers in East-Anglia, left their 
fortresses, and making a forced march, took possession of the 
city of the Legions, called in Latin Legeceaster (Chester), 
which was at that time deserted ; arriving there before the 
troops of king Alfred and Ethered the sub-king, who were in 
pursuit, could overtake them. However, they cut oft" and 
slew some of them, rescuing some of the cattle and sheep they 
had seized while foraging, and besieged the city for two days, 
burning part of the crops of corn and giving the rest to their 
horses. These events took place in the course of a year after 
the Pagans came from the coast of France to the mouth of the 
river Limene. 

[a.d. 895.] The oft-mentioned Saxon army, having no 


84 FLOIIESCE OF WOKCESTEIt. [a.d. 800, 897. 

means of subsistence, as the Christians had taken everything 
from them, made an irruption into the territories of the North- 
Britons, and ravaging them far and wide swept off an immense 
body. Not daring to return by way of Mcrcia, for fear of . 
the Mercians, they went first through Northumbria and the 
country of the Mid-Angles, ami having rejoined their wives 
and sliips in East-Anglia, betook themselves to a httle island 
in the sea called Theresig (Mersey), on the eastern coast of 
Essex. The same year, the same party drew their ships up the 
river Thames, and afterwards up the river Lea, and began to 
build themselves a fort near that river, twenty miles from 

f A.D. 896.] In the summer time, great part of the citizens 
of London, assisted by numbers from the neighbouring places, 
endeavoured to demolish the fortress which the Pagans had 
made for themselves ; but they met with a stout resistance, 
and the Christians were compelled to draw oft', after four of 
king Alfred's thanes were slain. The king himself, in the 
autumn, pitched his camp not far from the city, in order to 
prevent the Pagans from carrying off the crops of the country 
people. One day, as he rode along the river-bank, he con- 
sidered where he could obstruct the channel so as to prevent 
the Danes from getting their ships out ; and without delay 
ordered a dam to be made from both sides across the bed of 
the river. The Pagans finding this, again placed their wive* 
in security in East-Angba, and abandoning their ships, inadei 
forced march on foot as far as a place called Quattbryege, and 
having built for themselves a fortress, passed the winter there. 
Meanwhile, the Londoners brought some of their ships to 
London and broke up the rest. 

[jy.d. 897.] In the summer season, part of the Pagan army 
which had wintered at Quattbryege went into East-Anglia and 
the other parts as far as Northumbria. Home remained there, 
but others procured ships and crossed over to the river Seine 
already mentioned. Oh ! with what constant attacks, with 
what grievous sufferings, in what a dreadful and lamenUM 
manner, was the whole ■<( England harassed, not only by tha 
Danes, who had settled in various parts of' it before that time, 
but also by these (rosing) children of Satan. Much more ■ i m! 
it, suffer for three years by a murrain among the cattle, and* 
mortality among the nobility, many of whom, the 

Site king* 

A.D. 898 — 901.] DEATH OF KING ALFRED. 85 

principal officers especially, died during that period. Among 
these were Sutihulf, bishop of Rochester, Ealhrard, bishop of 
Dorchester, Ceolmund, ealdorman of Kent, Beorhttwlf, ealdor- 
man of Essex, Eadulf, the king's reeve in Sussex, Beornwulf, 
the vice-reeve of Winchester, Ecgwulf, the king's horse-thane, 
and many others ; but these were of the highest rank. In this 
same year, the army of Pagans who were settled in East- 
Anglia and Northumbria grievously harassed the territory of 
the West-Saxons, making piratical descents and pillaging along 
the coast, principally in long, swift ships, which they had built 
some years before. To oppose these, king Alfred caused ships 
to be constructed twice as long, swifter, loftier, and better 
trimmed, so that they might be more than a match in action 
for the enemy's navy. On sending them to sea, the king's 
orders were that they should take as many prisoners as they 
could, and kill such of the enemy as they could not take alive. 
The result was that in the same year twenty ships of the Danish 
pirates were taken ; and of the crews, some were slain, and 
others brought alive to the king and hung on the gallows. 1 

^a.d. 898, 899.] 

*a.d. 900.] Healhstan, bishop of London, died, and was 
succeeded by Theodred. Eardulf, bishop of Lindisfarne, died, 
to whom succeeded the pious CutharcL 

[a.d. 901.] Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, son of the 
most religious king Ethelwulf, after a reign of twenty-nine 
years and six months, died on Wednesday the fifth of the 
calends of November [28th October], in the fourth indiction. 2 
He was buried at Winchester in the New Minster, where he 
waits his being clothed with a blissful immortality, and par- 
taking the glory of the resurrection of the just. That renowned, 
warlike, and victorious king was the zealous guardian of the 
widows and fatherless, orphans, and the poor. He was a 
perfect master of Saxon poetry, fondly loved by his own 

1 At Winchester, as the Saxon Chron. adds. It contains a much 
more circumstantial account of these naval affairs than that given by 
Florence ; and Henry of Huntingdon adds some further details. See 
pp. 365, 366, of Saxon Chron. in Antiq. Lib. ; and pp. 160, 161, of 
H. of Huntingdon, ibid. 

* April, 871 — October 901, which gives thirty instead of twenty-nine 
years for the reign of Alfred. The Saxon Chron. limits it to twenty- 
eight years and a half, and, instead of the fifth, has the seventh of the 
calends of November, or 26th October. 




subjects, most affable and generous to all tlie world, endowi 
witli prudence, fortitude, justice, and temperance, he was 
model of patience under his inveterate disease, acute u 
hyartial in the administration of justice, and vigilant in 
devout in the service of God His son Edward, surnau* 
the Elder, who succeeded to the throne, was inferior fo 1 
lather in learning, but surpassed him in diiriiity, might, :« 
grandeur. For, as it will be clearly shown in what follows, 1 
extended the frontiers of his kingdom far beyond its limits 
his father's reign, built many cities and towns, and raisi 
others from their ruins, wrested from the power of the Dan 
all Essex, East-Anglia, Sorthmt'ibria, and several districts 
Meroia, which had been lung in their hands, and after tl 
death of his sister Ethehieda,' took possession of the whole 
Mercia and retained it in his own hands: he also rediiw 
to subjection the. king of the Scots, the Cumbrians, and tl 
■Sirathclyde and Western Britons : and many kings and chit 
he defeated and slew. He had Athelstan, his first-born si 
by a woman of very noble birth, named Egwina : : I 
fQeen Edgiva also bore him three sous, Edwin, Edmund, an 
Edred, a daughter named Edberga. a most devout virgin, an 
three other daughters. One of these was married to Oth 
emperor of the Romans, the eighty-ninth in sueeessiot 
another to Charles, king of the Western -E ranks, who: 
aunt, the daughter of the emperor Charles, was the wife i 
Ethclwulf, king of Wessex; Sihtric, king of Northumbri 
married the third daughter. The etheling Ethel wold, eoues 
german of king Edward, seized a royal vill ealled TweoxebeaJ 
without the licence of the king or his "witan;" he ;,)-■ 
took another ealled Winburne, and strengthened it with gaW 
and bolt*. It was there that, as we have mentioned befor 
St. Cuthburg, sister of king Ina, founded a monastery of nun 
On hearing of this outrage, king Edward assembled an am; 
and encamped at a place near Winburne, called Baddanbyri 
(Badbury). The king lost no time in summoning tf 

' Jiiii-ljlerlri ; proper names commencing with ". I" til el," ore gnu 
rally mitten ".Eirel" in the test of Florence of Worcester, a coiW] 
tion to be found also in the Saxon Chronicle. 

! M aim esbui}* describes lier as of humble birth, " opilionis flli* 

a shepherd's daughter; Anth[. Lib., p. 13(1. where a 

is given of Athelstan 's birth. 


AJ>. 902 — 905.] EDWARD THE ELDER, 87 

etheling to evacuate the place ; bat he refused, saying that he 
would live or die there. But these were idle words, for, 
terrified at the number of the king's army, he made his 
escape by night, and hastening into Northumbria entreated 
the Danes to accept him as a comrade, allowing him to join 
their company as such, and not as a commander. However, 
they shortly afterwards raised him to the throne. King Athel- 
stan was severely mortified at Ethelwold's escape, and com- 
manded instant pursuit to be made, but finding it impossible 
to overtake him, he arrested the nun whom the etheling 
had married without his permission and that of the bishops, 
and caused her to be taken back to her convent at Winburne. 

Ju>. 902.] 

]a.d. 903.] Athuh* a very brave ealdorman, the brother of 
queen Elswitha, king Edward's mother, died this year; as 
also Yirgilius, a venerable Scotch abbot ; likewise Grimbald, 
the priest, a man of great sanctity and one of king Alfred's 
masters, ascended to the bliss of the heavenly kingdom. 

[a.d. 904.] The Kentish men fought against a numerous 
band of Danish pirates at a place called Holme, and remained 
victors. The etheling Ethelwold returned to England from 
foreign parts, with a large fleet of ships which he had either 
bought or collected in East-AngHa. 

[aj>. 905.] There was an eclipse of the moon. The 
etheling Ethelwold prevailed on the Danes who inhabited East- 
Anglia, by the promise of a large share of the booty, to join 
in a predatory irruption on the borders of Mercia. On their 
consenting, they quickly burst into the Mercian territory under 
their king Erie, in union with Ethelwold, and, eager for 
plunder, carried fire and sword through the country, penetrating 
as far as Creccanford (Cricklade), where they crossed the river 
Thames, and traversing the wood called in the Saxon tongue 
Bradene, seized the surrounding vills, plundering everything 
they could lay their hands on. Being now loaded with rich 
booty, they hurried homeward in triumph ; but in vain, for the 
invincible king Edward pursued them with such troops as he 
could get together in haste, and laid waste their lands situate be- 
tween the boundary territory of St. Edmund the king, and the 
river Ouse. When about to draw off his army from the work 
of devastation, he ordered the whole to retire in a body ; but 
the Kentish men remained behind in spite of the order. The 


king sent (no less than) seven messages to them, eomm 
them to retreat ; but tin v. having nn iipprehension of ai 
persisted in their enterprise in blind security. The 1 
learning this, quickly assembled in a body and tell i 
Kentish men; and a severe battle ensued, in which r 
perished on both sides. On that of the Kentish men n 
slain Siwulf, the caMunnan, anil liis son Hoherht, Sigelm 
ealdorman, Edwold, the king's thane, abbot Kennlt', and n 
others. On the side of the Danes were slain Eric their k 
the ethellng Ethelwold, who bad been elected king, ant 
many more ' than fell on the side of the Eugiiah ; but 
remained masters (if the field of death. The devout handi 
Christ, queen Elswitha, king Edward's mother, and the ft 
ress of a monastery for nuns at Winchester, departed this It 

[aj>. 906.] A comet-star was seen. The Pagan * 
out of East-Anglia and Norton mhria, Boding that king Edl 
was invincible, made peaee with Itiln at a ]dace called i: 
English tongue Yttiugaford. 3 

[A.». 907.] 

[a.d. 908.] The city called in the British tongue I 
gion, and in the Saxon, L.. 'get-east re (Chester), was rcbui 
order of Etliered, the eaidnriiian. and Ethelfleda. 

[a.d. 909.] Denulf. bishop of Winchester, died. 

[a.d. 910.] St. Frithestan succeeded to the bishc 
vacant by the death of Denulf. The bones of Si 
king and martyr, were translated from Bardney t 
The Danes having broken the peace recently conclude 
invincible king Edward sent an army of West-Saxons 
Mercians into Nortlnnnbria, which having accomphY 
march, laid waste the country for nearly forty days 
intermission, put nuinliers of the Danes to the s 
brought back a crowd of captives and immense booty, i 

1 The Shiqd Chronicle enumerates among these. Ysop the Iwld, su 
Oskjtel the hold. In our notes on Henry of Huntingdon, who calk 
them Aim, we remarked that ■' hold " was probably a Danish title of 
rank ; but it escaped our notice that the word, as suggested by Dt- 
Thorpe in a note to the K, II, Society's edition of Florence is probably 
derived from the Scandinavian ; hollar, a udaller, or holder of land 
on a free and privileged tenure still existing in Norway. 

1 The Saion Chron. giies her death in 0113. 

3 Supposed to be either Irford, near Christclmreh, i 

. or Ictford in 

A.D. 911 913.] THE WAR IN MERCIA. 89 

pelling their kings, however reluctantly, to renew with king 
Edward the peace they had broken. 

[a.i>. 911. J A glorious battle was fought between the 
English and Danes at a place called Teotanhele, 1 in the province 
of Stafford, the English gaining the victory. The same year 
the victorious king Edward collected a hundred ships, and 
embarking in them chosen troops, gave them orders to meet 
him in Kent, whither he intended to go by land. Meanwhile, 
the Danish settlers in Northumbria again breaking the peace 
they had made, and rejecting the terms of accommodation 
which king Edward and his witan proposed, audaciously 
ravaged the lands of the Mercians, thinking, indeed, that their 
naval power was so superior that they could go where they 
pleased without encountering an enemy. The king being 
informed of this irruption, sent the West-Saxon troops united 
with those of Mercia to drive them out, who overtook them 
as they were returning from the country they had ravaged, on 
a plain called in English Wodnesfield, and slew their two 
kings Eowils and Halfdene, king Hinguar's brothers, with two 
of their earls, Ochter and Scurf, nine of their principal nobles, 2 
and many thousand men besides; and putting the rest to* 
flight, recovered all the spoil. Ethelfleda, the lady of the 
Mercians, built the town of Bramsbury. 

[a.d. 912.] Ethered, ealdorman and " patrician," lord and 
sub-king of the Mercians, a man of distinguished excellence, 
and not deficient in deeds of worth, died this year; after 
his' decease his wife Ethelfleda, king Alfred's daughter, 3 ruled 
with firmness the kingdom of Mercia, save only London and Ox- 
ford, which her cousin king Edward retained in his own hands. 

[a.d. 913.] Ethelfleda, lady of the Mercians, came with an 
army on the second of the nones [the 6th] of May to a place 
called Scoergate, and built a fortress there; marching from 
thence she built another at a place called Bricge (Bridgnorth), 

1 Tettenhall, near Wolverhampton. 

2 Among these, the Sax. Chron. enumerates Othulf the hold y 
Nenering the hold, Anlaf (Olaf) the Black, Thurforth the hold, Osferth 
Flytte, Euthferth the hold, and Ogmund the hold. See the note in the 
preceding page. 

3 See Henry of Huntingdon's History, and the notes, pp. 166, 167, 
168, in Bohn's Antiq. Lib., respecting this spirited princess, to whose 
memory Florence of Worcester also has done more justice than most 
of the Chroniclers. 

90 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [i.D. 914, 915 

on the western bank of llie river Thames. About the feast c 
St. Martin [11th November], a city was buili by order c 
king Edward, between tlie Memera, Ficcea and Lyge (Lea), t 
the north of Hertford. 

[a.d. 914.] After Easter [17th April] a Pagan army froi 
Northampton and Leicester came plundering into the provinc 
of Oxford and slew great numbers of people in the royal vii 
of Hoekeraetune (Hoekerton), and many other villa. Short!; 
after they returned home anotlier expediton was eqnippec 
consisting of horsemen, and dispatched in the province <, 
Hertford, towards Ligetun (Leightou?); but the people of th 
country Hocked together to oppose tbcm, and slaying many « 
them and putting the rest to flight, took some of their horse 
and most of their arms, recovering also the booty they ha 
collected. After Rogation .lavs [l'3rd May], king Edwar 
detached part of his troops to build a town on the south aid 
of the river Lea, and, marching the rest into Essr\, pitched hi 
camp at Maldienne (Maiden ?). He took up Ins quarters ther 
whde a town was building at Witharo, which was afterward 
fortified ; and a great portion of the inhabitants who wei 
■entliralled by the Pagans submitted themselves to him, wit 
all they possessed. In tlie early part of the summer, Ethel 
fleda, tlie lady of the Mercians, led her people to Tamworti 
and by God's help rebuilt that town ; from thence she wen 
to Stafford, and built or threw up a fort on the north bank < 
the river Sowe. The i'ulknving winter was exceedingly loo 
and severe. Athehn, bishop of Wells, being promoted to th 
archbishopric of Canterbury, was succeeded by Wulfhelm. 

[a.d. 915.] On the death of Werefeith, bishop of th 
Hwiccas, a man of deep learning and piety, ho was succeede 
by Ethelhuu, abbot of Berkeley. 1 In the beginning < 
summer, Ethelflcda, lady of the Mercians, built the town ealle 
Eddesbury, and at the close of autnnm another called Wai 
wick. The Pagan pirates, who nearly nineteen years befot 
had crossed over to France, returned to England from th 
province called Lydwiccuiu (Brittany), under two chief: 
Ochter and Hroald (Tliorold ?), and sailing round the coast t 

1 Florence of Worcester is natimilly 
the bishops of the Hwiceins, but in tlie list gi 
work, the immediate wmlwl at YVYvelerth 

A.D. 915.] WAR IN THE WE8T. 91 

Wessex and Cornwall at length entered the mouth of the 
river Severn. Without any loss of time they fell upon the 
country of the Northern Britons, and carried off almost every 
thing they could find on the banks of the river. Having laid 
hands on Cymelgeac, a British bishop, on a plain called 
Yrcenefeld, they dragged him, with no little joy, to their 
ships. King Edward redeemed him shortly afterwards for 
forty pounds of silver. Before long, the whole army landed, 
and made for the plain before mentioned, in search of plunder ; 
but the men of Hereford and Gloucester, with numerous 
bands from the neighbouring towns, suddenly fell on them, 
and a battle was fought in which Hroald, one of the enemy's 
chiefs, and the brother of Ochter, the other chief, and great 
part of the army were slain. The rest fled, and were driven 
by the Christians into an enclosure, where they were beset 
until they delivered hostages for their departure as quickly as 
possible from king Edward's dominions. The king, therefore, 
stationed detachments of his army in suitable positions on the 
south side of the Severn, from Cornwall to the mouth of the 
river Avon, to prevent the pirates from ravaging those districts. 
But leaving their ships on the shore, they prowled by night about 
the country, plundering it to the eastward of Weced (Watchet), 
and another time at a place called Porlock. However, on 
both occasions, the king's troops slew all of them except such 
as made a disgraceful retreat to their ships. The latter, dis- 
pirited by their defeat, took refuge in an island called Reoric, 1 
where they harboured till many of them perished from hunger, 
and, driven by necessity, the survivors sailed first to Deomed, 1 
and afterward in the autumn to Ireland. After these occur- 
rences, the invincible king Edward marched his army to 
Buckingham, where he halted thirty days, causing forts to be 
built on both banks of the river Ouse ; and, in consequence, 
Turketil, one of the Danish chiefs, and all of the better sort 
from Bedford and many from Northampton were compelled 
to submit to the king. 3 On the death of Cuthard, bishop of 
Lindisfarne, he was succeeded by TilrecL 

1 The Flat-Holms in the Bristol Channel. 

2 Demetia, Dyvet ; the district of South Wales, about Milford Haven, 
from whence is the nearest passage to the south of Ireland. 

3 Saxon Chronicle, where these transactions of the year 915 are 
assigned to 918. 


[a.D. 91(i.] The victorious king Edward went to B 
before the of St. Martin [1.1th November], which 
and its inhabitants to him. He remained 
thirty days, anil caused a town to lie built on the soul 
of the river Ouse. After Christinas, Etheltteda, lady 
Mercians, built two towns, ('yrichirig (Cherbury), and 
byrig; she also built a third, Runootan (Runcorn), 
that feast. 

[a.d. 917.] The victorious king Edward went as 
Maldon before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the B 
and rebuilt the town, placing a guard of soldiers in it- 
he left it. The same year Turketil, the ehief alreadj 
tioned, went over to France with all his band, king E 
approving and furthering the expedition. The ver 
abbot Egbert was unjustly slain on the sixth of the cale 
July. Three nights afterwards Etliclfleila, the lady ■ 
Mercians, sent an army into the territory of the Briti 
take the castle at Brycenanmere (Brecknock); and 1 
stormed it, they carried the wife of the British king t 
to Mereia, and thirty-four men with her. Rollo, th 
duke of Normandy died, and was succeeded bv h; 

[a.D. 918.] By king Edward's command, the city 
Towcester was built before Easter, and another after 1 
about the Rogations at Wigmore. After the feast i 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist, the Pagans of Northa 
and "Leicester, in violation of the peace, marched to Tow 
and assaulted it during a whole day, endeavouring to 
it ; but the defenders of the place making a stout resi 
from within, and their neighbours hastening to their reli 
Pagans all took to flight. They afterwards made night t 
in the province of Buckingham on those who were orl 
guard, carrying away men as well as cattle, and butchered 
of the inhabitants between Birnwood and Aylesbury. . 
same time, the army of the Pagans who had. colonised 
Anglia and Huntingdon abandoned their fortress at Hu 
don, and built themselves one which was stronger at a 
called Wigingauiere : thinking, forsooth, that hostihtiis 
that quarter wotdd enable them to recover the lauds 
had been wrested from them. They then issued fo 
mlt Bedford; but as soon as their approach was 

assault Be 


tained, those who had the guard of the town went out to 
engage them, and, battle being joined, the enemy were defeated 
and put to flight with great loss. After a short interval the 
Pagans again assembled in a body from East-Anglia, Essex, 
and Mercia, and marched to a town called Wigingamere, 1 
which they assaulted for a whole day; and those within 
defended it manfully, and the enemy drew off; and as they 
retreated swept off a vast booty. After this, in the same 
summer, the people assembled in great numbers from the 
nearest towns and districts under king Edward's dominion, 
and laid siege to Tempsford — assaulted, stormed, burnt, and 
destroyed it, putting to the sword the king of the Pagans, 
with their general Toglear and his son, earl Mannan, and his 
brother, and all who made any defence ; the rest they took 
prisoners, and carried off all they could find. 

From that time the power of the Danes gradually de- 
creased, while that of the English was daily augmented. Upon 
the calends [the 1st] of August, Ethelfleda, lady of the 
Mercians, took Derby by assault, and became mistress of 
that district ; but four of her most trusty thanes were slain, 
bravely fighting, at the city gate. In the following autumn, 
a great multitude of people from Kent, Surrey, Essex, and 
the neighbouring towns and districts, assembled together, and 
marched in a body to Colchester, and laying siege to the 
place sat down before it until they took it. They slew all who 
were in it, except a few who escaped, and plundered all it 
contained. The Danes of East-Anglia, much incensed at 
this loss, were bent on revenge, and, joined by some pirates, 
whom they had taken into their pay, hastened to Maldon, 
which they besieged until the people of the neighbourhood 
came to the relief of the English; upon which the Danes 
gave up the siege and drew off. The English, seeing this, 
pursued them with great impetuosity, slew many thousands of 
the pirates and the others, and routed the rest. Shortly 
afterwards, the invincible king Edward put himself at the 
head of an expedition from Wessex to Passanham, and re- 
mained there while Towcester was being fortified by a wall of 
stone built round it. In consequence, the Danish earl Thur- 

1 Supposed to be Wayraere Castle, on a small island near Bishop's 

9i FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 918, 919, 

ferth, finding that he could no longer resist the kind's vigour, 
submitted to Edward, with the citizens of Northampton and — 
the people of tliat neighbourhood, both Danish and English. ._ 
After this the king returned home arid despatched another m 
army to Huntingdon, with orders to repair and rebuild the 
place and leave a garrison in it. This being accomplished, 
all the people of that prnvuuv who had survived: the c-rueltiei 
of the Danes, rejoicinc to shake oli' their yoke, sought peace 
and protection from the kivi«\ and olieivd him their allegiance. 
After a few days' interval, the long assembled the army <d 
Wesser, and inarching to Colchester, repaired the walls of tie 
town, and stationed in it a garrison of hired soldiers. Mean- 
while, many of the English in East-Anglia and Essex, who 
had been enslaved to the brut:il Danes more than thirty yean, 
joyfully submitted to king Edward ; and even the Danish 
colonists of East-Anglia came to him and swore that tfefjj 
woidd in future do nothing to his prejudice, either by sea <X 
laud. The army from Cambridge also came and chose him 
for their lord and patron ; confirming their submission by 
oaths as he required. 

[a.d. 919.] In the beginning of this year, Etbelfleila, lady 
of the Mercians, got poaeeaaios of Leicester, peaceably, and 
nearly all die Danes belonging to the place .submitted to her. 
The Danes also who predominated at York, engaged, some on 
their word, aud others on oath, to submit to her will and 
pleasure in all tilings. After Rogations [.31st May], to* 
victorious king Edward the Elder led his army to Stamford, 
and built a strong castle on the south bank of the river 
Wcllaud, and not only the Danes who held the fort on the 
north bank of that river, but all who were connected with the 
place, paid him homage. While the king was thus employed, 
that is to say, on the nineteenth of the calends of July, hu 
abter, Ethekieda, lady of the Mercians, a woman of incom- 
parable prudence, and eminent for her just and virtuous life, 
died,' eight years after the sole government of the Mercians 
fell to her, during which she had ruled them with firmness and 
equity. She left Elfwina, her only daughter by Ethcred the 

1 Henry of Huntingdon states tliat Ethelaeda died 
twelve days hafore the feast of St. John [lStli June^, j 
ing with two MSS. of tbe Sus.^n Chron. ; another 
fw !>■:■; as the date. See p. 163 in Antif. Lib. 

AJ>. 920—923.] DEATH 0F ETHELTLEDA. 95 

sub-king, 1 habeas to her territories : her body was carried to 
Gloucester and honourably buried in the church of St. Peter. 
A* soon as the intelligence of his sister's death reached the 
long, he hurried to Tamworth and reduced it to submission. 
Then moving his army to Nottingham, which was given up to 
him, he erdared it to be repaired, and settled in it a united 
body of Danes and English. In course of time he received 
the submission, first, of all the Mercians and Danish inhabitants 
of Meroia, and afterwards of three British kings, Howel, 
Qyttwic, and Juthal, with their subjects. 

(a.d. 920.] 2 hx the ti of autumn, the invincible king 
Edward proceeded to The 1 and built a town there, leaving 
some of the bravest of 1 soldiers as a garrison. He also 
sent troops into Northumb with orders to repair the town 
of Manchester, and static good soldiers there. After 

that, he deprived his me© carwma of all her authority in the 
kingdom of Mercia, and ca her to be conducted to Wessex. 

(a.i>. 921.] The invin * king Edward the Elder went to 
Nottingham with a body ot troops before the feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist, and erected a town on the 
southern bank of the river Trent, opposite to the town standing 
on the other bank, and gave orders for building a strong 
bridge to connect the two towns. Thence he proceeded with 
his force to Beadecanwella (Bakewell), and having built a 
town close by, placed some stout soldiers in it. At that time 
the king of the Boots, with all his people, Begnald, king of the 
Danes, with the English and Danes of Northumbria, and the 
king of the Strathclyde Britons, with his subjects, chose king 
Edward the Elder for their father and lord, and made a firm 
alliance with him. 

[aj>. 922.] Ethelward, the etheling, king Edward's brother, 
died on the seventeenth of the calends of November [16th Octo- 
ber], and was carried to Winchester and buried there. Ethelhun, 
bishop of the Hwiccas, died, and was succeeded by Wilferth. 

[aj>. 923.] 

1 She is called Elgiva by Roger of Wendover, who describes her, 
with Florence, as the only daughter of Ethered and Ethelfleda, and 
gives a curious reason for her being so. E. Wendov, in Antiq. Lib. 
vol. i., p. 242. 

* See the Saxon Ohron. as to the dates of the events of this and 
the four following years. 

06 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 924 — 93] 

[a.d. 924.] Edward the Elder, the invincible king < 
England, whu ivigned gloriously over all the people of Britaii 
whether English, Scotch, Cumbrians, Danes, or Welsh, aft* 
many great achievements, departed this life at the royal vi 
called Feamduu (Earringdon), in (lie fifteenth indietion, in 
the twenty-tour tli of hn reign, leaving the government to hi 
son Athelatan. His body was carried to Winchester, ani 
interred in the New Minster with royal pomp. His soi 
Alfward died shortly afterwards at Oxford, and was burie 
with his father. Athenian's accession was inaugurated a 
Oiiigestone, which signifies the King's town ; and lie wa 
crowned with due ceremony by Athclm, archbishop of Can 
terbury. The resolute Dunstan, a native of Wessex, was i 
boy in his time. 

[a.d. 92.5.] The valiant and glorious king Athelstan gan 
his siater in marriage, with great pomp and magnificence, ti 
iSiliti-ii-. king of the Northumbrians, who was of Danish origin 

[a.D. 926.] Fiery lights in the northern part of the heaven 
were visible throughout the whole of England. Shortly after 
ward, Sihtric, king of Northumbria, departed this lite, aw 
king Athelstan expelled iMilhferth his son and successor, wit 
united the kingdom to the others which were under hi 
imperial sway, fur he defeated in battle and put to flight a! 
the kings throughout Albion; for instance, Howe], king of thi 
West Britons (the Welsh!, ami afterwards Constantine, kinf 
of the Scots, and Wuei- (Owen) king of the Wenti (q. Gwent) 
He also expelled Aldied, the sun of Eadulf, from his roya 
town called by the English Jiebhanbyrig ( Bam borough). Al 
these, finding that they eould no longer resist his power, suel 
for peace, and assembling at a place called Eamot, on thi 
fourth of the ides [the 12th] of July, ratified by their oath: 
a. solemn treaty. 

[a.d. 927.] 

[a.D. 928.] Tilred, bishop of Lindisfarne, died, and wv 
succeeded by Withred. On the death of Tunberht, bisho] 
of Lichfield, Mile succeeded. 

[a.d. 929.] Wilferth, bishop of the Hwiccias, died, an< 
was succeeded by Kinewold. 

[a.d. 930.] 

[a.d. 931.] Eadulf, bishop of Devon, died, and was ban* 
at Crediton. 

4.B. 932 — 938.] ATHELSTAN. 97 

[a.d. 932.] Frithestan, bishop of Winchester, a man of 
eminent piety, continued to reside at Winchester after the 
pious Byrnstan was bishop in his stead. St. Frithestan sang 
mass daily for the repose of the souls of the departed, and at 
night went round the cemeteries, chanting psalms for their 
relief. On one occasion, when he was thus employed, and 
had concluded the service with the words, " May they rest 
in peace ! " he heard, as it were, countless hosts uttering from 
the graves the response, " Amen." 

^a.d. 933.] St. Frithestan died. 

[a.d. 934.] Athelstan, the valiant king of England led 
an expedition into Scotland, consisting of a powerful fleet 
and a large body of cavalry, Constantine, king of the Scots, 
having broken the peace that he had made. King Athelstan 
ravaged great part of the country, and Constantine was 
compelled to give him his son as an hostage, with fitting 
presents ; and peace having been restored, the English king 
returned to Wessex. St. Byrnstan, bishop of Winchester, 
died the same year. 

[a.d. 935.] The holy monk Elphege, surnamed The Bald, 
a kinsman of St. Dunstan, was appointed to the bishopric of 

[aj>. 936.] 

[aj>. 937.] Otho, the nineteenth emperor of the Romans, 
reigned thirty-six years and ten months. Athelstan, king of 
England, gave him one of his sisters in marriage. 

[a.d. 938.] Anlaf [Olaf], the Pagan king of Ireland 
and many other isles, at the instigation of his father-in-law 
Constantine, king of the Scots, entered the mouth of the 
Humber with a powerful fleet. King Athelstan, and his 
brother Edmund the etheling, encountered him at the head of 
their army at a place called Brunanburgh, and the battle, in 
which five tributary kings and seven earls were slain, having 
lasted from daybreak until evening, and been more sanguinary 
than any that was ever fought before in England, the con- 
querors retired in triumph, having driven the kings Anlaf 
and Constantine to their ships; who, overwhelmed with 
sorrow at the destruction of their army, returned to their 
own countries with very few followers. 

1 See the Saxon Chronicle, and Henry of Huntingdon's History, for 
details of this celebrated battle. 


93 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D. 939 — 944. 

[A.D. 939.] 

[a.d. 940.] Atlielstan, the brave and glorious king of 
England, departed this life at Gloucester, on Wednesday 
the sixth of the calends of November [27th October], in Ife 
fourteenth indiution and the sixteenth year of his reign. He 
was carried to Maidulph (Mahnesbury), and buried there with 
great honours ; his brother Edmund succeeded to the throne" 
in the eighteenth year of hia age. 

[a.d. 941.] The Northumbrians, faitldess to tiic allegiance 
they owed to Edmund, the great king of England, elected 
Olaf, a king of the Northmen, to be their own king. The 
same year Alfred, bishop of Sherborne, died. 

[a.d. 942.] Edmund, the great king of England, wrested 
the "Five Burghs," 1 namely, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, 
Leicester, and Stamford, out of the hands of the Danes, and 
brought the whole of Memo, under his dominion. He estab- 
lished his supremacy and acquired this glory by calling to hi] 
counsels Duustan, the servant of God, who, besides other 
offices of dignity to which he was advanced, was abl>ot of 
Glastonbury, where he had 1x;en brought up. William, duke 
of Normandy, the son of Bollo, was slain on the sixteenth of 
the calends of January [1.7th October] : he was succeeded by 
his son Richard. 

[a.d. 943.1 At the moment when St. Elfgiva, the queen of 
king Edmund the Great, was giving birth to a son, St. Dunstan, 
the abbot, heard voices on high, singing thus : " Peace shall 
be to the English church in the time of the child who is now 
born and of our own Dunstan." This year the king of 
England received king Olaf, already mentioned, from the 
sacred laver of regeneration, and made him a royal gift ; and 
soon afterwards he presented KegnaUl, king of Northumbm, 
to the bishop in the office of confirmation, adopting him tor 
hia son. 

[a.d. 944.] Edmund, the great king of England, expelled 
the two kings of Northumbria — namely, Olaf. son of Sihtric, 
and Eegnald, son of Guthfertlt, and took that kingdom into 

1 Quiiique civtiates. These " five hnrghs," as they were called, weta 
sir-'iicly (..I'titied, distinguished for their importance, commerce, and 
wealth ; and formed, as it were, a little separate Danish s' 
heart of England, from the time of king Alfred. See 
Danes in Emjland, p. 91. 

A.D. 945 — 951.] EDMUND — EDRED. 99 

his own hands. Withred, bishop of Lmdisfarne, died, and 
was succeeded by Uhtric; on whose decease Sexhelm was 
ordained to supply his place ; and he too dying a few months 
afterwards, Aldred was consecrated in his stead. 

[a.d. 945.] Edmund, the great king of England, laid waste 
Cumberland, and gave it to Malcolm, fcmg of the Scots, under 
fealty and military service, by sea and land. 

[a.d. 946.] On the feast of St. Augustine, the doctor of 
the English, being Tuesday, the seventh of the calends of 
June [26th May], in the fourth indiction, Edmund, the great 
king of England, was stabbed to death at the royal vill called 
Pucklechurch, by Leof, a ruffianly thief, while attempting to 
defend his steward from being murdered by the robber. The 
king thus perished after a reign of five years and seven months : 
his body was carried to Glastonbury and buried by St. Dunstaa 
the abbot. Edred, his brother and next heir, immediately suc- 
ceeded him in due course, and was crowned at Kingston by 
St. Odo, archbishop of Canterbury, on Sunday the seventeenth 
©f the calends of September [16th August]. King Edred 
reduced the entire kingdom of Northumbria to allegiance, as 
his brother had done before, and the Scots swore fealty to hun. 
a.d. 947, 948.] 

a.d. 949.] St. Wulfetan, archbishop of York, and all the 
great men of Northumbria, swore fealty to Edred, the illus- 
trious king of England, at the vill called Taddens-clyff 
(Tadcaster), but they soon broke it, and made one Eric, of 
Danish extraction, their king. 

[a.d. 950.] On the revolt of the Northumbrians, Edred, 
king of England, laid waste the whole of Northumbria ; and, 
in the course of this devastation, the monastery of Kipon, 
founded by St. Wilfrid, was burnt to the ground. While, 
however, the king was retiring, a body of troops sallied forth 
from York and made great havoc on the rear of his army, at 
a place called Chesterford. The king was so nettled at this 
affront, that he was on the point of counter-marching 
his force and utterly devastating the whole country, when 
the Northumbrians, alarmed at the news, deposed Eric whom 
they had elected king, satisfying the king's honour by humble 
submission, and compensating his losses by their offerings, it 
costing them a large sum of money to appease his anger. 

[a.d. 95L] St. Elphege, bishop of Winchester, surnamed 


100 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [_A.D. 932 — 036. 

the Bald, who had received St. Dunstau's [■ruff^Um as a monk, 
and raised him to the order of priesthood, departed this life, 
and was suaveded in tin; bishopric by Alfsin. 

[a.d. 952.] Edred, the renowned king of England, closely 
imprisoned Wulfstan, un-h bishop of York, at Juthanbyrig, on 
certain charges frequently preferred against him. He also 
ordered several of the inhabitants of Thetfurd to bo executed, 
as a punishment for their cruel murder of abbot Aldelm. 

[a.d. 953.] Ethelgar, bishop of Crediton, departed in 
Christ in the twenty-first year after he was appointed to the 
see, and was buried at Crediton. By the advice of St. Dun- 
stan, the abbot, the venerable Alfwold was made bishop in 

[a.d. 954.] Wulfstan, archbishop of York, was released 
from prison, but his episcopal functions were transferred to 

[a.d. 955.] Edred, the illustrious king of England, fell 
sick in the tenth year of his reign, so that his life was despaired 
of; upon which a messenger was dispatched with urgent speed 
to summon Dunstan, the king's confessor. The holy abbot 
was hastening to the palace, and had accomplished half his 
journey when he heard these words distinctly uttered by » 
voice from above, " King Edred now rests in peace." At this 
sound, the horse on which he was riding, struck with awe at 
the angel's voice, fell to the earth lifeless, hut St. Dunstan 
received no injury. The king's corpse was carried to Win- 
chester, and interred by abbot Dunstan himself in the New 
Minster with the highest honours. Edwy, the etheling, his 
nephew, as being son of king Edward by St. Elfgiva, hi* 
queen, succeeded him in his sole and imperial government, 
and was crowned the same year at Kingston by Odo, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The same year died Lewis, king of 
the Western Franks, son of king Charles by a daughter of 
Edward the Elder, king of England. Liutolf also, son of the 
emperor Otho by another daughter of the same king Edward- 
died this year, and was buried in the choir of the Abbey oC 
St. Alban. at Mentz. 

[a.D. 956.] St. Dunstan, the abbot, on his being cited 
to judgment by Edred, king of England, crossed the sea, 
and being honourably received by Arnulf, a man of royal 
descent, had lodgings assigned him in the abbey of Blandin 

A.D. 957 — 959.] EDWY AND EDGAR. 101 

(St. Peter's, at Ghent). Wulfstan, archbishop of York, died 
on the seventh of the calends of January [26th Pec], and 
was buried at Oundle. Oskytel, a reverend man, succeeded 

[ a.d. 957.] The people of Mercia and Northumbria threw 
off their allegiance to Edwy king of England, disgusted at 
the folly of his government, and elected his cousin, the 
etheling Edgar, king. So the kingdom was divided between 
the two kings in such manner that the river Thames formed 
the boundary of their respective dominions. It was not long 
before Edgar, king of Mercia, recalled St. Dunstan, the 
abbot, with honour and distinction. In the course of a short 
time afterwards, Coenwald, the pastor of the church of 
Worcester, a man of deep humility and also a monk, died* 
and St. Dunstan, the abbot, was promoted to the vacant 
bishopric, and consecrated by Odo, archbishop of Canterbury* 
In the year following, Edgar king of Mercia entrusted him 
with the government of the church of London, on the death 
of its pious pastor. 

[a.d. 958.] Alfsi, bishop of Dorchester, died: he was 
succeeded by Byrhthelm, a mild, modest, humble, and benevo- 
lent man. St. Odo, archbishop of Canterbury, separated 
Edwy king of Wessex and Elgiva, either because, as report 
says, she was of near kin to him, or he was enamoured of her 
instead of his wife. In the same year, the archbishop, a man 
eminent for his talent, worth, and virtues, and gifted with 
a prophetic spirit, departed this life and was borne on angel's 
wings to paradise. He was succeeded by JSlfsige, bishop of 
Winchester, and Byrhthelm, the fifth bishop of Wells, was 
translated to the see of Winchester in Alfsin's place. 

[a.d. 959.] iElfsige, archbishop of Canterbury, on his jour- 
ney to Borne to obtain the pallium was frozen to death in the ice 
and snow whilst crossing the Alps. Edwy, king of Wessex, 
died, after a reign of four years, and was buried at Winchester 
in the New Minster. His brother Edgar, king of Mercia, then 
in the sixteenth year of his age, was chosen to succeed him by 
the unanimous voice of the Anglo-Britons, in the 510th year 
from the arrival of the Angles in Britain, and the 263rd year 
after St. Augustine and his companions landed in England: and 
the divided kingdoms were thus re-united. Byrhthelm, bishop 
of the people of Somerset (of Wells) was elected to the 

102 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER, [ijt. 959, 960. 

archbishopric of Can tori airy, hut it. being the general opinion 
that lie was little ipialified for so hiL'h a dignity, he returned 
to tbe church be had lately quitted. Thereupon, St. Dunstan, 
nephew by the brother's side of archbishop Athein, and abbot 
of Glastonbury and afterwards bishop of Worcester and 
London, was by divini? grace and advice of the council chosen 
to he primate and patriarch of the metropolis of Eugiand. 

Taught by his prudent counsels, and those of other men 
of wisdom, Edgar, king of England, put down wickedness in 
all quarters, severely punished the rebellious, cherished the 
just and humble, restored find enriched the ruined houses of 
God, and clearing the abodes of the clergy of all that wu 
light and tiitling, assembled troops of monks and nuns to the 
glory of the great Creator, ostablishing them in more than 
forty monasteries built by Ids command. Ail these he honoured 
as brethren, and loved as dear children, admonishing with hit 
own month the pastors he set over them, to eihort their flocks 
to live according to the monastic rule and without reproach, 
and so be well-pleasing in all things to Christ and his saints. 
He was discreet, mild, humble, kind, liberal, merciful, power- 
ful in arms, and warlike ; defending royally the rights of his 
kingdom by military force. Ho taught the people to give ready 
submission to their lords, and the lords to rule the people witi 
justice. He enacted good laws, and his reign was most 
peaceful. He neither provoked war in any quarter, nor va 
compelled to engage in it by any provocation ; but, by God's 
aid, he guarded the frontiers of his kingdom with prudence 
courage, justice, and moderation. In his wrath he was fierce 
as a lion against his enemies; so that not only the princes and 
lords of the islands held him in awe, but the kings of many 
nations were either struck with terror and alarm by the reports 
of his wisdom and might, or loved, honoured, and extolled him 
for his munificence. The emperor Otho the First, who had 
married his aunt, sent hiin splendid presents, and concluded » 
treaty of lasting peace with him. 

[a.d, 960.] St. Dunstan went to Home in the third indie- 
tion, and having received the pallium from pope Jolm, returned 
to his own country by a peaceful journey. After the lapse of 
a few months he went to court, and appealing to the king's 
red and humbly requested lum to raise to the see 
of Worcester St, Oswald, nephew of his predecessor Odo, » 


aj>. 961— 969.] kkub. 103 

devout, meek, and humble monk, of whose growth in the fear 
of God, and the virtues of a holy life, he was fully satisfied. 
King Edgar having granted this request, St. Oswald was 
consecrated and enthroned as bishop by St Dunstan himself. 
On the death of Guthard, bishop of Selsey, Alfred succeeded. 

>d. 961, 962.] 

aj>. 963.] St. Ethelwold, a venerable abbot who had 
been brought up by St. Dunstan, succeeded to the bishopric 
of Winchester on the death of Byrhthelm ; and the same year, 
by the king's command, he expelled the clergy, and established 
monks in the Old Minster. Being the king's principal coun- 
sellor, he strongly advised him to expel clerks (secular canons) 
from the monasteries, and give orders for their being replaced 
by monks and nuns. 

[aj>. 964.] Edgar the Pacific, long of England, married 
Elfihrith the daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, and 
widow of Ethelwold, the illustrious ealdorman of East-Anglia, 
by whom he had two sons, Edmund and Ethelred. He had 
also by his first wife Ethelfleda the Fair, surnamed Eneda, 
daughter of the ealdorman Ordmar, a son named Edward, 
afterwards king and martyr ; and by St. Wulfrith a daughter 
named Edgitha, a virgin devoted to God. In the same year, 
the king settled monks in the New Minster, and at Middleton, 
and appointed Ethelgar Abbot of the former, and Cyneward of 
the latter. 

>j>. 965, 966.] 

a.d. 967.] Edgar the Pacific, king of England, placed 
nuns in the monastery at Bumsey, founded by Ins grandfather 
Edward the Elder, king of England, and appointed St. Mserwyn 
to be their abbess. 

[a.d. 968.] Edgar the Pacific, king of England, sent 
Sideman, a devout man, to govern the monks at Exeter, with 
the rank of abbet On the death of Aldred, bishop of 
Lindisfarne, he was succeeded by Alfsy. 

[a.d. 969.] Edgar the Pacific, king of England, com- 
manded St. Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, and St. 
Oswald and St. Ethelwold, bishops of Worcester and Win- 
chester, to expel the clerks and settle monks in the larger 
monasteries of Mercia. Thereupon St. Oswald, in compliance 
with the king's wishes, expelled from the monastery the clergy 
of the church of Worcester who refused to become monks : 

104 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 970 973. 

but on their complying, as he tells us, in the present year, he ". 
accepted their monastic vows, and appointed Wynsin, a monk j 
of Rumsey, a man of deep piety, their abbot, instead of a dean. 

[A.D, 970.] The relies of St. S within, the venerable bishop, 
after having been buried one hundred and ten years, were 
disinterred on Friday, the ides [the 15th] of July, in the 
thirteenth indiction, by the venerable bishop St. Ethelwold, 
and Elfstau ami Ethelgiir, abbots of Glastonbury and the New 
Minster, anil deposited with the utmost reverence in the 
church of the apostles Peter and Paul (at Winchester). The 
same year Oswulf, bishop of Wilton, died, and was buried at 
Wilton t the venerable Alfgar vras ordained in his stead. 

[a.D. 971.] The etheling Edmund, king Edgar's won, died, 
and was honourably buried in the monastery at Rumsey. 
The same year Alphege, ealdorman of Hampshire, died) and 
was buried at Glastonbury. Soon afterwards Ordgar, ealdor- 
man of Devon, king Edgar's father-in-law, died, and was 
buried at Exeter. 

[a.d. 972.] Edgar the Pacific, king of England, caused the 
church of the New .Minster, lie^an bv bis father, and completed 
by himself, to bo consecrated with great ceremony. The same 
year Alfwold, bishop of Devon, departed this life hi the nine- 
teenth year of his episcopacy. and w:is buried at Orediton. On 
the death of OskyteL. archbishop ■ if York, his kinsman St. Oswald, 
liishopot' Worcester, was elected hissuccessor in the archbishopric. 

[a.d. 973.] [Stephen became the one hundred and thirty- 
fourth pope]; 1 from him St. Oswald received the pallium. 
Kdgar the Pacific, king of Hi inland, being then in the thirtieth 
year of his age, received the l>enedietion of the bishop 
S S. Dtinstan and Oswald, and all the other bishops •'- 
England, and was crowned and anointed as king with gnat 
pomp and ceremony at the city of Aeamann (Bath ?) in the 
first indiction, and on the fifth of the ides [the 11th] of May, 
King Whitsunday. Shortly afterwards, he sailed round the 
north coast of Britain with a Urge fleet and landed at Chester. 
He was met, as he had given orders, by eight tributary kings,' 

' This should bo Benedict VI., A.n. D72— 0T4. 

! The Salon Chron. and Heory of Huntingdon count only sis 
of tfiese tributary kings. Of the last five here mentioned, two »i* 
supposed to have been princes of N. Wales, one of S. Wales, one rf 
Oalway, and one of Westmoreland. 

>. 974, 975.] edgab. 105 

nely, Kenneth, king of the Scots, Malcolm, king of the 
mbrians, Maecus (Magnus), king of several isles, and five 
lers, named Dufhal, Siferth, Huwal (Howel ?), Jacob, and 
chil, who swore fealty and bound themselves to military 
vice by land and sea. Attended by them, king Edgar one 
y went on board a boat, and while they plied the oars, he 
>k the helm, and steered skilfully down the course of the 
er Dee, and followed by his whole retinue of earls and 
bles pursued the voyage from the palace to the monastery 

St. John the Baptist. Having paid his devotions there, he 
turned to the palace with the same pomp. He is reported 
have said to his nobles as he entered the gates, that any 
ccessor of his might truly boast of being king of England 
len he should receive such honours, with so many kings 
ing him homage. Bryhthelm, bishop of Somerset, died, 
d was buried at Wells. He was succeeded by Cyneward, 
bot of Middleton. 

[a.d. 974.] This year there was a violent earthquake 
rough the whole of England. Eberger, archbishop of 
Dlogne, gave the abbey of St. Martin at Cologne to the Scots 
r ever. Minborin, a Scot, was the first abbot. 

[a.d. 975.] Bang Edgar the Pacific, imperial monarch of 
ie English world, the flower and glory of a race of kings, 
>t less famous among the English than Romulus among the 
omans, Cyrus among the Persians, Alexander among the 
Macedonians, Arsaces among the Parthians, or Charles the 
reat among the Franks — after accomplishing all his under- 
kings in a manner worthy of a king, departed this life on 
hursday the eighth of the ides [the 8th] of July, and the 
drd indiction, in the thirty-second year of his age, the nine- 
tenth of his reign in Mercia and Northumbria, and the six- 
«nth of his reign over all England ; leaving his son Edward 
ar to his crown and virtues. His body was carried to 
lastonbury and buried with royal pomp. During his life 
3 formed a fleet of 3,600 stout ships, and after Easter, every 
sar, he used to collect a squadron of 1,200 ships on each of 
ie eastern, western, and northern coasts of the island ; and 
ake sail with the eastern squadron until it fell in with the 
estern, which then put about and sailed to the eastward, 
hile the western squadron sailed northward till it met with 
e northern, which, in turn, sailed to the west. Thus, the 


wbole island was circumnavigated every summer, and iiwse 
lii'M <'.\[>i'ilitii>ns served at onee for the defence of the realm 
against foreigners, anil to accustom himself and his people 
to warlike exercises. In the winter and spring he used M 
make progresses through all the provinces of England, md 
enquire diligently whether the laws of the land and his owm 
ordinances were obeyed, so that the poor might not sufi* 
wrong and be oppressed by the powerful. By the former of 
these practices he encouraged a daring spirit, by the other tin 
due administration of justice anion? his su I fleets, and in balk 
consulted the interests of liis states and kingdom. Thus hit 
enemies on every side were tilled with awe. and the k>vc <*" 
those who owed him allegiance was secured. At his dead 
the whole kingdom fell into a state of disturbance, and the 
season of giadness which peace established in his time wt» 
exchanged for one of universal tribulation. For, blinded by 
presents of value, Elfhere, 1 the ealdorman of Mereia. and 
many other nobles, expelled the monks from the monasteries 
in wliieh they had been settled by king Edgar the Pacific, and 
introduced clerks with their wives. But this madness was 
opposed by sonic conscientious men. such as Ethelwine, ed- 
dorman of Eaet-Anglia, a friend of Hod, his brother Athwold, 
and the religious ealdorman Brihtnoth, who met together aid 
declared that they could not permit the monks who possessed 
all the religion of the kingdom to bo driven out of it : they 
therefore assembled troops and defended the monasteries of 
the Eastern-Angles with great spirit. While these event) 
were occurring, there was a great dispute among the noble) 
respecting the election of a kin?; for some chose the king'* 
son Edward, and others his brother Ethelred. In consequent 
of this, the archbishops Dunstan and Oswald, with their 
suffragans, and manv abbots and eaMonnen, met in a body and 
chose Edward, as his father had directed ; and after his election 
the new king was crow-nod and anointed. Cynewnrd. hisk.'j' 'A 
Somerset, died. A eometr-star was seen in the time of autumn. 

[a.d. 976.] England was visited with a severe famine. 
In this year the great earl Oslac was expelled from England. 

[a.d. 977.] A verv numerous synod was held at a rill 
called Kyrtling in East-Anglia; at another synod which nas 

D. 978 — 982.] EDWABD — ETHELRED. 107 

forwards held at Calne, a royal vill, the whole witan of 
ngland there assembled, except St. Dunstan, fell from an 
pper chamber : some were killed on the spot, and some barely 
leaped with their lives. A third synod was held at Ames- 
nry. Sideman, bishop of Devon, died. 

[a.3>. 978.] Edward, king of England, was foully murdered 
; Corvesgeate (Corfe), at the instigations of his step-mother, 
ueen Elffchrhha, and was buried at Wareham without royal 
amp. His brother Ethelred, the illustrious etheling, a youth 
f graceful manners, handsome countenance, and fine person, 
as on the Sunday after Easter, the eighteenth of the calends 
f May [14th April] in the sixth indiction, crowned and 
msecrated king by archbishops Dunstan and Oswald, and ten 
ishops, at Kingston. Elfwold, bishop of Dorchester, died, 
ad was buried at Sherborne. A meteor was seen all over 
Ingland at midnight, which was sometimes the colour of 
lood, and at other times fiery; it afterwards formed rays of 
ght of various colours, and disappeared about day-break. 

[aj>. 979.] Elfhere, ealdorman of Mercia, cameto Wareham 
rith a crowd of people, and caused the holy body of the pre- 
ious king and martyr Edward to be disinterred: when it was 
nwrapped it was discovered to be sound and free from all decay 
r corruption, and they washed it and clothed it afresh, and 
arried it to Shaftesbury and entombed it with due honours. 

[a.d. 980. J Ethelgar, the venerable abbot of the New 
ftinster, was made bishop of Selsey on the sixth of the nones 
the 2nd] of May. The same year, Southampton was laid in 
uins by Danish pirates, and nearly all the citizens were either 
oassacred or carried away captives. Shortly afterwards, the 
ame party laid waste the isle of Thanet. The same year, the 
iountry about Chester was ravaged by Norwegian pirates. 

[ajo. 981.] The monastery of St. Petroo the confessor, in 
Cornwall, was rifled by the same pirates, who in the preceding 
rear laid Southampton in ruins, and who afterwards pillaged 
he coasts of Devonshire and Cornwall. Elfstan, bishop of 
RTilton, died, and was succeeded by Sigeric 1 Wulfstan, dean 
>f Glastonbury, a man eminent for piety, died. 

[a .d. 982.] Three pirate ships came to the coast of Dorset, 

1 There is some confusion in the succession of the bishops of Wilton : 
?ee the list at the end of Florence of Worcester's Chronicle, and 
William of Malmesbury de Pontit Lib. ii. 


and the pirates ravaged Portland. London was destroyed 
by fire. Erlu'lmar. ealdiinuan of Hampshire, and Edwin, 
ealdorman of Wessux, died: the one wan buried at Abingdon, 
and the other in tin; New Minster at Winchester. Herel 
abbess of Shaftesbury, and Ulfwin, abbess of Warcham, 
parted this life. The same year, the emperor Otho II. hai 
gone to Greece, fell in with an army of Sanieens. engaged 
a plundering expedition airuin^t tin- Christians, and, givi 
them battle, gained the victory after great carnage on both 
sides. As he was returning home, Otho, the son of his brother 
Liutolf, son of the emperor Otho I., by a daughter of Edi 
the Elder, king of Enghmd, died. 

[a.d. 983.] Elfhcre, ealdorman of Mercia, a kinsman 
Edgar, king of England, died, and was succeeded in his offiee 
by his son Alfric. 

[a.d. 984.) St. Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, departed 
this life, hi the second indiction, on the calends [the 1st] of 
August, and was succeeded by Eijthege, abbot of Bath. H* 
hail assumed the monastic habit in the abbey of Deerhurst. 

[a.d. 985.] The venerable monk Edwin was appointed 
abbot of the monastery of Abingdon. On the death of 
Cvneward, bishop of Wells, he was succeeded hv abbot Sigar. 
' [a.d. 986.] Ethelred, king of England laid siege to 
Rochester on account of some quarrel, but finding the diffi- 
culty of reducing it, ravaged the lands of St. Andrew the 
apostle. Alfric. ealdorman of Mercin, son and successor of 
Elfhere, was banished from England. 1 

Minborin, the Scotch abbot, died in the abbey of St 
Martin, at Cologne, on Sunday the fifteenth of the calends of 
August [18th July]. Killiii succeeded him. 

[a.d. 987.] This year 5 two diseases unknown to the 
English in past ages, viz., a fever among men, and a murrain 
among cattle called in the English language "the skit,' Mid 
which may be described in latin as a flux of the bowels, sorely 
troubled the whole of England, and raged in every part of it 
beyond description, causing great mortality among the people 
and the universal loss of cattle. 

[a.d. 988.] Watchet was pillaged by Danish pirates, and 
they even slew the governor of Devon, whose name «u- 

1 According to tl 

i, G6B. 

>. 989 — 992.] TRIBUTE TO THE DANES. 109 

tCfoda, and the most valiant thane Strenwold, and several 
i others ; but more of the Danes were killed, and the English 
remained masters of the field of death. St. Dunstan, the 
archbishop, died on Saturday the fourteenth of the calends of 
June [19th May] in the first indiction ; and was succeeded 
by Ethelgar, who had been appointed the first abbot of the 
New Minster by St. Ethelwold bishop of Winchester, and was 
afterwards bishop of the South-Saxons (of Selsey). 

"a.d. 989.] 

|a.d. 990.] Sigeric, bishop of Wilton, succeeded Ethelgar, 
archbishop of Canterbury. He expelled the clerks of Canter- 
bury, and introduced monks. On the death of Alfsy, bishop 
of Lindisfarne, he was succeeded by Aldhun. 

[a.d. 991.] This year, the Danes under the command of 
Justin and Guthmund, son of Steitan, laid Ipswich in ruins. 
Byrhtnoth, the intrepid ealdorman of Essex, fought a battle 
against them near Maldon ; but after great slaughter on both 
sides, the Danes' fortune was in the ascendant. In the same 
year, by the advice of Sigeric, archbishop of Canterbury, and 
the ealdormen Ethelward and Alfric, a tribute was given to 
the Danes for the first time ; ten thousand pounds being paid 
to them in consideration of their desisting from the constant 
pillage, burnings, and homicides which they practiced all 
along the coast, and of their concluding a settled peace. St. 
Oswald the archbishop, by divine aid, and encouraged by 
the support of Esowy, bishop of Lincoln, on Tuesday the 
sixth of the ides [the 8th] of November, consecrated the 
monastery of Bumsey, which he and Ethelwine, ealdorman of 
East-Anglia, the friend of God, had built. 

[a.d. 992.] St. Oswald, the archbishop, departed this life 
and soared to the blissful kingdom of heaven, in the fifth 
indiction, on Monday the second of the calends of March 
[29th February], and was interred in the church of St. Mary 
at Worcester, which he had built from the foundations. He 
was succeeded by Aldulph, the venerable abbot of Peter- 
borough, in whose stead Kenulf was appointed abbot. Shortly 
after the death of St. Oswald, Ethelwine the ealdorman of 
famous memory, and the friend of God, departed this life. 
He was younger than his brothers Ethelwold, Alfwold, and 
Ethelsine : but he excelled them in meekness, piety, goodness, 
and justice ; and, being a man of the highest worth and 


purity, was, we may be permitted to believe, admitted 
the citizens of Paradise. His corpse was conveyed with er< 
pomp to fiumsey, and interred there by St. Elphege, bisb 
of Winchester. By order of Ethelred king of England, at) 
consulting his nobles, the strongest-built ships from every pi 
of England were assembled at London ; and the king ma 
urns them with a chosen body of troops, gave the command 
Alrric, already mentioned, and Thored, both ealdormcn, wi 
Elfstan, bishop of Wilton, and bishop Esowy, with directions 
to blockade the Danish force in some port, and compel it to 
surrender. But ealdorman Alirie sent a private message (A 
the enemy, advising them to be on their guard, and take on 
that they were not taken by surprize, and surrounded by lb* 
king's fleet The ealdorman himself, a singular esample at 
wickedness, in the night preceding the day which tin? English 
had fixed far bravely engaging the Dimes, clandestinely joined 
the Danes with his whole force, and lost no time in making 1 
disgraceful retreat with them. As soon as the king's 
discovered this, it sailed in pursuit of the fugitives 
ship only was soon taken, and after all the crew were dis- 
patched, given up to pillage. The B'est of the fleet which 
was making its escape was accidentally met by the ships rf 
the Londoners and East-Anelians, and a battle was fought ia 
which many thousands of the Danes felL Ealdonni 
own ship with its armed crew was captured by the 
Alrric himself escaping with great difliculty. 

[a.d. 993.] This year the aforesaid Danish army took 
Bamborough by storm, and carried oft' all that was f 
in store there. They then directed their course to the 
Huiuber, and, burning many vills, and butchering many people, 
took much booty in Liudsey and Northumbria. The pro- 
vincials hastily assembled to oppose them; but at the moment 
of attack, their leaders Frana, Erithogist, and Godwin, beinsr 
Danes by the father's side, betrayed their followers and *»»• 
the signal for flight. The same year Alfgar, the son of Alfrie, 
the ealdorman, before-mentioned, was deprived of sight by 
command of king Ethelred. 

[a.d. 9»4.] Anlaf (Olaf) kingof Norway 1 and Sweyn king 
of Denmark arrived in London witli ninety-foor gallies on tki 

d from fllioul A.D. 335 to 1000 


A.B. 994, 995.] BATAGES OF THB BANKS. Ill 

day of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], and soon 
afterwards made an attempt to break down the walls and burn 
the city ; bat by the aid of God and his mother Mary, the 
enemy was repulsed with considerable loss, Roused to fury 
tad despair, they forthwith drew off from the place, and in 
the first instance overran the coasts of Essex and Kent, and 
afterwards Sussex and the province of Hants, burning 
the villages, laying waste the lands, putting numbers of 
people to death by fire* and sword r without regard to sex, 
and sweeping off an immense booty. At last, seizing horses, 
they rode wildly through many provinces, and slaughtered the 
whole population with savage cruelty, sparing neither the 
women nor children of tender age. Then king Ethelred, by 
the advice of his nobles, sent envoys to them with a promise 
of tribute and regular pay if they would entirely desist from 
their barbarities. Consenting to the king's proposal, they 
returned to their ships, and, assembling their whole force at 
Southampton, wintered there. Their pay was defrayed by 
Wessex; but the tribute, amounting to sixteen thousand 
pounds, was levied throughout all England. 

Meanwhile, Elphege, bishop of Winchester, and the noble 
ealdorman Ethelward, went to king Olaf by order of king 
Ethelred, and having given hostages, conducted him with 
honour to the royal vill of Andover where the king was 
residing. The king treated him with great distinction, and 
eausing him to be confirmed by the bishop, adopted him as his 
m, and made him a royal present. He, on his part, promised 
king Ethelred that he would never again invade England ; and 
afterwards returning to his fleet, sailed for his own kingdom 
at the beginning of summer, and faithfully kept his promise. 

[a.d. 996V] A comet was seen. Alfric, a monk of Glaston- 
bury and bishop of Wilton, succeeded Sigeric, archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Brightwold succeeded Alfric at Wilton. 
tindisfarne-Ii is the name of an island commonly called 
Halig-Ealond (Holy Island). It is surrounded by the sea, 
but at the ebb of the tide it may be approached dry-shod 
every day. In this island was the episcopal see of Cuthbert 
and his predecessors and successors for a long period. At the 
time [a.d. 875] when Hinguar and Hubba ravaged England, 
Eardulf, who was then bishop of Lindisfarne, and the clergy 
attached to his church, took the uncorrupted body of St. 

113 PLORBNCB OF W0RCE8TEK. [a.D. 996 — 99S 

Cuthbort, and quitting the island on account of the crueltie 
of the barbarians, wandered aliout with the body of St. Cuthber 
for souio years, not having any settled abode, until at last tin 
episcopal see was fixed at Cuuegaceastre (CheBter-le-Straaj 
in the time of Alfred, king of England. After the lapse ul 
many years, in the reign of Ethelred, king of England) tin 
holy body was brought to Durham, in consequence of a divine 
revelation, and the seat of the bishopric was fixed there. Foe 
this reason the holy Bede places the original see at Lind* 
farne; for in his time Durham was unknown. The bishop 
see was transferred to Durham in the year of our Lord 995. 

[a.d. 996.] Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury, was con- 

[a.d. 997.] Tho Danish array which had remained in 
England sailing round the coast of W esses, entered the mouth 
of the river Severn, and at one time ravaged North, (South ?) 
Wales, at another Cornwall, and then Wat diet in I.Kvi', 
burning many vills and making great slaughter of the inhabi- 
tants. Sailing round Pcnwith-Steoi't (the Land's-End) oa 
their return, they entered with their ships the mouth of the 
river Taiuar, which divides Devon and Cornwall, and carried 
fire and sword as far as Lydford, meeting with no resistance. 
They burnt besides the monastery of Ordulf, the ealdormin 
of Devon, called Tavistock, and, returning to tlieir ships 
loaded with immense booty, wintered there. 

[a.d. 998.] The array of Pagans, already mentioned, 
landed at the mouth of the river Froine, and laid waste the 
greatest part of Dorsetshire. It then made frequent descent! 
on the Isle of Wight, and back again to Dorsetshire, intent •* 
plunder, as usual ; and when it lay in the Isle of Wight il 
gathered its means of subsistence from Sussex and Hampshire. 
An army was several times assembled in oppose these ravigtS) 
but as often as they were on the eve of battle, the Englist 
were checked by some treachery or misadventure, ami the) 
turned their hacks and left the enemies masters of the field. 

[a.D. 999.] The often-mentioned army of Pagans i 
the mouth of the river Thames and went up the Sled way W 
Rochester, and in a few days entrenched themselves round it 
The Kentish men assentbled in a body to repulse them, aW 
fought a sharp battle with them, but after great slaughter": 
both sides, the Danes remained masters of tho field o" 

>.d. 1000—1002.] ethblbbd's wabs. 113 

[a.d. 1000.] This year the Danish fleet, already mentioned, 
ailed over to Normandy. King Ethelred ravaged nearly the 
rhole territory of the Cumbrians. He gave orders to his 
leet to sail round North Wales and meet him at a place 
ppointed ; but it was prevented by strong winds : it, however, 
aid waste the island of Mona. 

[aj>. 1001.] The body of St. Ive, the archbishop, was 
liscovered. The aforesaid army of Pagans sailing back from 
Normandy to England entered the mouth of the river Exe, 
ind shortly afterwards marched to besiege Exeter. But when 
hey attempted to make a breach in the walls they were 
epulsed by the citizens, who vigorously defended the place, 
["hereupon, greatly exasperated, they overran Devonshire, 
nirning the villages, laying waste the fields, and butchering 
he inhabitants, in their usual manner. Thereupon, the people 
>f Devon and Somerset assembled at a place called Penho, 
mt the English, not being able to resist the numbers of the 
)anes with their small force of soldiers, were routed with 
»reat slaughter, and the Danes got the victory. Then, having 
:upplied themselves with horses, they did more mischief than 
)efore through nearly all Devon, and returned to their ships 
rith immense booty. Thence they made for the Isle of 
itfight, and meeting with no opposition, plundered as usual 
here, sometimes in Hampshire, sometimes in Dorsetshire, 
ittacking the inhabitants and burning the vills with such fury, 
;hat neither the fleet dared to engage them by sea nor the 
irmy by land, to the king's deep sorrow, and the unspeakable 
listress of his people. 

[a.d. 1002.] Ethelred, king of England, having held 
counsel with the great men of his kingdom, thought it expe- 
lient to make a treaty with the Danes, hiring them with 
»oney, and paying them tribute to cease their ravages and 
keep the peace. Leofsy, the ealdorman, who was sent to them 
with this proposal, urged them to accept the terms. They lent 
I favourable ear to his message, and granted his request, fixing 
the amount of tribute for which they would keep the peace. 
Shortly afterwards twenty-four thousand pounds were paid to 
them. Meanwhile, the said ealdorman Leofsy slew jEfic, a 
aoble, and the king's high-reeve, at which the king was so 
incensed that he banished him from the country. The same 
year king Ethelred married Emma, who is called by the Saxons 


114 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [,\.D, 1002, 

Elfgiva, daughter of Richard 1., duke of Normandy. A 
archbishop of York, having assembled lii.-i suffragan bit 
abbots, priests, monks, and men of religion, on Wednt 
tlie seventeenth day of the calends of May [15th Apri 
tlie twenty-fifth year of the reign of Ethclred, king of Eng 
the fifteenth indiethm, disentombed tlie relies of St. ft 
the archbishop, and dt'po.*ited them with great ceremoiii 
shrine which he had caused to be prepared. He himself 
shortly afterwards, tliat is, on tlie second of tlie nones [the 
of May, and was buried in the church of St. Mai 
Worcester : lie was succeeded by abbot Wulfstau. The 
year king Erhelred gave orders for the massacre of a! 
Danes of every age and both sexes, in consequence of 
having conspired to deprive liim and his nobles of the 
nijil kingdom and reduce the whole of England under 

[a.D. 1003.] In this year, through the contrivance, i 
gence, or treachery of Hugh, a Norman count, 1 queen Ec 
steward of Devon, ttweyn, king of Denmark, took Exeti 
storm, and levelling the wall from the eastern to the we 
gate, retired to Ins ships loaded with booty. After this, 
he was ravaging Wiltshire, a large body of the men of I 
and Wilts assembled and marched boldly against the a 
to give them battle; but when tlie two armies came in 
of each other, Elfrie, the ealdorniaii already mentioned, 
was then in command of the English, immediately resort 
his ..dd devices, and ieigidng sickness. U'gan to vomit, d eel 
that he was so ill that he could not tight the enemy. 
troops perceiving his inactivity and cowardice, marched 
in great sorrow, without, joining 1 aitle; as it is said in th 
proverb: "when the general fails, the army quails." 1 S 
observing that the Enulish I'aiteivd, led his forces to thi 
of Wilton, which he plundered and burnt. In this lm 
he burnt Searebury (Sai-uni), and then returned to his sh 

Kilitiu, a Scot, and abbot of the Scottish monastery a 
Martin, died on the nineteenth of the calends of January [ 
December]. Helias. a succeeded him. 

Sweyn, king of Denmark, landed from his fleet at Nor 

1 The Saion Chron. sails Hugh "a French cbnrl." 
In tho Sa.t. Chroti. two rhyming rerses. See tlie note to He: 

al-i.s Hist., .u.!<. : . /.■'... p l-.'.. 

- lull 

>. 1005, 1006.] WARS WITH THE BANES. 115 

rich he pillaged and burnt. Then Ulfkytel, the resolute 
Ldorman of East-Angha, being taken by surprise, and having 
> time to assemble troops against the enemy, held council 
th the East- Anglian nobles and made peace with the king. 
it he broke the treaty three weeks afterwards, and landing 
i forces secretly, assaulted Thetford, which he pillaged, and 
fcer remaining there one night set it on fire at daybreak. 
a hearing this Ulfkytel ordered some of the country people 

destroy the enemy's ships ; but they either did not venture, 

neglected, to obey his orders. Meanwhile he got his troops 
gether as quietly and quickly as he could, and led them 
;ainst the enemy. Meeting them with an inferior force as 
ey were retreating to their ships, a hard-fought battle ensued, 

which some of the East-Anglian nobles fell; and after 
■eat slaughter on both sides, the Danes escaped with extreme 
fficulty. Indeed, if the East-Anglians had been in full force 
Ley would never have got back to their ships ; for they con- 
ssed themselves that they had never sustained so fierce and 
>termined an attack as that of the ealdorman Ulfkytel. 

[ a.d. 1005.] This year England was visited with a severe 
id general famine, in consequence of which the Danish king 
weyn withdrew to Denmark — to return shortly afterwards, 
to the death of Alwine, bishop of Wells, he was succeeded 
y Living, also called Athelstan. 

[a.d. 1006.] Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury, died, and 
ras succeeded by Alphege, bishop of Winchester, to which see 
[enulf, abbot of Peterborough, was preferred. 

King Ethelred stripped Wulfgeat, son of Leofsy, his princ- 
ipal favourite, of his estates and honours, on account of his 
inrighteous judgments and arrogant deeds. The crafty and 
reacherous Edric Streon insidiously plotting against the noble 
aldorman jEhhelm, prepared a great entertainment at Shrews* 
wry, to which he invited him. iEhhelm accepting the invita- 
ion was welcomed by Edric Streon as his intimate friend ; 
wt on the third or fourth day of the feast, he took him to hunt 
a a wood where he had laid an ambuscade ; and when all 
vere engaged in the chace, a ruffian of Shrewsbury called 
jtodwin Port-Hund, which signifies the town's hound, who had 
seen long before bribed by the profuse gifts and promises of 
Edric to commit the crime, suddenly sprung from his ambush 
and basely assassinated the ealdorman jElfhelm. A short ti 

116 FLOREKCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D. 1006, 1( 

afterwards, his sons Wulfheag and Ufgeat wore, by 1 
Ethelred's orders, deprived of sight at Corshain, whore he 
then residing. Kenulf, bishop of Winchester, died, and 
succeeded by Ethel wold. 

In the month of July following, an immense army of Da 
came over to England, and landing at the port of tSaiidw 
destroyed with tire and sword all that stood in their way, i 
pillaged to a vast extent both in Kent and Sussex. In c 
sequence, king Ethehvd collected an army in Mercia I 
Wessex, and resolved to give them battle with great vigo 
but they were little disposed to meet him openly in the fii 
but made frequent expeditions for pillage in various quart 
and then retreated to rln-ir .-hips aeronling lo their usual tact 
In this way they harassed the English army during the wfc 
autumn ; but when it was disbanded on the approach of winl 
the Danes crossed over to the Isle of Wight with their enonrn 
booty and sojourned there until the feast of our Lord's Naiivi 
at which, as the king was then in Shropshire, they went throi 
Hampshire into Berkshire, and burnt Heading. WalliuL'fo 
Cholaey, and many villages. Moving from thence and erossi 
Ashdowu, they readied C'wichelmcs-lawe (Ouekamsley-Hi 
Returning by another road they found the people of i 
country drawn up in battle array near Kormet, and immeiliat 
attacked then i and put them to flight: they then retire'': 
their ships with the plunder they had taken. 

[a.D. 1007.] In this year Ethelred, king of England, w 
the consent of his witan. sent envoys to the Danes with ord 
to notify to them that he would supply them with provlsii 
and pay them tribute, on condition of their desisting fii 
pillage and milking and keeping a durable peace. They agrc 
to his terms, and thenceforth the whole of England provid 
them with subsistence and paid them a tribute of thirty-! 
thousand pounds. The same year the king made the befoi 
mentioned Edric, sou of Ethclric, ealdormau of Mercia ; he n 
a man, indeed, of low origin, hut his smooth tongue gain 
him wealth anil high rank, and, gifted with a subtle gen: 
and persuasive eloquence, lie surpassed al! his contomporar 
in malice and perfidy, as well as in pride and cruelty. I 
brothers were Rrihiric. Eifric, Goda, Ethelwine, Ethelwai 

i Ethebnere, the father of Wulfnoth, who was the father 
" i, ealdorman of Weasox. 

*D. 1008, 1009.] ETHELRED FITS OUT A FLEET. 117 

[a.d. 1008.] Ethelred, king of England, ordered ships to 
>e diligently built in all the ports, making every three hundred 
ind. ten hides throughout England furnish one ship, and every 
line a breast-plate and a helmet. When these ships were 
•eady, he put on board chosen troops, with supplies of pro- 
visions, and assembled the fleet at Sandwich to guard the 
;oasts of the kingdom from foreign invasions. At that time, 
>r a little before, Brihtric, brother of the traitorous ealdorman 
Edric Streon, a supple, ambitious, and proud man, falsely 
iccused to the king Wulfhoth his ealdorman in Sussex, who 
immediately fled to avoid being arrested; and collecting 
twenty ships, made frequent descents and plundered the sea- 
coast. But when it was notified to the fleet that whoever 
would might easily take him, Brihtric went in pursuit of him 
with eighty ships. For a while he had a favourable voyage, 
but a violent storm suddenly arose which tossed and shattered 
his ships and wrecked them on the shore, and Wulnoth burnt 
them soon afterwards. On hearing this, the king with his 
ealdormen and nobles returned home ; but the fleet by his 
orders proceeded to London ; and the vast toil of the whole 
nation was thus thrown away. 

[a.d. 1009.] Thurkill, a Danish jarl, came over to 
England with his fleet; and afterwards, in the month of 
August, another immense fleet of Danes, under the command of 
Heming and Eglaf, touching at the Isle of Thanet, speedily 
joined the other fleet. Both then sailed to the port of Sand- 
wich, where the troops landed, and proceeding to attack 
Canterbury, tried to storm the place ; but the citizens with 
the people of East-Kent quickly sued for peace, and obtained 
it on payment of three thousand pounds. The Danes went 
back to their ships and directed their course to the Isle of 
Wight ; then, according to their custom, they made piratical 
descents on the coast of Sussex and Hampshire and burned 
several vills. Thereupon king Ethelred collected troops from 
all parts of England, and stationed them in districts lying 
near the sea to check these irruptions ; but, notwithstanding, 
they did not desist from plundering wherever the locality per- 
mitted. On one occasion, when they had been pillaging further 
inland than usual, and were on their return laden with booty, 
the king took possession, with many thousand armed men, of 
the road they had to pass in their way to their ships ; and as 

118 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1009, 10! 

his whole army was asseml ded, resolved either to conquer 
die. But the traitorous caM^i'man I'ldric Stroon, liis son-in-b 
(for he had married his daughter Elgithaj, used every effi 
by insidious and perplexing counsels to prevent a battle ai 
persuade the king, fur that time, to let the enemy pass. L 
policy prevailed, and like a traitor to his country, he rescu 
the Danes from the hands of die English, Mid suflored them 
escape. Drawing off their forces they with great joy regain 
their ships. After [his, the feast of St. Martin [11 
November] was past, they sailed for Kent, and selecting tin 
winter quarters near the river Thames, forcibly obtained tin 
supplies from Essex and other provinces on both banks oft. 
river. They also frequently attacked the city of London u 
endeavoured to storm it, but the citizens repulsed them wi 
severe loss. On the death of Oshi'iht, bishop of Seisey, he w 
succeeded by Jillmar. 

[a.d. 1010.] The before-mentioned army of Danes sidli 
from their ships in the month of January, and traversing ti 
wood called Cliiltern. marched to Oxford, which they plunder) 
and burned, pillaging the country on both sides the riv 
Thames as they returned to (heirships. Receiving iutHligcri 
that forces were assembled at London ready to attack th« 
part of the army which was descending the right bank of tl 
river crossed it at a place called Staines, when both divisioi 
being united, they marched through Surrey, loaded with boot 
ami regained their ships, which they refitted during Leu 
while they were stationed in Kent, After Easter [the 9i 
April] they sailed to East- Auglia, and landing near Ipswii 
marched to a place called Kingmere, where they knew th 
Ultliytel the ealdorman had posted his troops. They fungi 
a desperate battle with him on the third of the mini's [the till 
of May, 1 but when the light was the thickest the East-Angliai 
gave way, Thurkytel, surnamed Myren-Heafod, 1 a Danish jw 
being the first to flee. The Cambridge men stood the 
ground a long time, fighting manfully; but. they were at la 
defeated and forced to retreat. In this battle fell At.hclstai 
the king's son-in-law. Oswv, a noble iliaue. and his son, Wulfri 
son of Leot'wine, Edwy, brother of Elt'rie. bcl'orc-ineii[' 
with many other noble thanes, and immeuso numbers of tli 

1 Oa Ascanskn day [18th May], Sax. Cbron. s The "Antb««d." 

-AJ>. 1010, 1011.] XRXBUTE PAU> SO THE DANES. 119 

common people. The Danes, remaining masters of the field of 
death, obtained possession of East-Anglia, and, mounted on 
horseback, scoured the whole province during three months, 
plundering, burning vills, and butchering men and beasts, 
without cessation ; in the fens also they did the same, and 
afterwards pillaged and burnt Thetford and Cambridge. 

After all this they returned to the river Thames, the infantry 
embarking in ships, the cavalry proceeding on horseback. In 
a few days they went on another plundering expedition, taking 
the direct road to Oxfordshire, which they first ravaged, and 
then Buckinghamshire, .Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire, burn- 
ing vills and butchering men and animals, and afterwards 
retreating to their ships with much plunder. After this, 
about Hie feast of $t. Andrew the apostle [30th November], 
they burned Northampton and as much of the surrounding 
country as they pleased, and then crossing the river Thames, 
went into Wessex, and having set fire to Caningamersce 
(Keynsham?) and the greatest part of Wiltshire, they, as usual, 
returned to their ships about Christmas. 

[Am. 1011.] East-Anglia, Essex, Middlesex, Hertfordshire, 
Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, 
half of Huntingdonshire, and a great part of Northamptonshire, 
and, en the south side of the river Thames, Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Berkshire, having been 
ruined -with fire and sword by the before-mentioned army of 
Danes, Ethelred, king of England, and his witan 1 sent envoys 
to them sueing for peace, and offering them pay and tribute if 
they would desist from their ravages. Having received the 
message, they accepted the proposals, but as the event showed, 
not without guile and subterfuge; for although they were 
plentifully supplied with provisions, and the tribute they 
demanded was paid, they continued to scour the country in 
bands, laying waste the vills, spoiling some of the wretched 
inhabitants of their goods, and killing others. At length, 
between the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September] 
and that of St. Michael, they dug a trench round Canterbury, 
and laid siege to it. On the twentieth day of the siege, 
through the treachery of the archdeacon JSlmar, whose life 
St. Elphege had formerly saved, one quarter of the city was 

1 (C 

The witan, both clergy and laity*" Sax. Chron, 

120 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D. 1011, 10 

set on fire, the army entered, and the place was taken ; so 
of the townsmen were put to the sword, others perished in i 
names, many were thrown headlong From the walls, some wi 
hung by their private parts till they expired; matrons wi 
dragged by their lisiii- rhronsh the streets of the city, and tli 
east into the fire anil burnt to death ; infants, torn from th 
mothers' breasts, were caught on the point of spears or crusli 
in pieces under the wheels of waggons. 

Meanwhile, Alphege, the archbishop, was seized, and bei 
loaded with fetters was imprisoned and tortured in varit 
ways. ^Clmar, the abbot of St, Augustine's monastery, t 
permitted to depart; (iodwm, bishop of Rochester, was ma 
prisoner, as well as Leofruua, abbess of St. Mildred,' Alfr 
the king's reeve, with the monks and canons, and vast numh 
of the people of both sexes. Then Christ's Church was ph 
dcred and burnt, and the whole male population, including ( 
monks, women anil children being excepted, were decimal' 
nine were put to death, and every tenth person suffel 
to live. The numbers who perished in this decimation wl 
four monks and eight hundred of the laity. When the peo| 
had been thus slaughtered, and the city pillaged and burnt 
the ground, Alphege, the archbishop, was brought out 
letters and dragged along, severely wounded, to the ships; th 
he was again thrust into prison, where he underwent gri 
sufferings during seven months. Meanwhile, the wrath of G 
raged furiously against that blood-thirsty people, and t' 
thousand of them perished from excruciating pains in I 
bowels ; the rest being attacked in a similar manner wi 
admonished by the faithful to make satiafcetiou to the art 
bishop ; but they deferred it, and the mortality stili continui 
carrying them oft* by tens and twenties, and sometimes mon 

[a.d. 1012.] Edrie. Streou, the traitorous eaddonnan, a 
the great lords of the realm, of both estates, 11 assembled 
London before Easter [13th April], and remained therein 
the tribute of forty -eight thousand pounds promised to I 
Danes was paid. Meanwhile, on the Holy Saturday, wli 
our Lord rested in the grave [l'tth April], the Danes ofti-i 
to Alphege. the archbishop, his life and liberty on payment 
three thousand pounds, but he refusing such terms, they put 

1 la tie isle of Thanct. [ Sax. Chron. ; r/yni primates. Flurcn; 

AJD. 1012, 1013.] MURDER OF ST. ALPHEGE. 121 

his execution until the next Saturday. When it arrived, their 
fury was greatly inflamed against him, and having intoxicated 
themselves by deep draughts of wine, and being incensed at 
his having forbidden any ransom to be paid for his liberation, 
they brought him forth from his dungeon and dragged him to 
their husting. 1 Presently they started up, felled him to the 
ground with the backs of their battle-axes, and showered on 
him stones, bones, and ox-skulls. At length one of them, 
whose name was Thrum, a man he had confirmed only the day 
before, with compassionate impiety, split his head with an ax£ 
and he instantly fell asleep in the Lord, on the thirteenth of 
the calends of May [19th April], and his triumphant spirit 
ascended to heaven. His corpse was carried to London on the 
day following, and being received by the citizens with deep 
reverence, was interred in St. Paul's church by Ednoth, bishop 
of Lincoln, 2 and Alfhun, bishop of London. After these events, 
the tribute being paid and the peace ratified by oaths, the 
Danish fleet, which had before kept together, dispersed far and 
wide ; but forty-five of the ships remained with the king, the 
crews swearing fealty to him, and engaging to defend England 
against foreigners, on condition that he supplied them with 
food and raiment. 

[a.d. 1013.] Living was preferred to the archbishopric of 
Canterbury. In the month of July, Sweyn, king of Denmark, 
sailed with a powerful fleet to the port of Sandwich, and 
having remained there a few days departed, and, sailing round 
East-Anglia, entered the mouth of the river Humber ; thence 
he went up the river Trent to Gainsborough, where he 
encamped. Earl Uhtred, with his Northumbrians and men of 
Iandsey, in the first instance, and afterwards the inhabitants 
of the Five Burghs, and, before long, the whole population 
north of the Watling Street, that is, the road which the sons 
of king Weatla made across England from the eastern to the 
western sea, offered him submission; and peace being ratified 

1 Saxon Ohron. The huts-thing was the popular assembly, as well 
as the court of judicature, of the Northmen — Florence uses the word 
concilium. ^ , 

2 Of Dorchester. The see was not removed to Lincoln until about 
the year 1035 ; but Florence generally uses the latter title. See the 
account of the translation in Henry of Huntingdon's pp. 219 and 
304, Antiq. Lib. 


with him. delivered hostages and swore fealty to him : upon 
which lie commanded them to supply his army with hern's and 
provisions. All this being accomplished, he committed lite 
.ships atid hostages to the care of his son Canute, and select- 
ing an auxiliary force from his new subjects, nndertoolc an 
expedition against the East-Mercians; and having pas-rd (!„■ 
Watling Street, published an order to his troops to the effect 
that they should lay waste the fields, burn the villages, plunder 
the churches, slay without mercy all the men who fell inlo 
their hands, reserving the women to satisfy their lusts, and, in 
short, do all the mischief thev could. His men doing as they 
were ordered, and revelling in all kind; of brutality, lie came 
to Oxford, and getting possession of it sooner than he expected, 
took hostages and pushed forward to Winchester. On his 
arrival there, the citizens panic-struck at his enormous cruelty, 
at once made peace with him, and gave him such hostages as 
he chose to demand. These bang delivered, lie moved hi* 
army towards London, but many of his troops wore drowned 
in lite river Thames, because they never thought of looking 
for a bridge or a ford. Having ranched London, he tried 
various ways of taking it. either by stratagem or by assault! 
but Ethelred, king of England, with the citizens, supported 
by Thiirkill, the Danish jarl, wo often mentioned, who was then 
in the city with him, stoutly defended the walls and drove him 
off. After this repulse, he first marched to Wallingford, and 
then to Bath, pillaging and destroying as usual all that fell in 
Jus way. There he sat down for a time to refresh his army; 
and Ethelmar, ealdorraon of Devonshire, with the western- 
thanes, came to him and made their peaoe, delivering hostages. 
Having accomplished all this according to his wishes, and 
returned to his fleet, he was hailed and acknowledged king by 
all the people of England ; if, indeed, he can be called a king, 
who acted in almost all things as a Tyrant. Even the citizens iif 
London sent him hostages and made peace with him, for they 
were apprehensive that his fury towards them was raised to such 
a pitch, that he would not only confiscate all their property, 
but either have their eyes torn out, or cause their hands ur 
feet to be amputated. Finding things in this state, king 
'Ethelred sent his queen, Emma of Normandy, to her brother 
Richard II., earl (duke) of .Normandy, together with lib k 
Edward and Alfred, attended by their tutor Alfhun, I ' L ~ 

ill his 1 ■ 

..IK 1013, 1014.] DEATH OF 8WEYN. 123 

xmdon, and Elfsy, abbot of Peterborough. He himself re- 
named for a time with the Danish fleet, which then lay in the 
iver Thames, at a place called Greenwich, and afterwards 
ailed to the Isle of Wight, where he celebrated the feast of 
he Nativity. After Christmas, he sailed over to Normandy, 
nd was received with due honour by earl Richard. Mean- 
while, the tyrant Sweyn gave orders that his fleet should be 
►rofusely supplied, and that an almost insupportable tribute 
hould be levied. Earl Thurkill issued the same orders with 
espect to his fleet which lay at Greenwich. Besides all this, 
K>th of them made excursions to plunder as often as they 
hose, and committed great enormities. 

[a.d. 1014.] The tyrant Sweyn, in addition to his endless 
nd cruel atrocities both in England and other countries, filled 
ip the measure of his damnation by daring to exact an 
normous tribute from the town where rests the uncorrupt 
*ody of the precious martyr Edmund ; a thing which no one 
ad dared to do since the time the town was given to the 
hurch of that saint. He frequently threatened, that if the 
ribute were not speedily paid, he would burn the town and 
a inhabitants, level to the ground the church of the martyr, 
nd inflict various tortures on the clergy. Moreover, he often 
isparaged the martyr's merits, presuming to say that there 
f&s no sanctity attached to him ; but thus setting no bounds 
o his frowardness, divine vengeance did not suffer the 
lasphemer to continue in existence. Towards evening of the 
ay on which he had held a general Thing-Court at Gains- 
orough, repeating his threats while surrounded by throngs of 
)anes, he alone of the crowd saw St. Edmund coming towards 
im with a threatening aspect. Struck with terror at this 
pectacle, he began to shout with great vehemence : " Help, 
omrades, help! lo, St. Edmund is at hand to slay me." 
Vhile he spoke, the saint thrust his spear fiercely through him, 
nd he fell from the war-horse on which he was seated, and 
uffering excruciating torments until twilight, died in agony 
m the third of the nones [the 3rd] of February. 

As^soon as he was dead, the bands of men belonging to the 
)anish fleet elected his son Canute king. But the elders 
>f all England, unanimously, sent messengers in haste to 
ring Ethelred, saying that they neither did nor should love any 
me better than their natural lord, if only he were willing to 

124 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [A.D. 1014, 1015, 

govern them more justly, and treat them with greater gentle- 
ness than lie had hitherto done. On receiving this message, 
he sent his son Edward to them, accompanied by his own 
envoys, with gracious salutations to all his people, both high 
and low, and assuring them that fur the future lie would be* 
gentle and loving lord to them, consulting their wishes and con- 
forming to their advice in everything, and would graciously 
pardon whatever anion ts they had put upon him or his, either 
by word or deed, if they all unanimously agreed, without 
fraud, to receive him back as their king. To this they ill 
returned a favourable reply. Then an act of plenary concord 
was agreed to on both sides, both verbally and by a [solemn] 
treaty. In addition, the chiefs- of rite nation pkilgod 
selves unanimously not to miller turain a Danish king to reign 
in England. This being settled, the English sent over to 
Normandy, and during Lent the king was brought back with 
the utmost expedition, and received with universal honour. 

Mean w I iih.'. it was agreed between Canute and the men 
Llndsey, that on their furnishing htm with horses for his troops, 
they should join in a plundering expedition ; but before they 
were equipped, king Ethel red came upon them with a powerful 
army, and having driven out Canute and his naval force, la' 
waste, and gave to the flames, the whole of Lhidsey, putting! 
many of the inhabitants as be could to the sword. Caiutfft 
however, consulted his safety by a hasty flight, and directing 
his course to the south, quickly gained the port of ttandwieli: 
there he exhibited the hostages his father had received froo 
all parts of England, and having cut oil" their hands and atfl 
and slit their nostrils, sutlered them to depart : In 1 1 
for Denmark, intending to return the year following. To «dd 
to all these calamities, king Ethelred ordered a tribute at* 
thirty thousand pounds to he paid to the fleet lying at Gree 
wich. The sea broke its bounds on the third of the calends 
of October [3rd September], and overwhelmed many villa and 
great numbers of people in England. 

[a.d. 1015.] While a great council was being held »l 
Oxford this year, the traitorous eatdoiinan. Edrie Streoii, 
perfidiously invited to Ids lodgings two of the most considerable 
and influential persons iu the Seven Burghs, Sigeferth and 
Morcar, and there caused them to be secretly m 
King Ethelred took possession of their effects, and 

d ordered' 

jld. 1015, 1016.] Canute's buocesse8. 125 

Elgitha, Sigeferth's widow, to be taken to the town of 
Malmesbury. While she was confined there, Edmund the 
etheling came and married her against his father's will, and 
between the feast of the Assumption [15th August] and the 
feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], he went to 
the Five-burghs, and seizing the lands of Sigeferth and Morcar, 
compelled the villeins to acknowledge him as their lord. 
About the same time, king Canute arrived in the port of 
Sandwich with a large fleet, and shortly afterwards, sailing 
round the coast of Kent, entered the mouth of the river 5"rome, 
and swept off much booty in Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, and 
Wiltshire. King Ethelred then lying sick at Corsham, his son 
Edward the etheling, on the one hand, and Edwin Streon, the 
ealdorman, who was steeped in stratagems and deceit, on 
the other, levied a great army. But when their forces 
were united, the ealdorman laid all manner of snares for 
the etheling, and plotted his death ; which being found out, 
they presently parted and made way for the enemy. Soon 
afterwards, the same ealdorman inveigled the crews of forty 
ships of the royal fleet, which were manned by Danes, to follow 
his fortunes, and joining Canute with them, placed himself at 
his service. The West-Saxons also submitted to him, giving 
him hostages, and afterwards furnished horses for his army. 
On the death of Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, he was 
succeeded by Elsy, called also Elfwin. 

[a.d. 1016.] Canute, king of the Danes, and the ealdorman 
Edric Streon, the traitor, having before our Lord's Epiphany 
[6th May] crossed the river Thames at Cricklade, with a 
powerful body of horse, commenced hostilities in Mercia, 
laying waste and burning many vills in Warwickshire, and 
massacring all the people they met with. When this came to 
the ears of the etheling Edmund, surnamed Ironside, he lost 
no time in collecting troops; but when the army was mustered, 
the Mercians refused to engage with the West-Saxons and 
Danes, unless they were joined by king Ethelred and the 
Londoners ; in consequence, the army was disbanded, and 
every one returned home. The feast (of Epiphany) being 
over, Edmund the etheling gathered a still larger army, and, 
when it was assembled, sent messengers to London requesting 
his father to join him as soon as possible with all the troops he 
could muster; upon which, the king levied a number of 


soldiers and hastened to meet him. But when the force- were 
united, it was intimated to the king, that unless he toefc 
precautions, some of the auxiliary would betray him to 
the enemy. In consequence, disbanding his troops, lie returned 
to London, and the etheling went into Northumbria; fro* 
whicli many conjecture that it was Ilia intention to assemble ft 
still larger army against Canute ; but as Canute and Edric OS 
the one side, so he and Ubtred, carl of Northumbria, on the 
other, ravaged several provinces. They first laid wutff 
Staffordshire, then Shropshire and Leicester -hi re, because the 
people of those districts refused l<.> lake anus against the Damn 
army. Meanwhile, Canute and Edric Streon devnst*t*o\ 
first, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Nor- 
thamptonshire, Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire, and after- 
wards Northumbria. On learning this, the ethcling EdmuftJ 
desisted from ravaging the country, and hastened to hisfatlw | 
at London. Earl Uhtred hurried home, and, compelled bj 
necessity, submitted, with all the Northumbrians, to Canute 
and gave him hostages : nevertheless, liy (.'anute's command Of 
permission, he was put to death by Thurbrand, a nohle that, 
and Thurketil, the son of Neavan, fell with him. This eroM 
being perpetrated, Canute appointed Egric earl (of Nor- 
thumbria,) in Uhtred's place, and then returning south with 
great expedition by another road, he regained his ships "id 
his entire army before the feast of Easter. 

About this time, on Monday the ninth of the calends of 
May pjftrd April], in the fourteenth induction, Ethelred, kmg 
of England, died at London, after a life of severe toil* sod 
tribulations, which St. Dunstan, on his coronation day, >S* 
placing the ei'own upon his head, predicted, in the spirit of 
prophecy, would come upon him : " Because," be said, " thou 
hast been raised to the throne by the death of thy broth* 
whom thy mother has slain, therefore hear now the word d 
tile Lord ; thus saith the Lord : ' The sword shall not dep»t 
from thy house, but shall Mire flsiainst thee all the days of thy 
life, cutting oft' thy seed, until thy kingdom become tb« 
kingdom of an alien, whose customs and tongue the nation 
which thou ml est knoweth not. And thy sin, and the sin irf 
thy mother, and the sin of the men who were parties to I* 
wickedness, shall be expiated only by long continued p 
ment. 1 " His body was honourably interred ii 


JU>. 1010, 1011.] TKIBOTE PAID TO THE DANES. 119 

common people. The Danes, remaining masters of the field of 
death, obtained possession of East-Anglia, and, mounted on 
horseback, scoured the whole province during three months, 
plundering, burning villa, and butchering men and beasts, 
without cessation ; in the fens also they did the same, and 
afterwards pillaged and burnt Thetford and Cambridge. 

After all this they returned to the river Thames, the infantry 
embarking in ships, the cavalry proceeding on horseback. In 
a few days they went on another plundering expedition, taking 
the direct road to Oxfordshire, which they first ravaged, and 
then Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire, burn- 
ing vills and butchering men and animals, and afterwards 
retreating to their ships with much plunder. After this, 
about the feast of St. Andrew the apostle [30th November], 
they burned Northampton and as much of the surrounding 
country as they pleased, and then crossing the river Thames, 
went into Wessex, and having set fire to Caningamersce 
(Keynsham?) and the greatest part of Wiltshire, they, as usual, 
returned to their ships about Christmas. 

[axd. 1011.] East-Anglia, Essex, Middlesex, Hertfordshire, 
Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, 
half ef Huntingdonshire, and a great part of Northamptonshire, 
and, on the south side of the river Thames, Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, Hampshire, -Wiltshire, and Berkshire, having been 
ruined with fire and sword by the before-mentioned army of 
Danes, Ethelred, king of England, and his witan 1 sent envoys 
to them sueing for peace, and offering them pay and tribute if 
they would desist from their ravages. Having received the 
message, they accepted the proposals, but as the event showed, 
not without guile and subterfuge; for although they were 
plentifully supplied with provisions, and the tribute they 
demanded was paid, they continued to scour the country in 
bands, laying waste the vills, spoiling some of the wretched 
inhabitants of their goods, and killing others. At length, 
between the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September] 
and that of St. Michael, they dug a trench round Canterbury, 
and laid siege to it. On the twentieth day of the siege, 
through the treachery of the archdeacon iElmar, whose life 
St. Elphege had formerly saved, one quarter of the city was 

1 " The witan, both clergy and lait/j\" Sax. Chron. 


nature of the ground ant! the strength of his force required, 
he posted ad his best troops in the first line, placing the rest 
in reserve, and calling upon each by name, exhorted and 
implored them to boar in mind that they were about to 
contend for their country, their chfldren, their wives, and 
their homes; and having inflamed the ardour of hie BOldin 
by such exalted language, he ordered the trumpets to sound, 
and the troops to advance slowly. The enemy's army did 
the same. Having gained a position while they could join 
battle, they attacked each other with loud .-hoofs, fighting 
desperately with sword and spear. King Edward Ironsids 
fought desperately in the first rank at close quarters, and, 
while he superintended every movement, fought hard in 
person, and often struck down an enemy, performing at onw 
the duties of a brave soldier and an ablr general. But Edric 
Streon, the traitorous ealdominn, and Almar the Beloved, and 
AJgar, son of Meawcs, who ought to have supported him. having 
joined the Daues, with the provincials of Hampshire and 
Wiltshire, aud a vast throng of the people, king Edmund's 
army was over-ma telied and exhausted; ^t ill, on the first day of 
tile engagement, which was Monday, the battle was so hard- 
fought and bloody, that both armies, being no longer able W 
prolong the fight for very weariness, drew off at sunset of 
their own accord. But the next day the king would have 
utterly defeated the Danes had it not been for a stratagem (I 
Edric Streon, his perfidious eaklornian. For when the fight 
was thickest, and lie perei-ived that the English had the best 
of it, he struck off the head of a man named Osmrcr, whose 
features and hair were very like king Edmund's, and holding 
it up, shouted to the English that they were fighting to no 
purpose: "Flee quickly," he said, "ye men of Dorsetshire 
Devon, and Wilts ; ye have lost your leader : lo ! here I hold 
in my hands the head of your lord, Edmund the king: retreat 
with all speed." 1 The English were panic-struck at these 

cuous for baling a chimney, at a time when that luxury was elsewhere 
unknowu, or of very rare occurrence." Thorpe's note in the E, B- 
Society's Edition uf Florence of Worcester. 

1 The account of this battle in the Snion Chron. is very, omit- 
ting any notice of the traitor Edmund Streon's stratagem. Henry » 
'in gives an account of a similar ruse, bnt connects it wilt 
of Ofllngtou, fought shortly afterwards. He has nreserw* 


and having been consecrated by Ithamar bishop of Rochester, 
on the seventh of the calends of April [26th March], he 
governed his church Dine years, four months, and two 

The Mid-Angles, under their prince Peada, son of Penda 
king of Mercia, received the Christian faith and sacraments, 
the prince himself being first baptized, with all his attend- 
ants, by bishop Finan, at the court of Oswy king of North- 
umbria. Afterwards, on his return home, the rest of his 
people were baptized by four priests, Cedd, Adda, Betti, and 
Diuma, who accompanied him from Northumbria. At that 
time Sigebert, king of the East- Angles, who succeeded Sebert, 
surnamed the Little, having embraced the faith of Christ on 
the exhortation of king Oswy while on a visit to him, was 
baptized by Finan, the bishop of the Northumbrians ; and 
on his return to his own seat of government, king Oswy sent 
with him Cedd the priest, a man of God, to preach the Word 
to the East-Saxons. Having gathered a numerous church 
for the Lord, he went home to confer with bishop Finan, 
and receiving from him the episcopal dignity, on his return 
to the province he completed with greater authority the work 
he had commenced. On one occasion, when he revisited 
the province of Northumbria, for the purpose of exhortation, 
Ethelwald king of Deira, king Oswald's son, requested him to 
accept a grant of land whereon he might build a monastery. 
In compliance with the royal will he selected a site for it 
at a place now called Leastingaig, and having erected tbe 
monastery, established in it the rules of a religious life. 
Meanwhile, at the instigation of the foe to all good men, 
Sigebert was slain by his own neighbours, because it was too 
much his practice tp pardon his enemies, and forgive, with 
a gentle spirit, on their mere petition, the injuries he had 
received from them. Swithelm, the son of Sexbald, succeeded 
to his throne. 

[a.d. 654.] Anna, king of the East-Angles, was slain by 
king Penda, and succeeded by his brother Ethelhere. A 
monastery was built by St. Botulph, at a place called 

[a.d. 655.] Penda, the perfidious king of Mercia, who 
had slain Sigebert, Ecgrig, and Anna, kings of the East- 
Angles, as well as Edwin and Oswald, kings of the North- 





is, to « 

war of conquest against king Oswy. That king, wit 
son Alfrid. trusting in Christ as their leader, although 
hail only one legion, met the enemy nt tt place called 
widfeld.' Battle being joined, the Pagans wore rout« ■ 
cut to pieces, nearly all the thirty king's thanes who ma: 
under his banner being slain. Aiming them fell Ethel 
brother and successor of Anna king of (he Mast Angle: 
promoter of the war. His brother Ethelwald succeed 
his kingdom. Then lung Oswy. in acknowledgment o 
victory vouchsafed to him, devoted to God twelve eatoi 
building monasteries, log ether with his daughter EIHe 
be consecrated as a nun, and accordingly she enteret 
monastery of Heortesig, of which Hildn was then nl 
This bnttlo was fought by king Oswy, in the neiglibourhc 
Leeds, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and on the s 
tccnlh of the calends of December [I "till November], al 
converted the nation of the Mercians to the faith of 
By his care, Diutna, already mentioned, was the lirst 
was made bishop of the province of Mereia, and of the p 
of Linrlisfoiie and Middle Anglia ; the second was t.'c. 
a Scotchman by birth. This king reigned three years 
the Mercians and I he other people of (he southern provi 
lie cn]ii]".'!k'd the f'ictish nation to submit to the domi 
of the English; and made l'eada Ins cousin, son of 
1'cnda. king of the Soutliuni Mercians. 

[\.n. 050.] King Peadu was most foully muni 
l.brei.igli tin' treachery of bis wife, at the very time whci 
feast of Easter was celebrating. 

[a.d. 657.] Cenwaleh, king of Wessex, fought with 
Riitons, und drove them as far an the Turret. The- al 
St. Hilda began to build a monastery at a place c 
Slrconc.slu'idli. in which king O^wy's rlimghter was am 
the earlier part of her life, and afterwards lt'came ab 
Her mother, i|ueen Eanrleda, built a monastery, whii 
called In-Getling, on the spot where king Oewine, tha * 
her father's cousin, king Osric, was unrighteously slain, 

A..D. 659 — 664.] oswy — wulfhere. 19 

appointed Trumhere, a man of God, who was kinsman to 
the murdered king, abbot. 

[a.d. 659.] Immin, Eaba, and Eadberht, ealdormen of 
Mercia, rebelled against king Oswy, raising to the throne 
Wulfhere, the son of Penda, who having been saved in con- 
cealment, was now coming to years of puberty; and thus, 
with their king, they enjoyed the liberty of professing 
Christianity. This king's first bishop was Trumhere, 
already named ; the second was Jaruman ; the third Cedd ; 
and the fourth Winfrid. 

[a.d. 660.] King Cenwalch divided the West-Saxon 
province into two dioceses, and made the city of Winchester 
bishop Wine's episcopal seat; in consequence of which 
bishop Agilbert was so much offended that he retired to 
France, and accepted the bishopric of Paris. King Ecgfritb, 
son of king Oswy, married Etheldritha, the daughter of 
Anna, king of the East- Angles. 

[a.d. 661.] Cuthred, son of king Cuichelm, to wit, grand- 
son of king Cynegils and cousin-german of the kings Cenwalch 
and Centwin, together with the tributary-king Cenbriht, who 
was great-grandson of king Ceaulin, and king Cedwal's father, 
died this year. Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, first ravaged 
Ascesdun, and then took possession of the Isle of Wight, 
which he gave to his godson Ethel wold, king of the South- 
Saxons, together with the district of Meanvara in Wessex. 
Finan, bishop of the Northumbrians, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by Colman, who was also sent from Scotland. 

a.d. 662, 663.] 

"a.d. 664.] In the thirtieth year after Scotch bishops 
were established in Northumbria, and the twenty-second of 
the reign of king Oswy, questions having been raised in that 
province respecting Easter, the tonsure, and other ecclesi- 
astical affairs, it was settled that a synod should be held at 
the monastery of Streoneshealh, where Hilda was then 
abbess. It was attended by the kings Oswy and his son 
Alfrid, who had succeeded to the kingdom of king Etliel- 
wald, king Oswald's son ; as also by bishop Colman and his 
clergy, Agilbert bishop of the West-Saxons, with the priests 
Agatho and Wilfrid, Cedd bishop of the East-Saxons, and 
the abbess Hilda, with her officials. After much debate, at 
last, both the superiors and their subordinates agreed to 



relinquish the invalid usages of the Scotch, and hastened to 
adapt those which they had ascertained to lie bettor. The 
controversy Wing concluded, and tins questions solved, Agil- 
bert went home, and C'edd, giving up the traditions of the 
Scots, returned to liis own diocese. Colman, silenced by the 
unanimous resolution of the Catholics, rejoined his adherents 
in Scotland, and on his withdrawing to his own country, 
Tuda was appointed bishop of the Northumbrian!* in his stead; 
but lie ruled the church only for a short time. Eata, a most 
reverend man, who was abbot of Mailrose, and before that hid 
founded the monastery of Hipon at king Alfred's request, wis 
set over the brethren of Lindisl'urne, and removed St. C'utb- 
bert from Mailrose to the island of Lindisfarne. 

The same year, there was an eclipse of the sun on the 3rd 
of May, at about the tenth hour. It was quickly followed 
by a pestilence which snatched from (he world Tuda, the 
priest of the Lord. The king, by the advice and with the 
concurrence of his father, king Osivy, sent the venerable 
father Wilfrid, abbot of Ripon, to the king of the Franks, 
requesting that he might be ordained hUhup, he Wing then 
about thirty years old. Thereupon the king scut liiin for 
consecration to AgilWrt, who having withdrawn from Britain 
was made bishop of Paris, and, assisted by eleven other 
bishops, performed the office with great ceremony. Deus- 
dedit, the sixth archbishop from Augustine, died on the 
second of tlie ides [the 14th] of July. Erconbert also, king 
of Kent, died the same year, and his son EgWrt ascended 
the throne. Ceadda, that holy man, who was brother of 
Ocdii, bishop and saint, and abbot of the monastery of Lcast- 
ingaig, on the command of king Oswy, was consecrated 
bishop of York, by Wine, bishop of Winchester, as Wilfrid 
was still an exile in foreign parts. Etholburga, ihe mother of 
the convent of Harking, a woman Wlovod by God, and the 
first abbess of that monastery, was released from the prison of 
the flesh on the fifth of the ides [the 11th] of October. She 
was sister of Erconwald, a man of admirable sanctity, after- 
wards bishop of London ; her life was such that no one who 
knew her could doubt that on her departure from this life the 
gates of the heavenly kingdom were opened to her. She was 
succeeded in the office of abWss by a nun beloved of Cbul. 
whose uiiuio was Hildclith. Shortly afterwards, (Jodd, bidi"]' 

A.D. 665 — 667.] ETHELWALD — EGBERT. 21 

of the East-Saxons, went to his monastery of Leastingaig, 
where he fell sick and died on the seventh of the calends of 
November [26th October]. Ethelwald, king of the East- 
Angles, having died, he was succeeded by Aldulf, whose 
mother was Hereswitha, sister of St. Hilda, the abbess ; their 
father was Hereric, son of Eadfrith, son of Edwine. Boisilus, 
a monk of sublime virtues, superior of the monastery of Mail- 
rose, a man inspired with the spirit of prophecy, and a priest 
beloved of God, having been struck by a mortal disease, was 
exalted to the joys of eternal light. Sighere, king of the 
East-Saxons, with his part of the people, apostatized from 
the faith, which coming to the ears of Wulfhere, king of the 
Mercians, he sent bishop Jaruman, Trumhere's successor, to 
correct the error. However, Sebbi, who shared the throne, as 
co-heir with him, preserved the faith he had embraced, with 
all the population subject to him. 

[a.d. 665.] Benedict, surnamed Biscop, went to Home, 
for the second time, when Vitalian was pope, and a few 
months afterwards retired to the island of Lerins. 1 Devoting 
himself to the monks, he received the tonsure, and for two 
years served God, under the abbot's rule, according to the 
regular discipline. 

[a.d. 666.] St. Aldhelm was ordained abbot of Malmesbury 
in the church of SS. Peter and Paul by Eleutherius, the 
fourth bishop of the West-Saxons. Wina, bishop of Win- 
chester, being driven from his see by king Cenwalch, repaired 
to Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, and receiving from him the 
see of London, remained bishop of that city for the rest of his 

[a.d. 667.] The most illustrious English kings, Oswy, of 
the province of Northumbria, and Egbert, of Kent, with the 
consent of the holy church of the English nation, sent to 
Borne, for consecration to the office of bishop, a priest named 
Wihard, one of the clerks of archbishop Deusdedit. But 
although he reached Borne, he was snatched away by death 
before he could be consecrated. Ceadda, bishop of York, 
governed the church gloriously for three years; he then 

1 The island of Lerins, off the coast of Provence, in the diocese of 
Antibes, on which was a celebrated monastery and school founded at 
the end of the fourth, century by St Honoratus. See Gallia Christiana* 
t. iii. p. 1189. 

OP WORCESTER. [a.d. 668 — 071. 

retired to the superintendence of his monastery at. Li':wiir;.-ii- . 
and Wilfrid took upon himself the epis<?oi>nl charge of the 
entire province of Nortliumbria. 

[a.d. 668.] Riscop, called ;ilso Benedict, visited Rome fur 
the third time. There was then at Rome a monk nuinid 
Theodore, a native of Tarsus, in Silicia, a mail well vend 
both In secular and ecclesiastical learning, master In it It of 
(iicrk ami Latin, of unblemished life, and sixty-sis years <if 
age. Poj» Vitaliau having consecrated liim archbishop m 
Sunday, the seventh of the calends of April [26th March], 
committed him to the care of Bisrop, as be was a prudent MW 
spirited man, to be conducted to Britain, in company with 
ahljot Adrian. 

[a.d. 669.] Archbishop Theodore arrived in Kent nu 
Sunday, the sixth of the calends of June [27th May], *d 
entrusted the government of the monastery of St. Peter ll» 
apostle lo Benedict, also called Biscop, with the oltiee "I 
abbot. Soon afterward* lie made a progress through tfci 
island, consecrating bishops in suitable places, and com- 
pleted the consecration of Oeailda by new rites niter tl" 
catholic form. In the city of Rochester, also, where thciT 
had been no bishop since the dealh of Dan nanus, he ordiitnd 
Putta, a man skilled in ecclesiastical discipline; and not 
afterwards, on the death of Jaruman, at the request of king 
Wulfhere, and with the concurrence of king Oswy, he enjnind 
Oeadda to take charge of the united sees of Mercia ami bur 
disfarne. Ocadda olteyed the injunction, and employed him- 
self in the ministry lie hail accepted, with great purity of lit''. 
King H'ulfhere granted him fifty hides uf land for the purpart 
of building a monastery at a place called Al-Rearuwe. 

[a.d. 670.] Oswy, king of the Northumbrian*, falling 
sick, died on the fifteenth of the calends of March [15th Feb.]) 
in the fifty-eighth year of his age, leaving his sou Egfrid » 
successor to his kingdom. King (Vnualch ami (he West- 
Saxons requested Thcoiloiv, archbishop of Canterbury, I" 
i">nseci';ii>' as their hi-liop. Pleiitlievius, nephew of Agillirrt. 
bishop of Paris, and having lieen consecrated accordingly a'. 
Winchester, he administered the united diocese seven year-. 

[A.D. 671.] There was a pest among birds, which destroyed 
vast numbers. The venerable 1'euedict, also 
Biseop, having presided over the monastery of St, Pi 

,1s,, caUtd 

A.D. 672, 673.] CBNWALCH — HLOTHBRB. 23 

apostle two years, filling the office of abbot, went from 
Britain to Rome for the third time, by leave of archbishop 
Theodore. He was succeeded in the government of the con- 
vent by abbot Adrian, whom we have before mentioned, an 
African by birth, well read in the sacred writings, and an apt 
scholar both in Greek and Latin. 

[a.d. 672.] Cenwalch, king of the West-Saxons, died in 
the thirtieth year of his reign ; his queen Sexburga, accord- 
ing to the English chronicle, 1 reigned after him one year, 
but according to Bede, 8 tributary-kings divided his king- 
dom and ruled it about ten years. Etheldritha, queen of the 
Northumbrians, used long importunities with king Egfrid 
for leave to releaso herself from worldly cares and do the 
service of the Lord Christ in a monastery ; and having at last, 
with no little difficulty, succeeded, she entered the monastery 
of St. Ebba, the abbess, who was sister of the kings, 8S. 
Oswald and Oswy, and aunt of king Egfrid, receiving the 
nun's veil from the hands of bishop Wilfrid. After bishop 
Ceadda had gloriously ruled the church in the province of 
Mercia for two years and a half, he became very infirm, and 
being prepared for his end by partaking of the body and blood 
of our Lord, he went to eternal bliss on tho sixth of the nones 
[the 2nd] of March. As he was departing out of this world, 
the most reverend father Egbert, who had been his fellow- 
scholar in Ireland, saw the spirit of St. Chad, the bishop, 
Ceadda's brother, with an host of angels, descend from heaven 
and bear it upwards with them on their return to the realms 
of bliss. His deacon, Winfrid, was consecrated by Theodore, 
and became the successor of his master, the bishop. 3 Benedict 
Biscop returned from Borne, and on his landing in Britain he 
betook himself to his own people and native soil. Egfrid 
king of the nations beyond the Humbor, whose court he 
visited, immediately granted him a domain containing seventy 
families that he might build a monastery at the mouth of the 
river Wear. 

[a.d. 673.] Egbert king of Kent died in the month of July 
and the ninth year of his reign ; he was succeeded by his 
brother Hlothere, who reigned eleven years and seven months. 

1 Saxon Chronicle, p. 326 (AnUq. Lib.). 
3 Subreguli. 3 Bede's Ecol. Hist ib. p. 101. 


Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, convened nn episcopal 
synod at a, place called Hertford, in which Wilfrid, bishop of lit 
Northumbrians, was represented by his own legates. Then 
were present at this synod, Putt a, bishop of Rochester, 
Eleutherius, hi, hop of the East-Salons, ami Winfrid, bishop of 
the Merc iaus ; to whom must be added ltisi, bishop of the 
East-Angles, the successor of Boniface already mentioned 
He wits a very holy and devout man, and had been consecrated 
by Theodore a short time l>efore the synod ; and being 
afterwards prevented by severe infirmities i'rmn performing the 
duties of his office, two bishops, jflScei and Had wine, were 
ordained in his lifetime to act for him. St. Etheldritha km 
made abbess in the district called Elge (Ely), where, having 
built a monastery for nuns, this virgin became mother in tie 
heavenly life both by her example and precepts. 

[a,». 674.] According to the English chronicle, Escwine 
succeeded this year to the kingdom of Wessex, He wjis the 
son of Cenfus, who was son of Cenferth, who was son of 
Cuthgils, who was son of Ceolwulf, who was son of Cynrir, 
who was son of Cerdie. (Ireland, the island of sainB, 
was gloriously filled with holy men and wonderful narks.) 

Biscop (built a monastery) at the mouth of the river 

Wear, in the second infliction. 

[a.D. 675.] Wulfhcre, king of Mereia, and Escwine, king 
of Wessex, fought a battle, at a place called Beadenhead. 
The same year, being the seventeenth of his reign, king 
Wulfhere himself went to heaven. He was the first of the 
Mercian kings who received the faith and the washing rf 
holy regeneration ; and abolishing, and utterly rooting out tlte 
worship of idols among all Ids people, he caused the name of 
Christ to be published throughout his dominions, and built 
churches in many places. His queen. St. Ennoiigilda, was the 
daughter of Erconbcrt, king of Kent, and his queen, *'■ 
Sexburga, the daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles, iunl 
sister of St. Etheldritha. St. Worburga, Wulfhere's daughter 
by Ermcngild, a virgin of exemplary virtues, after her fatluT' 
death, renounced the world, and resolving to take the habit of » 
nun, entered the nn mastery of her mother's aunt, St. Etheldritha, 
where by God's help she wrought many miracles. Her uncle, 
king Ethelred, hearing reports of her sanctity, appointed 
her to preside over several monasteries of virgins devoted t° 

i.D. 675.] * ST. WEBBUR0A — ERCONWALD. 25 

God, with the rank of abbess, living in and among which 
according to monastic rules, and affectionately consulting their 
good in all things, she combated in the service of Christ her 
King to the end of her life ; and dying in one of her monas- 
teries called Trentham, the beatified virgin was espoused and 
taken to her heavenly bridegroom. Her corpse was carried 
to the monastery at Hanbury, as she had directed in her life- 
time, and being interred with great honour, remained without 
corruption until the time when the heathen Danes laid waste 
the provinces of England with cruel slaughter and barbarous 
ravages. King Wulfhere's brothers were these: Ethelred, 
who succeeded him in his kingdom ; Peada, who, as we briefly 
mentioned, was king of the Southern Mercians ; and Merewald, 
who ruled in the western part of Mercia. Merewald's queen, 
Ermenburga, bore him three daughters, St. Mildburg, St. Mild- 
rith, and St. Mildgith, and one son, Merefln, a youth of 
eminent piety. 

Archbishop Theodore, being offended with Winfrid, bishop 
of the Mercians, on account of some act of disobedience, de- 
posed him from his bishopric and ordained in his stead Saxulf, 
the founder and abbot of the monastery called Burg, in the 
territory of the Girvii. 1 After his deposition, Winfrid retired 
to his monastery of Bearwe, and there ended his days in 
a course of holy living. Theodore also appointed Ercon- 
wald bishop of the East-Saxons, who were then under Sebbe 
and Sighere, with London for his see, where his predecessor 
Wine had his episcopal seat. Erconwald's life and conversation, 
both before and after he was made bishop, are said to have 
been most holy. He founded two monasteries, one for him- 
self, and the other for his sister; his own, called Chertsey, with 
the aid of the sub-king, Frithewold, he filled with monks and 
amply endowed; his sister's monastery was called Barking, 
and she became the first abbess. Waldhere succeeded Ercon- 
wald, and after him was Inguald, the last bishop of London 
mentioned by Bede in his History of England. Moreover, 
Hildelith succeeded Ethelburga, St. Erconwald's sister, and it 
was to her that St. Aldhelm addressed his book " On Virginity." 
Wulf hildis succeeded Hildelith as abbess, in the time of king 

1 Peterborough ; the Gervian territory was in the n.e. of Merciav 

26 FUmEN'Cfi OF WORCESTER. [*.n. 070, 077. 

[a.d. C7fi.] Benedict Biscop wont from Britain to Knm* 
the fourth time, acconipaiiii'd Iiy CeoliViil n pious monk, iinJ 
brought back a bull of privileges, accepted not only with lite 
license and concurrence, but lit the express desire mid instaiM 
nf kiug Egfi'iil, whereby tin; indepem Icn co ami humunitip* <rf 
his monastery woro secured for over. Ho also obtained the 
services of John, precentor of the church of 8t. Peter the 
apottlvi bringing him to Britain to teach his monks the coum 
of ehauntiug throughout the year. 

Esewine, king of Wcssex, died, nnii Cent wine, wlio was sm 
of Cynegils, son of Ceol, succeeded him. Etliclred, kins; nf 
tlie Mercians, ravaged Kent, destroying the city of lioHi'^l.'i 
in the common ruin. Putta, its bishop, being exposed in 
this, took refuge with .Saxvdf, bishop of tho Mercians, ami 
accepting the cure of a church he gave him, ended his dayi 
there in peace. Theodore consecrated (Juiehc-lni rii he bislie|i 
in Pntta'a place, but as he retired from the see shortly after- 
wards, because it was stripped of its possessions, Theodore 
appointed Clobmuud bishop in his stead. On the death ri 
Eleutherius, bishop of tho West- Saxons, H.-eddi took iijm* 
himself his episcopal functions, having Wen consecrated hv 
Theoiioro at London, St. Cutltliert devoted himself to a life 
of solitude and contemplation as a hermit. 

[a.B. fJ77.] In tho eighth year of Egfrid's reign, a comet 
--'appeared in the month of August. The same year, in con- 
sequence of a dispute between king.Egfrid and the mmt 
reverend bishop Wilfrid, the bishop was expelled from lii> 
see, and two bishops were appointed in his place, namely, 
Boso, a reverend monk of the monastery of tho abbess Hilda, 
who governed the province of Deirn, and Eat a, the veneruhle 
abbot of Mailrose, that of Bemicift. The one fixed his BftH 
copal seat in the city of York, tho other in tho church of 
Hagulstad (Hexham), or at Lindisfarne ; and ltoth were taken 
from their convents for their promotion to be bishops. Eathiw! 
was also made bishop with them in the province of LimbV 
farras (Lindsey), which king Egfrid liad very recently taken 
possession of, defeating Wulf'herc in battle, and driving him 
out of the country. This was the first bishop of its own that 
province had; the second was Ethclwino, the third Edgar, 
the fourth Cyncberht. Before that, it was superint.u'li ' 
Saswulf, who was also bishop at the samo timo of t! 

itended bj 

f.h.-M - 

A.D. 678 — 680.] WILFRID — ST. HILDA. 27 

cians and East-Angles. In consequence, after his expulsion 
from Lindsey, he still continued to govern the two latter pro- 
vinces. Eathaed, Bosa, and Eata were consecrated at York 
by archbishop Theodore. 

Wilfrid, being thrust out from his bishopric, intended to go 
to Borne, but after embarking, he was driven by a westerly 
wind to Friesland, where he was the first to do the work of 
an evangelist ; and, converting many thousand barbarians to 
the faith, spent the winter there in great delight with the 
newly-converted people of God. 

a.d. 678.] The holy Bede was born. 1 
a.d. 679.] A severe battle was fought between Egfrid 
king of Northumbria and Ethelred king of Mercia, on the 
river Trent, in which king Alfwine, brother of king Egfrid, 
was slain. His sister Osfrith was married to king Ethelred. 

Bishop Wilfrid departing from Friesland proceeded to 
Rome, and having been exonerated from the charges against 
him, and found fit for his office by sentence of pope Benedict 
and several bishops, he returned to Britain, and converted the 
province of the South-Saxons to the faith of Christ. St. 
Etheldritha, the virgin, abbess of Ely, was taken to the Lord 
from the midst of her flock on the ninth of the calends of 
July [23rd June]. Her sister Sexburga succeeded to* her 

[a.d. 680.] In the sixth year of the reign of Ethelred, 
king of Mercia, the eighth indiction, archbishop Theodore 
convened a synod of the bishops, and great numbers of learned 
men, at a place called Heathfield, that he might ascertain what 
doctrines they severally held, as he had been directed by pope 
Agatho, through the medium of John the precentor, who 
was present at this synod. During this king's reign, the 
province of Mercia was divided into five dioceses, 2 and, in 
consequence, Tatfrith, a man of profound learning, who 
belonged to the monastery of abbess Hilda, was selected to 
be bishop of the Hwiccii ; but he died suddenly, before he 
could be consecrated; and, therefore, the reverend man, Bosel, 

1 Florence is quite incorrect in the date he assigns for the hirth of 
Bede. It appears to have been in either 673 or G74. See the question 
discussed and authorities referred to in tho Preface to the Eccles. Hist, 
p. vi., Antiq. Lib. 

2 Litchfield, Worcester (Hwiocas), Leicester, Lindsey, and Hereford. 


was shortly nftenvards ordained bishop of that provinw. 
Hilda, the devout handmaid of the Lord, abbess of the 
monastery of fctreoneshalh (Whitby), awl <Lani>'lit<.T of tins 
Edwin's grandson Hererie, having done the work of henvr- 
upon earth, was translated from this world to receive ti 
rewards of life in heaven, oti the fifteenth of the calends a 
December [17th November], in the sixty-sixth year of hff 
age. She founded two monasteries, Streoneslialli fit 
Hacanos (Had; ness). in whicli sh.» uictileatoil justice, devotin 
continence, and other virtues; but chiefly peace and charit 
In a monastery governed by this abbess lived Cedmon, thit I 
celebrated monk, who received from heaven tlie free gift «f 
poetical inspiration. Oshere, tlie sub-king, by licence from hi 
suzerain, Ethelred, the most excellent king of the Merc' 
gave a domain containing thirty households, at a place e 
Rippel, to Frithewald, a monk of bishop Wiofrid'a who hu 
been already noticed, in order that he might establish tl 
the monastic rule. 

[a.d. 681.] Bode was only seven years old when, b 
lad of great promise, his relations entrusted him to t" 
reverend abbot Biscop, to be brought up by him. 
years after Wilfrid had withdrawn, archbishop " 
ordained Tunhert to the church of Hexham (Eata C' 
at Lindisfanie) and Triiniwino as bishop of the te 
the Pieta. Eatha'd, liaving returned from Lindsey, t 
king Ethelred had recovered possession of that provi 
set over the church of Ripon. 

[a.d. 682.] Centwine, king of Wessex, drove the E 
of the West at the sword's point as far as the se 
reverend abbot Benedict Bi.-L-np, choosing his c> 
wine, a priest of eminent piety, and one of his own monH 
placed the monastery under his ride as abbot. King Egfrid* 
for the redemption of his soul, gave another domain of forty 
families to abbot Benedict, who, sending there twenty-W 
monks, and appointing abbot l.'eolf'rid, his most stremioM 
supporter on all occasions, to be their superior, founded » 
monastery, by the king's command, at a place called Girvtan 

[a.d. 683.J 

[a.d. 684.] Egfrid, king of Northumbria, sent Berht in 
the command of an army to Ireland, who cruelly ravaged thfl 


inoffensive natives. A synod having assembled at Twyford 
near the river Alne, at which king Egfrid was present, and 
archbishop Theodore presided, Tunbert was deposed from 
his see, and Cuthbert unanimously elected bishop of Hexham; 
but as he preferred superintending the church of Lindisfarne, 
he was permitted to take that bishopric, Eata returning to Hex- 
ham. Benedict Biscop left Britain for Rome, for the fifth time. 
[a.d. 685.] Hlothere, king of Kent, having received a 
wound in battle with the East-Saxons, died while it was 
healing, on Monday, the eighth of the ides, [the 6th] February. 
He was succeeded by Edric, his brother Egbert's son, who 
reigned one year and a half. Britain was swept with a pesti- 
lence which carried death into all quarters, and abbot Euster- 
wine, beloved of God, falling a prey to it was taken to the 
Lord; in whose stead the brethren, after consulting abbot 
Ceolfrid, chose for their abbot, Sigefrid, a deacon belonging 
to the same monastery, and eminent for his sanctity and 
profound study of the scriptures. Biscop returned from Rome 
loaded with presents for ecclesiastical uses, and foreign valu- 
ables. The consecration of St. Cuthbert took place on Easter 
day, in the presence of king Egfrid ; seven bishops assisting 
at the solemnity, of whom archbishop Theodore was primate. 
King Egfrid, having rashly led an army to ravage the 
territory of the J?icts, was slain on Saturday, the thirteenth of 
the calends of June [20th May], in the fortieth year of his age, 
and fifteenth of his reign. He was succeeded by his brother 
Alfrid, a prince well read in the Scriptures. In the beginning 
of his reign, on the death of the most holy bishop Eata, John, 
a man of sanctity, was appointed bishop of Hexham. Bishop 
Trumwine, that devoted servant of the Lord, returned with 
his companions from the country of the Picts, and selecting 
Streoneshalh for his future abode, spent the rest of his life 
there to his own profit and that of many others ; dying also 
there, he mounted up to the kingdom of heaven. Ceadwalla, 
a most gallant youth of the blood-royal of the Gewissae, 1 slew 
Ethelwalh, king of the South-Saxons, having come upon him by 
surprise at the head of an army ; but he was shortly after- 
wards driven out by the ealdormen Berhtun and Ethelhun, 
who thenceforth assumed the government of the kingdom. 

1 Gewissae ; the West- Saxons ; " Occidentales," the Westerns. 

30 ii.olknci; 0* WOSOBBTHB. [a.d. tiS6, Gt 

Cent wine, king of the East -Saxons, departed this life, a 
was succeeded by ('cadwalla, just named, who wits tin: mhi 
Ot a e b cr t , who was son of Ceadda, who was ami of On 
who wn§ -'Hi of CeaiUin, who waa son of Cynric, who * 
son of Oerdic. 

[a.b. 686.] Bishop Wilfri«l, after a long ffldlft, return! 
his see and bishopric of the church of Hexham, nt tin- iiivi 
lion of king AltViil. On the death of Bosa, a most hniv a 
humble man, John, alieeeeded him as bishop of York. Cel 
ivalla, king of tin- (iewissic, slew Beoilhun, ealdorman 
Susses, and reduced that province to severe scrritudfl. 
ami his brother Mull then ravaged Kent: and afdrwnr 
I in- iVmlwdb himself seized the Isle of Wight, the whole 
which was (ill (hat time lost in idolalry : 
yet himself regenerated in Christ, hi; ottered bishop Wiifl 
the fourth part of the island, containing three hundred fntnili 
to lie appropriated to the Lord's service. Wilfrid aeeeptid ! 
jtunl, and committing the superiutendrtnee to his nejih 
Lterwin, 1 sent ministers of the Word into the inland. Bw( 
( 'fithl M«i-t, the mini ni'Ood, having employed two years 111 
episcopal functions, retired again, 011 a divine warning, In 
island of Fame. On the death of Edric, king of Kent, ll 
kingdom was for -nine time di.-iiiunbcrud by kings of doula 
pvel.ii-ii.ns, or alii-ns. 

[a. i). 687.] The Kentish -men having cruelly surroimt 
with lire and burnt to death Mull, the brother of OeadwiJ 
king of the West-Saxons, with twelve of his 
(.Vail walla's indignation was so roused that he again devnstal 
Kent. The must reverend father (.'utliliert died in the iah 
hi' l''.irn.>, on Wednesday, the thirteenth of the calends 

April [30th March], the fifteenth im 1 i .-r > . - : 1 ; I 

carried to the island of Lmdislame, and tinned in the ehnri 
Wilfrid, bishop of Hexham, administered (Aithlicrt's Me Rh 
year. His successor in the solitary life of his hermitage * 
Etholwold, a venerable man, whose merits and course of! 
are exhibits! in the imml lerless miracles he wrought. {1 
Kilinn, a Hcot, horn in Ireland, and bishop of Wurt/lai 
became eminent.) 

i Bemwini, and in tkn Sw 

A.D. 688, 689.] CEADWALLA — INA. 31 

[a.d. 688.3 Ceadwalla abdicating and retiring to Rome, Ina, 
a prince of the royal race who built the monastery of Glas- 
tonbury, succeeded him in his kingdom. He was the son of 
Cenred, the son of Ceolwald, the son of Cutha, the son of 
Cuthwine, Hie son of Ceaulin. Eadbert was consecrated 
in the place of Cuthbert; he was distinguished for his 
knowledge of the holy Scriptures, as well as the observance 
of the divine precepts, and, most of all, for his liberal distribu- 
tion of alms. The abbots, Benedict Biscop and Sigefrid, 
worn out by long illness, both took to their beds ; in conse- 
quence, shortly afterwards, Benedict having consulted with 
the brethren, sent for Ceolfrid, to whom he had entrusted the 
government of the monastery of St. Paul the apostle, and 
appointed him abbot of both convents, in the fourth indic- 
tion, and on the fourth of the ides [the 12th] of May. The 
venerable abbot Sigefrid, beloved of God, was admitted to 
the enjoyment of eternal rest, and entered the mansions of the 
everlasting kingdom amid the sacrifices of endless praise, on 
Saturday the eleventh of the calends of September [22nd 
August] of the same year. On the death of Putta, bishop of 
Hereford, he was succeeded by Tyrhtell. 

[a.d. 689.] Benedict Biscop, the successful combatant 
against all vice, and pattern of virtue, after a lingering illness, 
during which he constantly offered thanks to God, was ad- 
mitted to the rest and brightness of the heavenly life on the 
second of the ides [the 12th] of January. Ceadwalla, king of 
the West-Saxons, was baptized on the holy Saturday of 
Easter [the 10th April] when Sergius was pope ; and he died 
at Rome, on Tuesday the 12th of the calends of May [the 
20th April], in the third indiction, being about thirty years 
of age. His epitaph, composed by command of pope Ser- 
gius, is to the following effect : 

" High rank and power, kindred, a royal crown, 
The spoils of war, great triumphs and renown ; 
Nobles, and cities walled to guard his state, 
His palaces and his familiar seat ; 
Whatever skill and valour made his own, 
And what his great forefathers handed down, &c." 1 

1 The whole epitaph is given in Bede, Antiq. Lib.,p. 245 ; and Henry 
of Huntingdon, tiirf, p. 116. 


[a.d. 600."] Archbishop Theodore, of blessed memory 
died on Monday the thirteenth of the calends of Oetobs 
[l!>th September] in tlio eighty-eighth year of 1 lis age and tl» 
twenty-second of his episcopacy. (Until this time the arch 
bishops of Canterbury wore Romans, but, henceforth, the; 
were Englishmen,) 

[a.d. 691.] Wilfrid, bishop of Hexham, being ngaii 
accused, and expelled from his sec by king Alfrid and seven 
bishops, shortly afterwards sought a retreat with Ethclrec 
king of Mereia, by whom lie was appointed to the bishojiri 
of the Mid-Angles. At this time, Basel, bishop of the pf£ 
vice of the Hwiccas,' was afflicted with stich bodily i' 
firmitios, that he wiis unable to fulfil his episcopal functions i 
person ; in consequence of which Oftfor, a man of smguli 
merit and eminent sanctity, who had long performed Ui 
office of a priest in abbess Hilda's monastery, but was now 
preacher of the word in the before-named province, wi 
ordained bishop as substitute for Bosch by bishop Wilfrid i 
blessed memory, at the command of king Ethelred, beealB 
archbishop Theodore was then dead, and no prelate had bee 
consecrated in his stead. Wihtred, son of Egbert, king I 
Kent, being established on the throne, released his subjeP 
from alien intruders. Swebhcard reigned jointly with hil 
over part of the kingdom. 

[a.d. 692.] The venerable Egbert, a name always to t 
mentioned with honour, was an Englishman by birth, In 
having led a pilgrim's life in Ireland, to secure a place in tl 
heavenly country, lie funned the design of preaching in Gel 
many. Not being able to carry it into effect, as it was central 
to the Divine will, he sent there some holy and diligent men 1 
do the work of the gospel, of whom Willi brord was the M 
eminent, both for his merit and rank as a priest. They wd 

1 In the early part of this Chronicle. Florence always ileaignit 
by this name what was afterwards called the bishopric of W» 
(tester, and supplies some details respecting it which ore not fom 
elsewhere. The When (Hwiecas, as our author calls them after tl 
Anglo-Salon, form of the name) Huieii, or Jiignntei, were originally 
poworful tribrt ..f liiit.oiis wiin Worfe-ti.Tsliire, Warwkltsbii 
anil the north of Gloucestershire. On the norih was n kindred liil 

the Ordo-Vites, or nohli' Win;ii, ivli i;:iiially Sitfq', " 

part of Cheshire and N. Wales, and iit'ti.'nvants idinjiierod Won "" 
.shire, ,tc, from the Wiccii proper. — WhUakefi Ithlurg a/M 

nl \\«r« '■ 

A.D. 693 — 697.] ST. WILLIBRORD. 33 

favourably received by Pepin the Elder, chief of the Franks, 
who sent them to preach in Hither Friesland. Following 
their example, two priests of the name of Hewald, English- 
men by birth, went into Old Saxony, that they might gain 
souls for Christ in that province by their preaching ; but the 
barbarians no sooner discovered that they were of a different 
religion, than they seized them and subjected them to mar- 
tyrdom, on the fifth of the nones [the 3rd] of October. 
Willibrord having received from prince Pepin leave to preach, 
went to Borne, to obtain from pope Sergius license to com- 
mence the work of evangelising the heathen, which being 
granted he returned to his mission. 

Berthwald, abbot of the monastery of Raeulf (Reculver), 
near the northern mouth of the river Inlade, a man well 
versed in the Scriptures, and thoroughly acquainted with the 
rules both of monastic and ecclesiastical discipline, was chosen 
bishop in Theodore's place. On the death of Oftfor, bishop of 
the Hwiccas,he was succeeded by St. Egwine, and in the course 
of a few years, with the license and support of king Ethelred, 
began to erect the Abbey of Evesham. 

[a.d. 693.] Berthwald was consecrated by Godwin, the 
metropolitan bishop of France, on Sunday the third of the 
calends of July [29th June]. Among many other bishops 
consecrated by Godwin, was Tobias, ordained bishop of 
Rochester* on the death of Gebmund. Bede, the monk, was 
admitted to the order of deacon by John, bishop of York. 

[a.d. 694.] The Kentish-men made peace with Ina, king 
of Wessex, by paying him three thousand seven hundred and 
fifty pounds, as a mulct for having burnt his brother Mull, 
before mentioned. 1 

[a.d. 695.] The body of St. Etheldritha the Virgin was 
found without decay, as well as the dress in which it was 
wrapped, after having been buried sixteen years. 

[a.d. 696.] St. Willibrord, who was born in Britain of an 
English family, at the request of Pepin chief of the Franks, 
was ordained archbishop of the Frisians, by pope Sergius, 
on the feast of the Nativity of St. Cecilia the Virgin [22nd 

[a.d. 697.] St. Guthlac, at the age of twenty-four years 

1 See note to Saxon Chron. p. 331. Antiq. Lib* 


9tf FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 698 — 704. 

renouncing worldly pomps and relinquishing all lus property, 
betook himself to tin- monastery of Hrepamlun (lteptun)' and 
received die tonsure mid monastic habit there under ahlm 
Alfryth. Osthryth, die queen of Ethelred king of Mercii, 
was slaiu by the Houth-Humhrians. 

[a.d. 68&] The body of St. Cuthbert was found eleven 
years after its interment as undecayed as it was at die hour of. 
Ids deatli, as also the robe in which he was buried ; it was, 
therefore, exhumed, and being wrapped in a new shroud and 
placed in a fresh coffin was deposited on die floor of the 
sanctuary. In a very short time, bishop Eadhert, the friend 
of (Jod, was attacked with an acute disorder, ami not long 
afterwards departed to the Lord on the day before the nones 
[the 6th] of May. His corpse was deposited in the t»uil> ei 
St. Cuthbert, being placed on the chest in which the un- 
decayed remains of that lather had recently been inclosed. 
Eadfrid, a man of God, succeeded Eadliert in the bishopric. 

[a.d. 690.] St. Guthlac retired to the isle of Croylamhon 
the eighth of the calends of September, [25th August], awl 
began to lead the life of a hermit.' 

[a.d. 700—702.] 

[a.d. 703,] Bede, in his book Be Teiuporilms, tlms writer 
in the year in which ho composed it : — " If you wish to ' 
how many years there are, according to IJionysius, 
Lord's Incarnation, reckon the number of iniiictions 
fifth year of Tiberius, which are forty-six; these multiplied 
fifteen muke six hundred anil ninety; add always the regu 
number of twelve, because, according to Dionysius, our Lord 
was born in the fourth indiction, and ;dso the mdietkm of wj 
year you choose, as, for instance, in the present year owv 
the total is seven hundred and three. That is the year of 
our Lord according to Dionysius," These are the words of 

[a,d>. 704.] Ethelred, king of the Mercians, became a monk 
in the thirtieth year of his reign, 3 resigning his kingdom to hit 

1 Itcpton in Derbyshire, the residence ami lurinl-plar 

t.lif? Mercian princes. 

3 See Inpulpli ; uml nv.lcriar-; Vlti.lii. .4»liij. Lib. vol. ii. Ji 

3 Ethelred bLemna abbot of Ilia monastery of liiiiilu,;, of In- ■ 


.D. 705 — 708.] CTNBED AND OPPA GO TO BOMB. 35 

ephew Cynred. The venerable monk Bede, at the command 
f Cealfrid his abbot, received the order of priesthood from 
be holy John, bishop of York. 1 

[a.d. 705.] Alfrid, king of the Northumbrians, died at 
hiffeld on the nineteenth of the calends of January [14th 
December] having not quite completed the thirtieth year of his 
sign. He was succeeded in his kingdom by his son Osred, a 
oy about eight years old, who held it eleven years. In the 
ommencement of his reign, HaxLda, bishop of the West-Saxons, 
eparted to life in heaven; on whose death, the bishopric of 
hat province was divided into two dioceses, one of which was 
iven to Daniel, the other to Aldhelm, 3 abbot of the monastery 
ailed Mailduff (Malmesbury) ; both being persons well versed 
i ecclesiastical affairs and knowledge of the Scriptures. 
»t. Aldhelm was consecrated by the blessed Berthwald, arch- 
ishop of Canterbury. 

[a.d. 706.] 

[a.d. 707. J Bede, having taken priest's orders in the thirtieth 
ear of his age, began to employ himself diligently in writing 
le work, to the composition of which twenty-nine years of 
is life were devoted. 

[a.d. 708.] Cynred, king of Mercia, and Offa, king of the 
last-Saxons, son of king Sighere, leaving their wives, their 
inds, their kindred and country, for Christ's sake and the 
ospel's, and, having received the tonsure and become monks, 
ersevered in prayer, fasting, and almsgiving, at the threshold 
f the apostles, to the end of their days ; and thus became 
dmitted at last to the vision of the blessed apostles in heaven, 
) long the object of their desires. St. Egwine, bishop of the 
[wiccas, accompanied them to Rome, on their invitation, and, 
aving solicited pope Constantine to issue a bull, by which 
xjurity might be given to the monastery he had built in the 

1 Thorpe considers this passage to be <( an interpolation, from the 
laccuracy of its date." The year 774, agreeing with this entry, was 
lopted by Mabillon, and seems to be generally received as the date 
F Bede's birth, and in the next page we find Florence supplying cor- 
jsponding details. Some writers fix it as late as 777, and are sup- 
3rted by the Chronological Epitome at the end of the Eccles. Hist. 
; must be observed, however, that the entries in this, after the year 
31, were supplied by another hand. See the Preface to the Eccles. 
[ist. {Antiq. Lib,), p. vi.; and an entry in this Chronicle, p. 38. 

2 Daniel became bishop of Winchester, and Aldhelm of Sherborne. 

n 2 


territory of Worcester against unjust ela'tins, his petition 

[a.d. 709.] Cynred was succeeded in his kingdom Ity ('<■•• 
red, the son of king Kilielrefl, who had reigned Wore ('ynro 
Kt. Aldhelm, Ifislmp iif' WV^cv, a man of most extensive lew*- 
ing, departed to the Lord. Forthred (Forthcre), his 
in the bishofirio, ivas also deeply read in the holy scriptures. 

" Hero WiliViil's virtues .-■ fiin !■ J the name of Great; 
Long tosseil hj jierils in this mortal stale; 
Tliriee fifteen je«rs n bishop's life be spent, 
Then to the realms hIjoyu ;iiuiiii'ti:Tit went." ' 

His remains were buried with great pomp in the church of 
Peter thy apostle, In Ins original monastery of Ripon. 
his deatli, his priest Aeea received the bishoprie of " 
He was a man of great vigour, honourable in the sij 
of God and man, a skilful channter, deeply erudite 
literature, strict in the true confession «f the catholic 
mirror of continence, and a perfect master of the 
monastic discipline; he had been formerly a scholar 
bishop of York, beloved by God. 

[a.d. 710.] Berhtfrid, commander of king Osred' 
fought a battle with the Piets, in which ho was 
Ina, the warlike king of the Gevvissa.', and his kins 
engaged in wiir with Gwent, king of the Britons, a 
him and put him to flight. The most reverend fal 
abbot of the monastery of St. Peter the apostle, 
was buried in that monastery. He was succeed 
disciple Albums, who was as much master of Greek 
as he was of English, his native tongue. On the 
Tvrlitell. bishop of Hereford, lie was succeeded r>y " 
'[a.d. 711—713.] 

[A.D. 714.] Guthlac, the brother of Chii-t's 
Pegia, that most exemplary hermit and faithful pi 
who worked miracles without number, breathed out 
whh'h was wafted to the joys of eternal triumph, on 
of the ides [the 1 1th] of April, being the fourth day 
the twelfth iudiction. He was succeeded by C'issa, who 

1 Theae lines ure eilraeleil, with sniiu vaiialionB, from Hie e] 
in Ueiie, Hint. v. JD, beginning Wilf'iihi.t hie Mat/nun, ■' WUft 

A.D. 715—720.] SAXON KINGS AND SAINTS. 37 

for a long time an idolater, but bad afterwards been baptized 
in Britain. 

[a.d. 715.] Gregory (II.) became the eighty-eighth pope, 
and filled the apostolical see seventeen years and ten months. 
He was chaste and wise, and ordained Boniface to the bishopric 
of Mentz, from whom Germany received the word of salvation. 
Ina, king of the West-Saxons, and Ceolrid, king of the Mer- 
cians, fought a battle at a place called Wodnesbeorh. 

[a.d. 716.] Egbert, the man of God who has been men- 
tioned before, induced the monks of Hii to adopt the Catholic 
usages with respect to Easter and ecclesiastical tonsure. 
When Osred was slain, Cenred, son of the illustrious Cuthwine, 
succeeded to the government of the kingdom of Northumbria. 
Ceolred, king of the Mercians, died, and was buried at Litch- 
field. Ethelbald his cousin, that is, the son of Alwine, who 
was the cousin of his father king Ethelred, became king, as 
St. Guthlac, inspired by a prophetical spirit, had predicted to 
him. Ethelred, formerly king of the Mercians, but afterwards 
abbot of the monastery of Bardney, which he had himself 
founded, departed out of this life, and entered on the joys 
of eternal happiness, serenity and light. Abbot Ceolfrid, a 
man of eminent holiness and devotion, died while he was on 
a pilgrimage at the city of Langres, in Burgundy, and was 
buried in the church of the fellow martyrs, SS. Speusippus, 
Eleusippus, and Meleusippus. He was at the time of his death 
seventy-four years of age, having been of the order of the 
priesthood forty-seven years, and filled the office of abbot 
thirty-five years. 

[a.d. 717.] St. Egwine, the third bishop of the Hwiccas, 
died on Thursday the third of the calends of January [30th 
December], the fifteenth induction. Wilfrid, a man of 
eminent piety, succeeded to the bishopric of the church of 
Worcester, having been elected in Egwine's lifetime. 

[a.d. 718.] Cenred, king of the Northumbrians, died, 
and Osric was raised to the throne. Ingils, brother of Ina, 
king of the West-Saxons, ended his life. His sisters were 
SS. Cuenburh and Cuthburh, who founded a monastery for 
nuns at a place called Winburne. Aldfrith, king of the Nor- 
thumbrians, married Cuthburh, but they both renounced 
connubial intercourse before her death, for the love of God. 

[a.d. 719, 720.] 

38 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [A.D. 721— 72$. _ 

[a.D. 721.] Daniel, liishop of Windiest or, went to Rome, 
The same year, king lna- slew L'ynewulf the Etheliiig. The 
holy John, bishop of York, being prevented l>y the weight of 
years fiiim duly performing his episcopal functions, conie- 
cratuil Ilia friend Wilfrid to net for him, and retiring to ah 
monastery, which is culled "In the Wood of Deira," diisl 
there on the nones [the 7th] of May, having spent the eW 
of his days in ft course of living agreeable to God. Eadfrfcl, 
biahop of Lindisfamr died, and was succeeded by EthclwaR 
priest and ahliot of Mailrosc. 

[a.d. 722.] Queen Etheiburh levelled to the ground tl* 
castle of Taunton, built some time before by king Inn, nho 
fought a battle the same year with the Bout I i-S axons. 

[a.d. 723, 724.] 

[a.d, 725.] Wihtred, king of Kent, 3on of Egbert, dW 
on the ninth of the calends of May [2.'Srd April], leaving tlirw 
sons, Ethelbert, Eadlwrt, and Alrie, heirs to his kingdom. 
which ho had held thirty-four years and a hall". King Ina,iii 
» second battle with the South- Saxons, slew the EthelitiK 
Aldbriht, whom he had previously driven out of Wessex. 

In this year Bede, the chr loger, composed his "Lcwf 

Book of Computation ;" for lie thus writes: " If you wish to 
know the epaet for any year, take the year of our Lord, 
whatever it may be, according to DionysiiiN, as in the present 
eighth indiet ion, seven hundred anil twenty five; divide hj 
nineteen, multiply nineteen by thirty, and you have five hun- 
dred and seventy, and nineteen multiplied by eight produca 
one hundred and fifty two: subtracting these, three remain; 
three multiplied by eleven make thirty three; subtract thirty, 
and three remain, which is the epaet for the present year" 
These are Bodo's words. 

[a.d. 720. ] Tobias, bishop of Rochester died ; he h*l 
learnt Greek and Latin so perfectly that he knew liw 
languages as well, and could use them as familiarly, u li" 
native English. Jle was succeeded by Aldulf. 

[».d. 727.] 

[a.d. 728.] King lua, having abdicated, and resigned hh 
crown to Ethel ward, a descendant of king Cerdie, journeyed 
to the threshold of the blessed apostles in the time of p«|>l 
Gregory (II.), desirous of sojourning for a time as a pilgrim 
near the holy places on earth, so that he might from them* 


a.d. 729—731,] uxov sees and bishops. 39 

secure a readier admission into the society of the saints in 
heaven. The same year a battle was fought between king 
Ethelhard and Oswald, the Etheling, who was son of Ethel- 
bald, son of Cynebald, son of Cuthwine, son of Ceaulin. 

[a.d. 729.] In the month of January, two comets appeared 
round the sun, and remained visible nearly two weeks. 
Egbert, the man of God we have often mentioned, departed 
to the Lord on Easter-day of this year, which fell on the 
eighth of the calends of May [24th April]. Shortly after- 
wards, when Easter was past, on the seventh of the ides [the 
9th] of May, Osric king of the Northumbrians also died, 
having declared Ceolwulf brother of his predecessor Kenred, 
his heir. It was to king Ceolwulf that Bede, the servant of 
God, priest and monk, dedicated his Ecclesiastical History of 
the English nation. Ceolwulf was the son of Outha, who was 
son of Cuthwine, who was son of Egwald, who was son of 
Aldhelm, who was son of Occa, who was son of Ida, who 
was son of Eoppa. 

[a.d. 730.] Oswald the Etheling, a most valiant prince, 

[a.d. 731.] Archbishop Berthwald, worn out with old age, 
died on the fifth of the ides [the 9th] of January. Pope 
Gregory (II.) died on the third of the ides [the 11th] of 
February. Tatwine, a priest of the monastery of Brindun, 
(Breedon Worces.) in the province of Mcrcia, was consecrated 
as archbishop of Canterbury to succeed Berthwald, on Sunday 
the tenth of the month of June, by the following bishops : — 
Daniel of Winchester, Inguald of London, Aldwine of Litch- 
field, and Aldulf of Rochester. He was eminent for piety 
and wisdom, and amply endowed with the knowledge of sacred 
literature. About the year 282, after the arrival of the An- 
gles in Britain, Tatwine and Aldulf were bishops of the 
churches in Kent ; Inguald was bishop of the East-Saxons, 
Eadberht and Hathulac were bishops of the province of East- 
Anglia, and Daniel and Forthere of the province of Wessex ; 
Aldwine was bishop of the province of Mercia ; Walhstod, of 
the people who live beyond the river Severn towards the west ; 
Wilfrid of the province of the Hwiccias, 1 and Kynebert of 
the province of Lindisfarne. The bishopric of the Isle of 

1 Walhstod of Hereford. Wilfrid of Woroester. 

40 plokenci: or WDiitESTBH. [a.d. 732 — 734. 

Wight lie-longs to Daniel, bishop of Winchester. The buhotxjj 
of the South-Saxons having lieen now tor some ve.'ir- u.iil. 
the bishop of (he West -Saxons had been invited to exercise 
the episcopal functions in it. All these provinces, and the 
others south of, and as tar as, the river Huniber, with thi-ir 
several kings, were subjeet to EHielbald. king nt' the Mercians. 
As for the province of the Novtluiinbrunis, of which Coolwulf 
was king, it was divided into four bishopries, of whieh 
Wilfrid held the church in York, Ethelwold in Lindisfaruc, 
Acca in Hexham, ami Pecteim in that which is called Can- 
dida-Cnsa (Whitiicme). The Britons were for the most part 
reduced to servitude under the English. 

[a.d. 732.] 

[a.d. 733.1 There was an eclipse of the sun on the 
eighteenth of the calends of September, about the third hour 
of the day, so that nearly its whole disc seemed to l>e covered 
with a very black and fearful spot. 1 Acca, bishop of Hexham, 
was driven from his see. 

[A.D. 734.] On the second of the calends of Erbni.vv 
[31st January], about cock-crowing, the moon turned blood- 
red for nearly an hour, then it changed to black, and after- 
words reassunied its natural brightness. Tatwine, archbishop 
of Canterbury, departed this life on the third of the calends 
of August [30th July]. Nothelm, a priest of the church of 
London, succeeded him in the archbishopric. The most holy 
Bede, the venerable priest, the iimuk worthy of all praise, the 
admirable chronologer, died in this year, according to tlw 
English Chronicles, but in the year following [a.d. 735], 
according to his disciple. Cuthliei't, who wrote an account 
of his death, ami was present with many others at his de- 
parture. It took place on the Wednesday before the feast 
of our Lord's Ascension : " that is, the eighth of the 
calends of June [25th May], about the tenth hour, when lie 
breathed his last in a devout and train pit) frame of mind, and 
so departed with joy to the realms above. He composed an 
account of most of the events which occurred in his own 

J Tlie true date of tliU eclipse was the Ulh August, 13$, 
: According tn Culhtn-i-t's Letter, A'Ci-ii^iun -duv It'll that year on tlie 
*lli lnsioiT tin.' niib'iiits of Jniii', ci'iTL'spniuliTis willi -"tli May. In the 
Kn<*li*li Historical Siwietv's wlitimi "f Hcde noil Florence, hi ' '" 
is placed on Uie STIfa May, 735. 

a.d. 735 — 744.] SAXON kings and bishops. 41 

country down to this period in a clear style, and his life and 
his history ended together. We too, God guiding us, have 
thought it worth our while to bequeath to our faithful suc- 
cessors a record of events from the term of his happy end, 
which we have gathered from the English Chronicles, or the 
credible accounts of trustworthy persons ; as well as such as 
we have heard ourselves as undoubted facts, and, in some 
cases, seen with our own eyes, and accurately noted. 

[a.d. 735.] Pectelm, bishop of Whitherne died, and was 
succeeded in the bishopric by Frithowald. 

[a.d. 736.] Nothelm, archbishop of Canterbury, received 
the pallium from Gregory (III.), the eighty-ninth pope. 

[a.d. 737.] Forthere, bishop of Sherborne, and Frithogith, 
queen of the West-Saxons, went as pilgrims to Rome. 

[a.d. 738.] Ceolwulf, king of Northum^ria, having abdi- 
cated his kingdom and transferred it to Eadbert his cousin, 
son of Eata, became a monk. 

[a.d. 739.] Ethelwold, bishop of Lindisfarne, and Acca, 
bishop of Hexham, paid the debt of nature. Cynewulf 
succeeded Ethelwold, and Acca was succeeded by Frithoberht, 

>.D. 740.] 

a.d. 741.] Ethelhard, king of Wessex, died, and was 
succeeded by his kinsman Cuthred, who harassed Ethelbald, 
king of Mercia, by continued hostilities. On the death of 
Nothelm, the archbishop of Canterbury, on the sixteenth of 
the calends of November [17th October], Cuthbert, who was 
the fifth bishop of Hereford, was raised to the archbishopric. 
Aldwulf, bishop of Rochester, also died, and Dunn was con- 
secrated in his place. 

[a.d. 742.] 

a.d. 743.] Ethelbald, king of Mercia, and Cuthred, king 
of Wessex, fought a battle with the Britons. Wilfrid, bishop 
of the Hwicii, departing this life, was succeeded by Mildred. 
(St. Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, flourished). Stars were 
seen apparently falling from heaven. 

[a.d. 744.] (St. Boniface founded the abbey of Fulda, in 
the wilderness of Bochon.) Wilfrid the younger, archbishop 
of York, died on the third of the calends of May [29th April], 
and Egbert, king Edbert's brother, was raised to the archi- 
episcopal throne. Daniel bishop of Winchester, venerable 
for his great age, voluntarily resigning his office, chose to 



retire in the same city, and II an frith was appointed b 

his stead. 

[a.d. 7*5.] Daniel departed to the Lord, in the for 
year from the time he was consecrated bishop, and aft 
struggles in his heavenly warfare. 

[a.d. 746.] Selred, ting of the East-Saxons, was : 

[ a.d. 747.] 

[a.d. 748.] Cynric, the Ethcling of the West-Sax. 
slain. Eadbert, king of Kent, died, and lus brother 
l>ort was raised to the throne. 

[a.D. 749.] 

[a.d, 750.] (Pepin was anointed emperor by E 
archbishop of Mem/., by a decree of po|>e Zaehavy 
consequence, tin.' bishops of Mont/, are considered 
next to the popes.) Cuthred, king of the West- 
fought, a battle with the fierce eaklonurin Ethelhun. 

[a.d. 751.] 

[a.d, 752.] Cuthred, king ofWessex, in the twel 
of his reign, fought a severe battle with Ethelbald, 
the Mercians, near BeorhtfsnJ (Uurford). 

[a.d. 753. j King Cuthred fought again with the 
and slew many of them, 

[a.d. 754.] Uuthred, king of the West-Saxons d 
his kinsman Sigeliert, son of Nitrei-ir, succeeded him. 
death of llunfrith, bishop of Winchester, Cynehard 
pointed in his place. Oiuitei'liury was destroyed by li 

[a.d. 755.] St. Boniface, the archbishop, while pi 
the word of God in FrioUnd, suffered martyrdom in * 
. with many others on the nones [the 5th] of Juno. C; 
a descendant of king Cerdie, with the support of tl 
Saxon nobles, expelled their king, Sigobert, on aeenul 
mitny unjust acts, and reigned in his stead ; but C 
granted him a district called Hampshire, which he he 
he unjustly slew Cum bran, the eiddorman, who had ail 
him longer than any of the rest. After that, king i. 
himself marched against him, and drove him into 
which the English called Andred. He abode there fi 
time, but at. last he was run through with a spear, ai 
called Privet's-Flood, by a certain herdsman, in revi 
the caldoftnan's death. The same king, Cynewulf, v( 

"sated the Britons in great battles. Ethelbald, kin, 

A.D. 756—763.] OPPA, KINO OF MEBCIA. 43 

Mercians, was killed at Seoceswald, and his body conveyed 
to Repton and buried there. His kingdom was usurped 
by the tyrant Beornred, who held it for a short time with 
little joy or comfort, and then lost his crown and his life 
together. On his death he was succeeded by Offa, grandson 
of a cousin of Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, being a son of 
Thingferth, who was son of Eanwulf, who was son of Osmond, 
who was son of Eoppa, who was son of Wybba, the father of 
king Penda. 

[a.d. 756.] (Lullus succeeded Boniface in the arch- 
bishopric of Mentz, which he held thirty-two years.) 

[a.d. 757.] Eadbert, king of the Northumbrians, resigned 
his crown for love of his heavenly country, and received the 
tonsure of St. Peter the apostle. Oswulf, his son, assumed the 
government of the kingdom, and after reigning one year was 
slain by the Northumbrians, on the ninth of the calends of 
August [24th July]. 

[a.d. 758.] Outhbert, archbishop of Canterbury, departed 
this life on the seventh of the calends of November [26th 
October]. At this period Swithred was king of the East- 
Saxons, Osmund of the South-Saxons, and Beorn of the East- 

[a.d. 759.] Breogwin, Cuthbert's successor, was consecrated 
archbishop on the feast of St. Michael. Moll Ethelwald was 
raised to the throne of Northumbria. 

[a.d. 760.] Ethelbert, king of Kent, died, and Ceolwulf, 
the most devout monk, formerly the illustrious king of the 
Northumbrians, passed to the joys of eternal light. 

[a.d. 761.] The winter of this year was very severe ; and 
Moll, king of the Northumbrians, slew Oswine, a most noble 
Etheling, near Edwin's-cliff, on the eighth of the ides [the 6th] 
of August. 

[a.d. 762.] Breogwin, archbishop of Canterbury, died on 
the ninth of the calends of September [24th August]; he 
was succeeded by Jainbert, abbot of St. Augustine's. 

[a.d. 763.] Jainbert was enthroned as archbishop on the 
feast of the purification of St. Mary [2nd Feb.], The same 
year Frithowald, bishop of Whitherne, died on the nones [the 
7th] of May; Pehtwine having been consecrated in the 
district called ^Elfete, on the nineteenth of the calends of 
August [17th July], filled the see in the place of Frithowald. 


[a,D. 764.] Archbishop Jsmibort received the palliui: 
pope Paul, brother of his predecessor pope .Stephen. 

[a.d. 765.] Moll, king of the Northumbrians, vaeol 
throne, in which lie was succeeded by Alhred, son of Ea: 
who was son of Byrnhom, who was son of Iiosa, who w 
of Bleaeman, who was sou of Ealrie, who was son of I. 

[a.d. 766.] Egbert, archbishop of York, died on th 
teenth of the calends of December [19th Nov.] at Yorli 
was succeeded by Ethelbert. Frithobert, bisliop of H( 
died ; and was succeeded by Alhmund. 

[a.d. 767.] 

[a.d. 768.] Eadbcrt, formerly the most illustrious h 
the Northumbrians, and afterwards a monk of eminent 
died on the thirteenth of the calends of September [20th 
and was buried in the same porch in which his brother 1 
the archbishop lies. 

[a.d. 769—773.] 

[a.d. 774.] A red sign, in the shape of a cross, was vis 
the heavens after sunset. The Mercians and the Kentis 
fought n battle at Ottanford. Horrible snakes were a 
Sussex, to the wonder of all. During the feast of 
[3rd April], the Northumbrians drove their king, A 
king Moll's successor, from York, and raised Ethelbei 
son of Moll to the throne. 

[a.d. 775.] Milred, bishop of the Hwiecas, died 
Wermund succeeded him iu the bishopric. 

[a.d. 776.] Pehtwine, bishop of Whitherne, died < 
thirteenth of the calends of October [19th Sept.]. 

[a.d. 777.] 

[a.d. 778.] Ethelbert being expelled from his kingd 
the Northumbrians, Alfwold was raised to the throne, 
wiitf king of Weascx, anil Ofta king of Mereia, fov 
desperate battle near Bensington ; but Ollii having gain 
victory, took possession of the town, which he kept, 
liuind, bishop of the Hwiecas, died; and was sueeeeil 
abbot Tilhere. Ethelbert was ordained bishop of York 
twentieth of the calends of July [15th June] at Whithi 

[a.d. 779.] Alhmund, bishop of Hexham, died c 
seventh of the ides [7th] of September; in whose plni 
Itert was consecrated on the tenth of the nones [the 2 
and Higbald was ordained bishop of T' 



A.D. 780 — 784.] . CYNEHARD, THE ETHELING. 45 

at Soccabirig, in the room of Gynewulf. King Alfwold sent 
envoys to Rome to demand the pallium for Eanbald from pope 

a.d. 780.] 

[a.d. 781.] Tilhere, bishop* of the Hwiccias, being dead, 
Heathored succeeded to his episcopal functions. Ethelbert, 
archbishop of York, Egbert's successor, died ; and was suc- 
ceeded by Eanbald. He was the scholar of Alhwine, the 
preceptor of the emperor Charles. A synod was held at 
Acley. Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne, and Werburga, 
queen of Ceolred, formerly king of the Mercians, died. 

[a.d. 782, 783.] 

"a.d. 784.] When Cynewulf, king of Wessex, was taking 
measures for expelling Cynehard, who, being king Sigebert's 
brother, was the Etheling, it chanced that he came with only 
a few attendants to a vill called in English Merton, to visit 
some woman. The etheling, learning this, instantly collected 
a band of his retainers, and hastened to the spot with great 
glee. On his arrival, finding all the world asleep, he had the 
chamber in which the king lay closely beset on all sides by 
his followers. .The king being alarmed, leapt from the bed, 
and seizing his arms, opened the chamber-door, and fought 
stoutly in resistance to his assailants. At length, getting 
sight of the etheling, he rushed forth to attack him, and gave 
him a severe wound. Seeing this, the whole band of the 
etheling's soldiers fell on the king, and wounded and slew 
him. The woman, uttering cries of terror and grief, fills 
the chamber with her lamentations. The few troops who were 
in attendance on the king run to the spot, and find their 
master, whom they had just before left alive, lying dead. 
At this they are roused to such a pitch of fury, that 
drawing their swords they make a desperate rush on his 
murderers. The etheling endeavours to pacify them, pro- 
mising -to each a large sum of money, besides sparing their 
lives, if they will withdraw ; they, however, reject his offers, 
and continue the combat till they all perish, except one 
British hostage, who was desperately wounded. When morn- 
ing came, and the news of the king's death got abroad, his 
ealdorman Osric, who was much attached to him, and Wiferth, 
his most faithful thane, hastened to the spot with all the force 
• the king had left behind the day before ; but they find all the 

4<j FLORENCE OP WOHCEKTEH. [a.D. 785 — 788, 

gates barred. While they are trying to burst thorn open, the 
etheling boldly advances to them, promising them that he 
will cheerfully heap on them gold, silver, honours, whatever 
they severally coveted, if they will only raise him to the royal 
throne : he suggests also, that there are many of their relations 
on his side, who are ready to follow him to the death, rather 
than be induced to id widen him on any pretence. The royal 
troops reject his otters, and earnestly entreat their kinsmen to 
desert their lord and depart home in safety with all possible 
despatch. But the etheling's party replied : — " What you 
oiler us, we proposed to your comrades who fell with the 
king ; but as they would not attend to our summons, neither 
will we olwy yours on the present occasion." On receiving 
tliis answer, the royal troops advance, force open the doors, 
level the barricades, and put the etheling and all his followers, 
in number eighty-four, to the sword, except only his little son 
who was severely wounded. The king's corpse was conveyed 
to Winchester for interment; the etheling's was buried in the 
monastery at Axminster. 

[a.d. 785.] A synod was held at a place called in Englisli, 
Cealch-hythe, where, after much wrangling, archbishop Join- 
liert lost a small portion of bis diocese. 1 Bertliun, bishop «f 
Dorchester, dying, Higbert was chosen by Ofla, king of 
Merrill, to succeed him in his bishopric; and OflVs son 
Egfert was consecrated king. 

tUh 780-1 

[a.d. 787.] Brihtrie, king of Wcssox, married Eatlburga, 
king Clllas daughter: in his time, Danish pirates came tn 
England with three ships. The king's reeve hearing of their 
arrival hastened to meet them with a few followers, and being 
in entire ignorance who they were, or whence tiny >-.,w, 
tried to drive them, unwilling as they were, to the royal vill. 
Inn ilii'v presently slew him. These were (lie first Danes who 
landed in England. 

[a.u. 788.] A synod was hold at Pineanhalo (Pineliall) 

1 Ceulchythe: Chelsea' 1 which mis called Cheleetho ns tnteastlie 
p ml Hi' itie liftecnlh century. This synod van held for the purpossof 
ftBlnblishing an jinlejiciiileiil "vrltiepi.-ii'oiml see for the kingdom "' 

iUeitui, wlii'ii 1 ,irlilii'l.l wns chips, ■!] iis ilu: 1'laiie, mul I li|,'ebertt an <t> e 
tiist nii'ireii,ilit:ei ; within wli'>sr province mis comprised all "' 
between the end the Hnmber. 

,11 Um « 

.D. 789 — 794.] ALFWOLD — ETHELBERT. 47 

i Northumbria, on the fourth of the nones [the 2nd] of 

[a.d. 789.] Alfwold king of the Northumbrians was in- 
imously assassinated by a man named Bigan on the ninth of 
he calends of October [23rd September] ; and was interred 
at the church of St. Peter, at Hexham. A strong light from 
teaven was frequently observed on the spot where he was 
aurdered. He was succeeded in his kingdom by his nephew 
)sred, king Alchred's son. 

[a.d. 790-3 Jainbert, archbishop of Canterbury, died on the 
econd of the ides [12th] of August; andEthelhard succeeded 
dm. Osred being dethroned and driven out by the Northum- 
brians, Ethelred, AJfwold's brother was restored to his kingdom. 

[a.d. 791.] Beadulf was ordained bishop of Whitherne on 
he sixteenth of the calends of August [17th July]. 

[a.d. 792.] Osred, who had been expelled from his kingdom 
>y«the Northumbrians, was seized and barbarously put to 
leath on the eighteenth of the calends of October [14th 
September]. He was buried in the monastery at the mouth 
)f the river Tyne. 

[a.d. 793.] Ethelbert, the most glorious and holy king of 
;he East- Angles, whose eminent virtues rendered him accept- 
able to Christ, the true King, and who was courteous and 
iffable to all men, lost at once both his kingdom and his 
life, being beheaded by the detestable commands of Offa, the 
mighty king of Mercia, at the infamous suggestion of his own 
wife, queen Cynefrith ; but though iniquitously slain and 
deprived of his kingdom, the king and martyr entered the 
courts of the blessed spirits, while the angels rejoiced in 
triumph. The consecration of archbishop Ethelhard was cele- 
brated on twelfth of the calends of August [21st July]. 

[a.d. 794.] Ethelred, king of the Northumbrians, was 
slain by his subjects; in consequence, Ceolwulf, bishop of 
Lindisfarne, and bishop Eadbold, departed the kingdom. 
Eadbert, surnamed Pren, began to reign in Kent. Offa, king 
of Mercia, dying on the fourth of the calends of August 
[29th July], his son Egbert succeeded to the glory of his 
kingdom, but only reigned one hundred and forty-one 
days, ending his life the same year. He was succeeded by 
Kenulf, a magnificent prince, who was blessed with a saintly 
offspring, and ruled the kingdom with peace, justice, and piety. 


? WOBOEaXBB. [a.D. 7 


[A.o. 795.] 

i_A.D. 79C] Keiuilf, tin™ of Mercia, ravaged neai 
Kent, and taking prisoner its king, l'ren, earned him a' 
chains with him to Mcreia. 

[a.d. 797.] 

[a.d. 798.J The Iwdy of fit. Wihtburg, the Virgin, < 
ter of Anna, king of tin- Angles, and sister of the s 
virgins, Sexburga, Ethel Imrga. and Etheldutha, was disc 
in a, state of incorruption after it had been buried 
fifty-five years at the vili, ealled Dyrhaiu. Heathored, 
of the Hwiccias, died, and Deneberht was chosen and 
crated in liis stead. 

[a.d. 799.] Ethelhard, archbishop of Canterbury 
Kiueberht, hislu>i> of Winchester, went to Rome. 

[a.d. 800.] Brihtric, king of Wesscx, died, and w: 
ceeded by Egbert. It l»ap]ieiied that on the very d 
which Brill trio died, Etholinund, eaidorman of Mcreia, 
expedition out of Mercia, and crossed the ford call 
English, Cymeresford. On heaving of Ids advance, Ww 
eaidorman of Wiltshire, marched against him with the i 
Wilts, and, after an obstinate engagement, in which ni 
fell on both sides, and both the ealdornien were sla 
Wiltshire men gained the victory. Alhmund, son of J 
king of Northumbria, was killed. 

[a.d. 801.] 

[a.d. 802,] Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne, diet 
Egbert being elected his successor, was consecrated b; 
bald, archbishop of York, on the third of the ides [2 
June. Wcrmuud, bishop of Rochester, dying, Bcornnit 
consecrated in his stead. 

[a.d. 803.] Ethelhard, archbishop of Canterbury, dit 
was succeeded by Wulfred. 

[a.d. 804.] Archbishop Wulfred received the ] 
from pope Loo. 

[a.d. 80.3.] The church of St. Alton's was dedica 
the 1st of December in this year. Cutlircd, king of 
Heabcrlit, the eaidorman, and Ceolburga, abbess of F 

[a.d. 806— 811.] 

Ja.d. 812.] Wulfred, archbishoj. of Canter 

iberht, bishop of Sherborne, went to Rome. 

A.D. 813 — 823.] WULFRED — ST. KENELM. 49 


[a.d. 813.] Archbishop Wulfred returned to his see with 
;he benediction of pope Leo. The same year, Egbert, king 
rf Wessex, ravaged the Western Britons oh their eastern 

a.d. 814, 815.] x 

a.d. 816.] The English-school at Borne was destroyed 
>y fire. 

[aj>. 817, 818.] 

[a.d. 819.] St. Kenulph, king of Mercia, after a life spent 
a good deeds, was translated to eternal bliss in heaven, leav- 
Qg his son (St.) Kenelm, a boy seven years old, heir to his 
ingdom. A few months only had elapsed when, betrayed by 
be artifices of his sister Quendryth, whose conscience was 
ardened by her fierce ambition, the young king was fiercely 
et upon and secretly murdered by Ascebert, his cruel 
uardian, under a thorn-tree in a vast and dense wood; 
ut as heaven alone was witness to his murder, so heaven 
jvealed it by the testimony of a column of light. Kenelm's 
inocent head fell to the ground, pure and milk-white as it 
as at his birth; from it a milk-white dove soared to 
3aven on golden wings. After his blessed martyrdom, Ceol- 
ulf succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia. Egbert, bishop 

Lindisfarne, died, and was succeeded by Heathored. 

a.d. 820.] 

a.d. 821.] Ceolwulf, king of Mercia, was deprived of 
is kingdom. 

[a.d. 822.] Burhelm and Muca, two most resolute ealdor- 
ien, were slain. A synod was held at a place called Clove- 
10. Deneberht bishop of the Hwiccas, died, and was 
lcceeded by Heaberht. 

[a.d. 823.] The Britons were defeated at a place called 
lavulford (Camelford ?) by the men of Devonshire. Egbert, 
ing of Wessex, and Beornwulf, king of Mercia, fought a 
attle at Ellandune, that is Ealla's-hill, and Egbert gained the 
ictory with great slaughter. In consequence, he soon after- 
r ards sent his son Ethelwulf, andEalhstan, bishop of Sherborne, 
ud his ealdorman Wulf hard, with a large army, into Kent, 
'ho, immediately on their arrival, drove Baldred king of that 
rovince from his kingdom. After these successes, the men 
f Kent and Surrey, Sussex and Essex, voluntarily submitted 
) king Egbert; those provinces having been wrested informer 



50 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 824 — 327 

times from the Lands of his kinsmen, and reluctantly compelled 
to submit to the yoke of alien kings for the space of some 
years. The East- Angles, also, with their king, sent envoys to 
Egbert, king of Wessex, imphinng him (o lie their proteetuf 
and tower of defence against the hostile inroads uf the 
Mercians; which petition lie granted, and promised them 
his ready aid in all emergencies. However, Beornwulf, long 
of Mereia, treated this compact with contempt, and assembling 
a considerable army entered the territories of the East-Angka 
in a hostile manner, and began to put to death their prineip*! 
people ; but their king advanced against the enemy at the 
head of his forces, and giving them battle, put king Beoro- 
wulf and the greatest part of hi* army to the sword: hit 
tin-man Ludecan succeeded to his kingdom. 

[a.d. 824.1 

[a.d. 825. J Ludeean, king of Mereia, having assembled 
his forces, marched his army into the province of the Eat- 
Angles. to revenge the death of his predecessor Beornwulf. 
The people of that country with their king speedily en- 
countered him. and a desperate battle was fought, in which 
Ludecan and live of iiis i-nidm-mcu. and great uuinliers of his 
troops fell, and the rest took to flight : Witilaf succeeded W 
the honours of his kingdom. 

[a.d. 826.] 

[a.d. 827.] There was tin ecli]ise of the moon on the holy 
night of the Nativity of our Lord. 1 The same year, Egbert, 
king of Wessex reduced die kingdom of Mereia under his 
own dominion. Then he extended his expedition to the 
further side of the river Himiber. Tlte Northumbrians met 
hiin in peaceful guise at a place called Dore, and ottered him 
terras of alliance and humble submission ; and so they piirted 
with great satisfaction on both sides. 

This king Egbert was the eighth among the kings of the 
English nations who ruled over all their southern provinces, 
separated by the river liuinber and neighbouring boundnrie* 
from those which lie to the north. The first who held this 
extended dominion was .Ella, king of the East-Saxons; the 
second t'eb'n, king of the West-Saxons, called in their 
dialect Ceaulin ; the third was Ethelbert, king of Kent ; che 

1 This eclipse happened on the 25th December, 628. 

AJ>. 828—835.] n» M&BTWAl&AZ, 51 

fourth was Redwald, king of the East- Angles, who governed 
that people as ealdorman even in Ethelbert's life-time; the 
fifth was Edwin, king of the Northumbrian tribes, that is, 
those who dwelt to the north of the river Humber, the most 
powerful of all the settlers in Britain. Redwald's dominion 
extended over the whole population, both EnglUh and British, 
except that of Sent ; and he subjected to English rule the 
Jdenaviam islands which lie between Ireland and England. 
The sixth monarch of all England, he himself being the moat 
christian king of Northumbria, was Oswald. The seventh 
was Oswy, who for a time maintained his supremacy within 
nearly the same limits, and to a very great extent subjugated 
the Picts and Scots who inhabit the northern extremities of 
Britain, making them tributaries. The eighth, as we have 
already stated, was king Egbert. In his time, as it is re- 
ported, St. S within was born, who, sprung from a noble line 
if ancestors, when his youthful years were passed, was ad- 
mitted to holy orders by St. Helmstan, bishop of Winchester. 
King Egbert also committed his son Ethelwulf to his care for 
instruction in sacred learning. 

[a.b. 828,] King Witglaf was reinstated in his kingdom 
of Mercia. Heathored, bwhop of Lindisfarne, died, and was 
succeeded by Ecgred. Egbert, king of Wessex, led an army 
into the territory of the Northern Britons, and in spite of their 
opposition reduced them to subjection. 

~a.d. 829.] Wulfred, archbishop of Canterbury, died. 
a.d. 830. J Ceolnoth was elected and eonsecrated arch- 


aa 83L] 

V.n. 832.] The Danish pirates, greedy for plunder, ravaged 
the isle of Sheppy. 

[a.d. 833.] Egbert, king of Wessex, engaged the pirates 
at Oarrum (Charmouth) with thirty-five ships, but after great 
carnage in the battle the Banes remained victors. 

>.d. 834.] 

~a.d. 835.] The Danes made a descent with a powerful 
'fleet on the territory of the Britons in the West, which is called 
Curvallia (Cornwall) ; the Britons made an alliance with them, 
and, uniting their forces, they laid waste the borders of king 
Egbert's dominions. Receiving intelligence of this, Egbert 
assembled his troops in great haste, and giving the enemy 

e 2 

52 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. £a.D. 836 844 

battle at a plat* called Hengestasdun, that is Hcngist's-mount 
he slew ninny of them and put the rest to flight. 

[a.d. 836.] Egbert, king of Wessex, died. He had bee] 
driven out of England by Otiii king of Slvrcia, and Itertri 
king of Wessex, before he became king, and went to France 
where ho sojourned throo years : he then returned to England 
and on Eerhtric's death assumed the government of Wessex, a 
already mentioned. After Egbert's death his son Ethclwu; 
began to reign in Wessex, and made his son Atlielstan kin, 
over the people of Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sussex. 

[a.d. 837.] Wulfhani, the ealdorman, attacked a piratict 
fleet of thirty-four ships at Hamtun (Southampton), and game 
tlie victory with great slaughter : he died soon afterward* 
Ethellielni, the ealdorman, with the assistance of the people ( 
Dorsetshire, engaged in a battle with the Danes in the terri 
tory of Fort (Portland island), and compelled them to a Ion 
retreat, during whicii he received a mortal wound, aud th 
Danes got the victory. In the reign of king Ethelwulf, Si 
Hehustan, the bishop, departed this life; and by the king 1 
command .St. S3 within Iiwluiij his successor. 

[A.D. 838.] Hereborht,t!ie eiddurman, and vast nirmbersc 
the Mercians, at the same time, were slain by the lieathei 
Danes. The same year multitudes were put to the sword b; 
tho same party in the province of Lindsay in East-Anglia, un 
in Kent. Witglaf king of Morcia died, and was succeeds 
by Beorhtwulf. 

[a.d. 839.] There was an eclipse of the sun on the tbir 
of the noucs [the Oth] of May, being the eve of Ascension 
day, between the eighth and ninth hour. The Pagans, » 
often mentioned, slaughtered numbers in London, Cwentawic ; 
and lloebester. 

[a.d. 840.] Ethelwulf, king of Wessex, engaged wit 
thirty-five ships at Charmoutb, but the fortune of the Dane 
prevailed over the Saxons. 

[a.d. 841—844.] 

1 "Qnentovich tiie ancient name of Elaplas, or St. Jossc-snr-nK 
between Boulogne and St. Valery. However one MS. of the Said 
Chronicle reaih ' Cuntm-iirii-liyrJ:;,' and tv.\> J1SS. ' Cantwic,' whir! 
readings, together witli the place being named in conjunction wit 
London and Rochester, render it very probable that C'anterbnrj i 
""""it, and not the little French sea-porL" — Thorpe, 

London and 
meant, and i 

AJ>. 845 — 849.] KING ALFRED BORN. 53 

[a.d. 845.] Eanwulf, the ealdorman, with the men of 
Somerset and Ealhstan, bishop of Sherborne, and Osric the 
ealdorman, with the men of Dorset, fought with the Danish 
army at the mouth of the river Pedridan (the Parret), and 
having made great slaughter amongst them, gained the victory. 
Ecgrid, bishop of Lindisfarne, died, and was succeeded by 

a.d. 846, 847.] 

a.d. 848.] Heaberht, the bishop of the Hwiccas, died, and 
Alhhim succeeded. 

[a.d. 849.] Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, was born at 
the royal viU called Wanating, (Wantage), in Berrocescire, 
which is so called from the wood of Berroc, where the box-tree 
grows in great abundance. His genealogy runs in the following 
order : — Alfred was the son of king of Ethelwulf, who was the 
son of Egbert, who was the son of Alhmund, who was the 
son of Eafa, who was the son of Eoppa, who was the son of 
Ingils. Ingils, and Ina, the famous king of Wessex, were 
brothers ; Ina went to Borne, and ending the present life there 
in great honour, departed to his country in heaven to reign 
with Christ. These two were the sons of Coenred, who was 
the son of Ceolwald, who was the son of Cutha, who was the 
son of Cuthwine, who was the son of Ceaulin, who was the son of 
Cynric, who was the son of Creoda, who was the son of Cerdic, 
who was the son of Elesa, who was the son of Esla, who was 
the son of Gewis, from whom the Britons call the whole 
nation Gewissse. Gewis was the son of Wig, who was the 
son of Freawine, who was the son of Freothegar, who was the 
son of Brand, who was the son of Bealdeag, who was the son 
of Woden, who was the son of Frithowald, who was the son of 
Frealaf, who was the son of Frithwulf, who was the son of 
Finn, who was the son of Godulf, who was the son of Geata, 
who was formerly worshipped by the Pagans as a god. Geata 
was the son of Taetwa, who was the son of Beaw, who was 
the son of Sceldwea, who was the son of Heremond, who was the 
son of Itermod, who was the son of Hathra, who was the son 
of Wala, who was the son of Beadwig, who was the son of 
Shem, who was the son of Noah, who was the son of Lamech, 
who was the son of Methuselah, who was the son of Enoch, 
who was the son of Jared, who was the son of Malaleel, who 
was the son of Cainan, who was the son of Enos, who was the 



son of Seth, who was tlie son of Adam. His mother's name 
was Osburh ; she was a woman of eminent piety, noMe 
both in mind and lineage, being the daughter of Oslae, the 
renowned cup-bearer of king Ethelwulf : whieh Oslae was 
of Gothic wee. He was sprang from the Goths and Jai 
being descended from Stuf and Whitgar, two brothers, i 
also earls, who having received the dominion of the Isle of 
Wight from tlieir uncle Cerdie, and his son Cynric their 
cousin, massacred the few British inhaliitant" they found in the 
island at a place called Whitgaraliurh (Carisbrook). The rert 
of the native inhabitants of the island had been cither aUin 
before, or driven into exile, 

[JLD. 850.] Berhtferth, son of Beorhtwulf, king of Merria, 
unjustly put to death his cousin St. Wigstan on the ealenda 
[the 1st] of June, being the eve of Whitsuntide. He was 
grandson of two of the kings of Mercta, his lather Wigtnund 
being the son of king Wiglaf, and his mother Elfrida, the 
daughter of king Ceolwulf. His corpse was carried to 1 
monastery which was famous in that age called llepton, and 
buried in the tomb of his grandfather king Wiglaf. Miraclei 
from heaven were not wanting in testimony of his martyrdom; 
for a column of light shot up to heaven from the s]Kit where 
the innocent saint was murdered, and remained visible (a die 
inhabitants of that place for thirty days. 

[a.d. 851.] Ceorl, the ealdorman, with the men of Devon- 
shire, fought against the Pagans, at a place called Wieasn- 
beorh (Wcmbm-gl, and the Christians trained (lie victory. In 
the same year, the Pagans wintered for the first time in the 
isle of Sheppey, 1 which means the island of sheep. It a 
situated in the river Thames, between Esses and Kent. M 
nearer Kent than Essex, and a noble monastery stands in & 
The same year a great army of Pagans came with three hun- 
dred and fifty ships into the mouth of the river Thames, and 
ravaged Canterbury, which is the chief city of Kent, and 
London which stands on the north bank of the river Thames. 
on the borders of Esses and Middlesex, though, in truth, that 
city lieloriLTS to Esses. They put to flight Beorhtwulf king of 
Mercia who had advanced to give them battle, with all 

.». 852, 853.] KINO ETHBLWTJLF. 55 

ctter these events, the same body of Pagans crossed into 
•urrey, which lies on the south bank of the river Thames, to 
be westward of Kent ; and Ethelwulf king of Wessex, and 
as son Ethelbald, with their whole army, had a protracted 
ngagement with them, at a place called Ockley, which means 
be Keld of Oaks. The armies on both sides fought for a 
(mg time with the greatest ardour and animosity, but at last 
ibe greatest part of the Pagan host was utterly routed and 
rat to the sword ; so much so that we have never heard of so 
many of them being slain in any quarter, on one day, either 
before or since ; and the Christians gained a glorious victory, 
and remained masters of the field of death. The same year, 
also, king Athelstan and Ealhere, the ealdorman, defeated a 
large body of the Pagans in Kent, at a place called Sand- 
wich, and took nine ships of their fleet : the rest escaped by 

[a.d. 852.] King Beorhtwulf, king of Mercia, died ; and 
Burhred succeeded to the throne. 

[a.b. 853.] Burhred, king of Mercia, sent envoys to Ethel- 
wulf, king of Wessex, beseeching him to afford him aid in 
reducing to subjection the Britons who inhabited the central 
districts between Mercia and the western sea, who stoutly 
resisted him. Ethelwulf lost no time, after he received 
this message, in putting his army in march, advancing into the 
territory of the Britons in company with king Burhred, and 
as soon as he entered it he laid waste the country and 
forced the people to submit to the dominion of Burhred: 
having accomplished this he returned home. 

This same year, king Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred, before 
mentioned, to Borne, with great pomp, and a numerous retinue, 
both of nobles and commoners. Pope Leo, at his father's 
request, consecrated and anointed him king, and receiving him 
as his son by adoption, confirmed him. 

The same year also, Ealhere, the ealdorman, with the men 
of Kent, and Huda, with those of Surry, fought with vigour 
and courage against the Pagan army in the island, which is 
called in the Saxon language Tenet, but in the British Ruim. 
At first the Britons had the advantage, but the struggle being 
protracted, many on both sides were killed on the spot, and 
others driven into the water and drowned; and both the ealdor- 
men perished. Moreover, the same year, Ethelwulf, king of 

56 FLOREXCB OF WORCESTER. [a.d. 854, 855. 

Wessex, gave his daughter as ipieen to Lurlired. king of Mercia, 
tlie nuptials being celebrated with princely pomp at the royal 
vill called Cippenham. 

[a.d. 854.] On the death of Eanbert, bishop of Lindia- 
farne, he was succeeded by Eardulph. 

[a.d. 85.5. J A great army of (he Pagans passed the whole 
winter in the aforesaid isle of Sheppey. In the same yew 
king Ethelwulf released the tenth part of his whole kingdom 
from all royal service and tribute, and by a charter, signed 
with Christ's Cross, offered it for ever to the One and Triune 
God, for the redemption of liis soul and of those of his prede- 
cessors. Ho then went to Home in great state, taking with him 
his son Alfred, whom lie loved more than the others, and who 
now went for the second time; and he abode there a whole year. 
On its expiration, he returned to his own country, bringing 
with him Judith, daughter of Charles, king of the Frank*. 
Meanwhile, however, during the short period of king Etliel- 
wulf's sojourn beyond sea, a disgraceful affair, opposed to all 
Christian rules, occurred at Selwood, in the west of England. 
For king Ethel wald, with Eahlstan bishop of Sherborne, and 
Eanivulf, ealdorman of Somersetshire, are said to have formed 
a conspiracy to prevent king Etholwulf from re-assuming the 
government of his kingdom, if he ever returned from Rome. 
This unfortunate business, such as was unheard of in any 
former age, is attributed by very many persons to the bishop 
and ealdorman only, by whom they assert the scheme was 
contrived. Many persons, however, say that it had its origin 
solely in the king's haughtiness, for, as we have heard it re- 
lated by some persons, the king obstinately persisted in that 
as well as in many other perverse dispositions, as was proved 
by the issue of the arlair. For when king Etholwulf returned 
from Eomo, his before-named son, with his counsellors, or 
rather intriguers, attempted to commit the grievous crime of 
forcibly refusing the king's re-admission into his own do- 
minions. But God diri not permit it, nor would the united 
iSaxon nobles concur in the proposal ; for, to prevent Saxony 
(Wessex) from being exposed to the irremediable danger of 
hostilities lietween father and son, nay more, of the whole 
of the nation being in arms for one or the other, and this 
.sort of civil war growing every day more fierce and bloody, 
the kingdom, which had been hitherto one entire realm, was, 

A.D. 855.] ethblwulf's QUEEN, JUDITH. 57 

through Ethelwulf 's great easiness of temper, and with the 
concurrence of the nobles, divided between the father and the 
son ; the eastern districts being allotted to the father, and the 
western to the son. Thus, where the father ought by all 
rules of justice to have reigned, the iniquitous and wilful son 
established his power, for the western part of Saxony has 
always had the pre-eminence over the eastern. So, when king 
Ethelwulf arrived from Rome, all that people were very 
properly so delighted at the return of their old king, that 
they wished, if he would have allowed it, to deprive his 
froward son Ethelwald, and his advisers, of any share in the 
kingdom. But he, as we have already said, actuated by his 
excessive gentleness and by prudent counsels, to prevent 
peril to the kingdom, would not allow it to be done ; but he 
made Judith, daughter of king Charles, from whom he had 
received her in marriage, to sit beside him on the royal 
throne, as long as he lived, without any controversy or enmity 
from his nobles, contrary to the perverse custom of that 
nation. For the West-Saxon people do not allow a queen to 
sit by the king's side, nor even give her the title of queen, 
calling her only the king's wife ; which controversy, or stigma, 
originated from a certain froward and evil-minded queen of 
that nation, as our elders thus report : — There was recently 
in Mercia a certain powerful king named Offa, whose daughter, 
Eadburh, was married, as we have said before, to Berhtric, 
king of Wessex, who very soon began to act tyrannically, 
doing all things hateful to God and man, and accusing all she 
could before the king, so as to deprive them insidiously of 
their life or power ; and if she could not procure the king's 
consent, she used to take them off by poison. This is ascer- 
tained to have been the case with a certain young man who 
was much loved by the king, whom she poisoned because the 
king would not listen to her accusations against him. It is 
also said that king Berhtric unwittingly tasted some portion 
of the poison, although she did not intend it for the king, but 
for the young man only ; but the king took the cup first, and 
so both perished. In consequence of this queen's atrocities, 
all the inhabitants of that country swore together that they 
would not suffer any king to reign over them who should 
command his queen to sit beside him on the throne. Berhtric 
being dead, as the queen could no longer remain among the 



Saxons, she sailed over the sea with i 
went to the court of Charles, the renowned king of the 
Franks. As she stood in the presence chamber, otleriiig him 
rich presents, Charles said to her, " Choose, Eadburh, which 
you prefer, me or my son who stands beside me in the 
chamber." She foolishly replied, without a moment's thought, 
"If I am to have my choice, I prefer your son, because he i* 
younger than you." Charles replied with a smile, " If yon 
had chosen me, you should have had my son ; but as you hare 
chosen him you shall have neither of us." However, he gare 
her a large abbey of nuns, where, having hiid aside the secular 
dress aud assumed the monastic habit, she discharged tbe 
duties of abbess for a very few years ; for having been 
debauched by some layman, she was expelled from [be 
monastery by king Charles's order, anil passed the rest of her 
days in want aud misery. 1 

King Ethelwulf lived two years after his- return from 
Rome ; .luring which, among many other good deeds of this 
present life, reflecting on his departure according to tbe way 
of all flesh, to prevent his suns indecently quarrelling after ha 
death, he ordered letters testamentary to lie written, in which 
he divided his kingdom between his two eldest sons. Ethelbahl 
and Ethelbert, and his private inheritance between all his sons 
and liia daughter, as well as his relations ; he also gave 
directions in the same instrument for the due distribution of 
the money he might leave behind, him for the good of his 
soul, and among his sons and his nobles. For the good of hi* 
soul, which he had carefully studied on all occasions from 
his earliest youth, lie ordered that his heirs should, out of 
every two families on his hereditary domains, supply one 
poor person, either native or foreigner, with meat, drink, and 
clothing, forever afterwards, until the day of doom ; provided 
that the land was inhabited and stocked with cattle, and not 
lying waste. He also directed that the sum of three hundred 
mancuses should be yearly remitted to Rome, to be tliere 
distributed in the following manner, viz., one handled 
mancuses, in honour of St. Peter, to be sjiecially applied in 
purchasing oil for filling all the lamps of the apostolical church 

1 One MS. adds, "So I hut, at lust, acocompanied by one ponr ser- 
vant, as wp hnve lifiin] I'miii many who saw her, she begged her brewl 
d»ily at P»vio, where she ftmi in great misery." 


on Easter-eve, and also at cock-crowing ; one hundred mancuaes 
in honour of St Paul, the apostle, for the same purpose ; and 
one hundred mancuses to the catholic and aposthc pope. 

King Ethelwulf having died on the ides [the 18th] of 
January, and been buried at Winchester, his son Ethelbald, 
contrary to the divine prohibition and Christian honour,, 
and even the customs of all Pagan nations, ascended his 
father's bed, and married Judith, the daughter of Charles, 
king of the Franks; and thus licentiously governed the 
kingdom of Wessex for two years and a half after his father's 

St. Edmund, a man accepted by God, and descended 
from ttoe Old-Saxon race, who was most truly devoted to the 
Christian faith, affable and courteous to all men, remarkable for 
his humility, a generous benefactor to the poor, and a most 
kind father to orphans and widows, took the government of 
the province of East-Anglia. 

[a.b. 856—859.] 

[a.d. 860.] King Ethelbald died and was buried at 
Sherborne ; and his brother Ethelbert, as was right, joined 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, to his own kingdom. In his days, 
a large army of Pagans came up from the sea, and assaulted 
and sacked the city of Winchester ; but as they were return- 
ing to their ships laden with plunder, Osric, the ealdorman 
of Hants, with his people, and Ethelwulf, the ealdorman^ 
with the men of Berks, boldly encountered them, and, battle 
being joined, the Pagans were put to the sword in every 
direction, and, being unable to make a longer resistance, fled 
like women, and the Christians remained masters of the field 
of death. Ethelbert having governed his kingdom five years 
in peace, with the love and respect of his subjects, went the 
way of all flesh, to their universal sorrow, and was honourably 
interred at Sherborne, where he lies by the side of his brother- 

>.t>. 861.] 

Ja.d. 862.] St. Swithin was translated to heaven on 
Thursday the sixth of the nones [the 2nd] of July. 
a.d. 863.] 

\.T>. 864.] The Pagans wintered in the Isle of Thanet, 
and made a close alliance with the men of Kent, who promised 
to pay them tribute if they kept the compact; but the 
Pagans, breaking the treaty, stole out of their camp by night,. 

60 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D, 865 — 868. 

like foxes, and regardless of the promised tribute, as they 
knew tlwy eould gain more by surreptitious robbery than bj 
observing the peace, ravage J the whole eastern coast of Kent 
[a.d. 865.] 

[a.d. 866.] Ethered, brother of king Ethelbert, succeeded 
to the kingdom of Wcssex. The same year a large fleet of 
the Pagans came to Britain from Denmark, and wintered 
in the kingdom of the East-Angles, which is called in the 
Saxon tongue, East Engle, and there the greatest part of 
their troops procured horses. 

[a.d. 867.] The array of Pagans before mentioned, 
marched from amongst the East-Angles to the city of York, 
which stands on the north bank of the river Humbcr. At 
that time great disscntions had arisen among the North- 
umbrians, by the devil's iiistiifatimi, as always happens to 
a people who have incurred God's wrath. For the North- 
umbrians had then, as we have related, driven out their 
rightful king, Osbrilit, and raised to the throne a tyrant 
named jElla, who was not of the royal race ; but by Divine 
Providence, and the exertions of the nobles for the (fominon 
good, the discord was somewhat allayed on the approach of 
the Pagans, and Osbrilit and iElla, uniting their forces and 
assembling an army, marched to York. The Pagans fled it 
their approach, and attempted to defend themselves within 
the city walls. The Christians, witnessing their flight and 
alarm, pressed forward in pursuit, and set to work to break 
down the walls, which they ctiected; for that city was not 
fortified by strong walls in those times. The Christians 
having succeeded in making a breach in the wall, aud great 
numbers of them having entered the town pell-mell with the 
euemy, the Pagans, driven to despair, charged them fiercely, 
and overthrew, routed, aud cut them down, both within and 
without the walls. Almost all the Northumbrian troops, 
with the two kings, fell in this battle; the remainder who 
escaped made peace with the Pagans. 

In the same year died Eallistan, who had been bishop of 
Sherborne fifty years, and w;is buried there. 

j [a.d, 868.] A comet was very plainly visible this year. 

1 Alfred, the revered' king, who held then a aiibordinate 
station, demanded and obtained in marriage a Mercian lady 
of noble birth, being the daughter of Etbelred, 

d. 869, 870.] king Alfred's marriage. 61 

Eucil, ealdorman of the Gaini. Her mother's name was 
adburh, of the royal race of the Mercian kings, a lady 
luch venerated, who for many years after her husband's 1 
eath remained a most chaste widow to the end of her 

The same year the before mentioned army of Pagans, 
uitting Northumbria, entered Mercia, and advanced to 
Nottingham, called in the British tongue, Tigguocobauc, but 
a I*atin, " The House of Caves," and they passed the winter 
here. On their approach, Burhred, king of Mercia, and all 
he nobles of that nation, sent messengers forthwith to 
Cthered, king of Wessex, and his brother Alfred, earnestly 
ntreating them to render them such succour as would enable 
hem to give battle to the aforesaid army. Their request was 
eadily granted ; for the brothers, making no delay in fulfill- 
ng their promise, assembled a vast army from all parts, and 
mtering Mercia advanced to Nottingham, unanimously 
lesiring a battle. But the Pagans, sheltering themselves 
within the fortifications, refused to fight, and as the Christians 
were unable to make a breach in the wall, peace was made 
between the Mercians and the Pagans, and the two brothers, 
Ethered and Alfred, returned home with their troops. The 
oratory of St. Andrew, the apostle, at Kemsege' was built, and 
consecrated by Alhun, bishop of Worcester. 

[a.d. 869.] The aforesaid cavalry of the Pagans, riding 
back to Northumbria, reached York, and was quartered there 
for a whole year. 

[a.d. 870.] The before mentioned army of the Pagans 
passed through Mercia into East-Anglia, and wintered there 
at a place called ThetforcL 

In the same year Edmund, the most holy and glorious king 
of the East-Angles, was martyred by king Inguar, an in- 
veterate heathen, on the twelfth of the calends of December 
[20th November], being Sunday, the second indiction, as we 
read in his Passion. In this year also Ceolnoth, archbishop 

1 All the printed editions read patris ; but one of the MS. has viri, 
which must be the right reading. 

2 Probably Kempsey, near Worcester. This is one of the notices, 
not found in other chronicles, which was probably gathered by 
Florence from the records of his own monastery, or from local in- 


of Canterbury died, and was buried ii> peace in that city ; he 
was succeeded by that reverend man Ethered. 

[a.d. 871. ] The Pagan army, of hateful memory, quitting 
Eaitr-Angli* and entering the kingdom of Wessex, came » 
the vill of Reading, situated on the south bank of the riwt 
Thames in tiie district called Berkshire. And there, ou the 
third day after their arrival, two of their chiefs, with great 
part of (heir forces, rode out to plunder the country, white 
the rest were throwing up a rampart between the river* 
Thames and Kennet on the right of the said royal vill. They 
were encountered by Ethelwulf, caidormau of Berkshire, aM 
his men, at a place called in English, Engld'ell. and in Latin, 
" The Field of the Angles," where both sides fought bravely; 
but after both armies had maintained their ground a longtime 
one of the Panau duel's being slain, and the greater part of 
their army cut to pieces, the rest saved themselves by dight, 
and the Christians gained the victory, remaining masters of 
the field of death. Four days after these events, king 
Ethered and his brother Alfred, having assembled troops and 
united their forces, marched to Heading ; and have succeeded 
in forcing their way to the east li>2 ate, by slaying and nvif- 
throwing all the Pagan* they met with outside the fortifica- 
tions, the Pagans, nevertheless sallied out. bike wolves, froai 
all the gates and fought with (he utmost desperation. The 
combat was long ami sharply contested on both sides; but, sad 
to say, the Christians ai last turned their backs, and the Pagans 
obtaining the victory remained masters of the field of blood. 
Ethelwulf the before named ealdorman was among the slain. 

Roused by grief and shame at this defeat, the Christians, 
four days afterwards, renewed the engagement against the 
same army, with all their forces and right good-will, at a place 
called yEscesdun, which signifies In Latin "The Mount of the 
Ash " (Asbdowjj). The Pagans, dividing themselves into two 
bodies, drew up in two equal columns, for they bad with 
them two kings and many earls, allotting the centre of tie 
army to the two kings and the rest to the earls. The 
Christians, observing this, arrayed their troops also in t*o 
divisions, losing no time in forming the columns. Alfred wis 
the first to lead his men promptly to the field of battle, for 
his brother, king Ethered, was then engaged at ii.- 
in his tent, hearing mass, and he positively declared tl ' * 


would not quit it until the priest had finished the mass, and 
omit the service of God to attend to his duty to man. He 
persisted in tins, and the faith of the Christian king availed 
him much with God, as will more fully appear in the sequel. 
Now the Christians had determined that king Ethered, with 
his division, should attack the two Pagan kings, hut his 
brother Alfred was instructed to take the chances of war with 
his own troops against all the Pagan earls. Things having been 
thus arrayed on both sides, and the king being still engaged 
in his devotions, while the Pagans advanced rapidly under 
arms to the field of battle, Alfred, who was second in com- 
mand, finding that he could no longer sustain the enemy's 
onset, without either retreating or charging them in turn 
before his brother's arrival, at last, putting himself manfully 
at the head of the Christian forces drawn up as before 
arranged, he formed a close column without waiting for the 
king, and, relying on God's counsels and support, advanced 
his standards against the. enemy. At length king Ethered, 
having finished his prayers, came up, and invoking the aid of 
the Mighty Buler of the world, plunged into the fight. But 
here we must inform those who are ignorant of the locality, 
that the field of battle was not equally favourable to both 
armies, for the Pagans occupied the higher ground, and the 
Christians had to direct their march from a lower level. We 
may also remark that there stood on the spot a solitary thorn* 
tree of stunted growth (I have seen it with my own eyes), 
round which the hostile armies engaged in the combat with 
loud cries; the one party to work their wicked ends, the other 
to fight for their lives, for their country, and for those who 
were dear to them. After both armies had fought bravely, 
and with great fierceness, for a considerable time, the Pagans, 
by the judgment of God, were no longer able to sustain the 
attacks of the Christians, and having lost the greatest part of 
their troops retreated with disgrace. One of their two kings 
and five of their earls fell on the field of battle, and many 
thousands of their army were dispersed and slain over the 
whole plain of Ashdown. Thus perished king Bagsecg, earl 
Sidroc the elder, and earl Sidroc the younger, earl Osbern, 
earl Frcena, and earl Harold ; and the whole Pagan army fled 
until night, and even the next day, until they reached the 
stronghold from which they had sallied forth. 


[a.D.871 - 

Fourteen days afterwards, king Ethered and liis brother 
Alfred having again united their forces to give battle to tin 
Pagans inarched to Basing, and upon the armies meeting, 
after a lung engagement, the Pagans gained the victory. 
Again, after two months had elapsed, king Ethered with hii 
brother Alfred fought against the Pagans, who were in two 
divisions at Merton, and for a long time they had the advan- 
tage, having routed the enemy ; but the Pagans rallied, and 
gained the victory, remaining masters of the field of death, 
after great slaughter on both sides. 

The flame year, after Easter, on the ninth of the calends of 
May [-'3rd April], king Ethered went the way of all flesh, 
having governed his kingdom bravely, honourably, and in 
good repute for five years, through much tribulation ; he «'u 
buried at Winborne, where he waits the coming of the Lord, 
and the first resurrection with the just. On his death, the 
before named Alfred, who had hitherto, while his brothers were 
alive, held only a subordinate rank, at once succeeded to the 
throne of the whole kingdom, to the entire satisfaction of all 
the people. I think it convenient to insert in this place a 
brief notice of his childhood and youth. 

He was exceedingly beloved both by his father and mother, 
even more than his brothers, and not only so, hut he wis M 
general favourite among all ranks; and being never separated 
from his parents was brought up entirely in the court of his 
father. As he advanced in years, during infancy and youth, 
he grew up more comely in form, and more graceful in asped, 
as well as in all his words and actions, than the rest of his 
brothers; but, alas! through the neglect of his parent) 
and nurses, ho did not learn to read until he was twelve yean 
old. Yet, he listened with intelligence, day and night, to the 
Saxon poems which were frequently recited to him by others, 
and committed them with facility to his docile memory. Ha 
was expert and successful beyond all his rivals in every branch 
of the huntsman's craft, as in all the rest of God's gifts. 
When, therefore, on some occasion, his mother «;:■ 
him and his brothers a book of Saxon poetry which she held 
in her hand, and said, " I will give this book to whichever of 
you shall first learn (to read) it," incited by this ofier, w 
rather inspired by heaven, and attracted by the beautiful'" 
illuminated initial-letter of the volume, Alfred said t 

lj>. 859 — 869.] king Alfred's youth. * 05 

nother, " Will you really give that book to such one of us as 
jan first understand it and repeat it to you?" She smiled at 
;his, and replied, " I will, indeed, give it to him." Upon this 
le took the book from her hand, and went to his master and 
t>egan reading it ; and when he had read it through he brought 
it back to his mother and recited it to her. After this he 
Learnt the daily course, consisting of certain psalms and a 
number of prayers ; these were collected in a volume, which 
he carried about with him in his bosom for his devotions, by 
day and by night, during all the fleeting course of this present 
life. But, sad to say, he was unable to gratify his most ardent 
wish of learning the liberal arts, as at that time there were no 
grammarians in all the kingdom of the West-Saxons. 

While he was still in the flower of youth, and sought to 
strengthen his resolutions to observe the Divine laws, but felt 
that he could not altogether rid himself of carnal desires, it 
was his custom, that he might not incur God's displeasure by 
doing anything contrary to His will, to rise very often in 
secret at cockcrow and the hour of matins, and resort to the 
churches and relics of the saints for the purpose of prayer, 
and there kneeling long he besought Almighty God, in his 
mercy, to strengthen his determination to devote himself to 
His service by some infirmity which he might be able to bear, 
but which would not be disgraceful or unfit him for his worldly 
duties. Having often implored this with earnest devotion, he 
was a short time afterwards, God granting his prayer, afflicted 
with piles ; and the disorder became so severe in the course of 
years, that even his life was despaired of. - It happened, 
however, providentially, that while hunting in Cornwall, he 
turned aside to offer his devotion in a certain church in which 
the remains of St. Gueriir repose, and where St. Neot also lies. 
Prostrating himself for a long time in silent prayer, he entreated 
God's mercy, that in His unbounded love He would relieve 
him from the tortures of his present painful disease, and give 
him in exchange some lighter infirmity; provided that it 
did not appear outwardly, lest he should become an object 
of contempt and unfitted for active services. Having finished 
his prayer he proceeded on his road, and shortly afterwards 
found himself, by Divine aid, completely cured of his disorder, 
according to his supplications. But, alas! when he was 
relieved from that, another still more acute seized him on the 



day of his marriage, ami incessantly harassed him day ud 
night from his twentieth In bis forty- fifth year, and more. 

He had by his before-mentioned wife, Ealswitha, ilie 
following sons and daguhtc.r.-- : — Fflieltlede.his first-born child, 
then Edward, then Ethelgeovu, afterwards Eifthrvth, and then 
Ethelward. iithelfledc, when she became marriageable, wm 
united to Ethored, ealdorman of Menia ; Elhelgeovu, having 
made a vow of chastity, and becoming a nun, devoted herself 
to the sendee of God according to the rules of monastic life. 
Ethel ward, the youngest of all, by the holy purpose and 
admirable provision of the king, was placed under the care of 
diligent masters, as were also the nobles of nearly all the 
kingdom, and many of the lower order, thai they might 
receive instruction in the liberal arts before they were strong 
enough for the business of the world. Edward and Elftlirytfi 
were brought up at their father's court, but they received 
a liberal education, and, liesides their worldly exercises and 
studies, they learnt with wire the I'silms and Saxon books, and 
especially Saxon poems. 

In the midst of wars and the frequent hindrances of the 
present life, the irruptions of the Pagans, and his daily in- 
firmities of body, king Alfred, and, as well as 
his strength would allow, unremittingly devoted himself to the 
government of his kingdom, the exercise of hunting in its 
various forms, the superintendence of Ids goldsmiths and other 
artificers, as well as those who had charge of his falcon*, 
hawks, and hounds; the building, by the aid of machinery 
invented by himself, of edirieos more stately and costly than any 
which had been erected by his predecessors in the style W 
their age ; reading Saxon books, and especially committing to 
memory Saxon poems, and enjoining such pursuits on tho« 
around him. He heard mass daily, besides some psalms and 
prayers, and observed the canonical hours of devotion day md 
night; and was wont to go alone by night, and frequent the 
churches, eluding the observation of his attendants, for the 
purpose of prayer. He was a bountiful almsgiver, aflkble and 
agreeable to all the world, and a close enquirer into hidden 
tilings. Many Franks. Prisons, Gauls, Pagans, Britons, Scots 
and Armorieans, both of the nobility and commonalty, cama 
voluntarily and gave him their allegiance, all of whom be 
native subjects, ruling them, levin. 

lying H>. ~. 

A.D. 871, 872.] RING ALFRED'S WARS. 67 

honouring them, and heaping power and wealth upon them, 
according to their rank and worth. He manifested a wonder- 
ful regard for his bishops and the whole ecclesiastical 
order, his ealdormen and nobles, his inferior officers and all 
who were attached to his court ; having as much affection for 
their sons, who were brought up in the royal household, as he 
had for his own, devoting his time, day and night, in the midst 
of his other avocations, to inculcate upon them virtuous habits 
and the pursuit of learning. 

About a month after he began his reign, with so much 
reluctance, I may say — for he felt that without Divine aid he 
should never be able to resist, single-handed, the severity of 
the Pagan irruptions, since even when his brothers were alive, 
he had suffered great losses — king Alfred, with a small and 
very inadequate force, made a fierce attack on the whole army 
of the Pagans on a hill called Wilton, on the south bank of 
the Guilou, from which river the whole country takes its 
name. When both parties had sustained the combat in differ- 
ent positions with vigour and bravery great part of the day, 
the Pagans, perceiving that they were in imminent peril, and 
could no longer withstand the enemy's impetuosity, took to 
flight; but, sad to relate, they took advantage of the too 
great daring of their pursuers, and facing round renewed the 
fight, and, thus snatching a victory, remained masters of the 
field of death. Let no one be surprised that the force of the 
Christians in this engagement was so small, for the ranks of the 
Saxons had been thinned in the eight battles they had fought 
with the enemy in the course of a single year ; in which battles 
one Pagan king and eight earls were slain, with vast numbers 
of their troops, not to mention the countless attacks, by day 
and night, with which king Alfred and the several ealdormen 
of the nation with their followers, as well as many of the 
king's thanes, had incessantly harassed the Pagans. God 
only knows how many thousand of the enemy were destroyed 
in these desultory attacks, besides those who were slain in the 
eight battles already mentioned. The same year the (West) 
Saxons made peace with the Pagans, on the terms that they 
should depart their country, which condition they observed. 
On the death of Cineferth, bishop of Litchfield, Tunberht 

[a.d. 872.] Alchun, bishop of the Hwiccas, having died, 


CE OF WORCESTER. [a.d. 873, 87*. 

Werefrith, a man learned ill the Scriptures, who had been 
Ijrouglit up in tlio holy church of Worcester, was ordained 
bishop by Ethered, archbishop of Canterbury, on the seventh 
of the ides [the 7th] of June, being Whitsunday. At king 
Alfred's command, he made the first translation of the tiooks 
of Dialogues of pope St. Gregory, from the Latin into the 
Saxon tongue, a work which he executed with great accuracy 
and elegance. The king induced him, and also Plcgmuuil, a 
learned and venerable man, and a native of Mercia, who, in 
course of time, was made arch bishop of Canterbury, together 
with Etholstan and Werwlf, two well educated Mercian priests, 
to leave that province and come to him, and he ndviuieed 
them to high honours and station, that they might assist him 
in his great object, the acquisition of learning. He also sent 
envoys to France, and invited over the venerable St. Gritnhild, 
priest and monk, who was an excellent chanter, fhorowililv 
versed in the Holy Scriptures and ecclesiastical discipline, ami 
of exemplary conduct. To him was added John, also a priwt 
and monk, a man of the most acute genius, and Asser, who 
was summoned from the monastery of St. David, on the 
furthest border of Britain in the West. Under the teaching 
of all these learned men tho object of the king's desire wis 
so daily advanced and accomplished that in a short time he 
acquired universal knowledge. The lie lore-mentioned army 
of Pagans went to London, and wintered there; and thi' 
Mercians made peace with them. 

[a.d. 873.] The army so often mentioned evacuated Lon- 
don, and marching as far as the province of North utuliria, 
wintered there in the district of Lindsey, and the Mercians 
renewed their treaty of peace with them. 

[a.d. 874.] Quitting Lindsey, the Pagan army entered 
Mercia, and wintered at liopton. It also compelled, by main 
force, Burhred, king of Mercia, to abandon his kingdom, and 
crossing the sea he went to Rome in the twenty-second year 
of his reign. He did not long survive his arrival at Kotue, 
and dying there he received honourable interment in tlw 
church of St. Mary in the Saxon School, where he waits our 
Lord's advent, and the first resurrection of the just. After 
his expulsion, tho Pagans reduced to subjection the wliele 
kingdom of Mercia. However, they placed the province, in S» 
miserable state, in the keeping of a weak thane, whoa 

hose name 

AJ>. 875, 876.] KING ALFRED'S WARS. 69 

was Ceolwulf, on condition that he should give it up to them 
peaceably whenever they required. He delivered hostages to 
them for the performance of this condition, and swore that he 
would in no wise act contrary to their will, but submit to 
their commands on all occasions. 

[a.d. 875.] The oft-mentioned army broke up from Repton 
in two divisions. One of them went with Halfdene into the 
country of the Northumbrians, and, wintering there near the 
river Tyne reduced the whole of Northumbria under its 
dominion, and ravaged the lands of the Picts and Strathclyde 
Britons. The other division, under Guthruy, Oskmtel, and 
Amund, three kings of the Pagans, directed their march to 
a place called Grantebrycge (Cambridge), and wintered there. 
The same year king Alfred fought a naval battle against six 
ships of the Pagans, and took one of them, the rest sheering off. 

[a.d. 876.] The oft-mentioned army of the Pagans sallied 
forth from Cambridge in the night time, and took possession 
of a castle called Wareham ; where there was an abbey of 
nuns, between the two rivers Fraw and Terente (Frome* and 
Trent), in the district called by the Saxons Thornsaet (Dorset), 
and the site of which is very strong, except on the west side, 
which is open to the land. With this army king Alfred 
made a firm treaty, the condition of which was that they 
should depart from his dominions; and they gave him as many 
hostages as he demanded without dispute, and swore on 
all the relics, on which the king most confided, after God, 
and on which they before refused to swear to any people, 
that they would quit his kingdom as soon as they could. 
Notwithstanding, false as ever, and regardless of their oaths 
and hostages and the faith they had pledged, they broke the 
treaty, and, killing all the king's horse-soldiers, stole away 
suddenly to another place, called in the Saxon tongue, 
Exanceastre, but in Latin, the city of Exe, and standing on 
the eastern bank of that river near the southern sea which 
flows between France and Britain. King Alfred, having 
collected troops, went in pursuit, but they had already got 
into the place before he could come up with them. How- 
ever, he extorted from them hostages of such quality and in 
such numbers as he chose, and made a firm treaty with them, 
which they observed faithfully for some time ; and there they 
wintered. The same year, the Pagan king Halfdene distri- 

70 FLORENCE OF woucester. [a.d. 877, 878. 

buted the territory of North umbria between himself and 
followers, an J ostnhlished colonies of hi* soldiers on it, Rnllo 
and his band landed in Normandy on the fifteenth of the 
calends of December [17th November]. 

[a.d. 877.] The Pagan army which had been left with tl» 
fleet at Warehani sailed to Kxeter. but hefore tlieyrcachedt&ai 
place, one hundred and twenty of their ships were lost in a storm. 
Autumn approaching, part of the Pagans sat down at Exeter; 
Another division went into Mo-rein, and gave portions of it to 
Ceolwulf, to whnae keeping, as wc have already said, they hid 
committed the province. Some part they snared among 

[a.d. 878.] The oft-named army, Abandoning Exeter, 
marched to <'lii|>|H-nham, a royal vill, situated in the left it 
Wiltshire, where it wintered, compelling by their iniipuow 
many of the' people of that district to take ship and cross tlw 
sea in penury and consternation ; but the greatest part of tbt 
inhabitants wore reduced to submit to their yoke. At tbtt 
time king Alfred, with a few of his nobles and some of k» 
vassals, led a life of alarm and severe distress in the woo* 
and marshes of Somersetshire ; for he had no means of sub- 
sistence but what he seized by frequent incursions, eithff 
by lurking about or usinc; open violence, from the Patram, nod 
even such of the Christians as had submitted to them. 

The same year, the brother of Inguar and Half dene having 
wintered in Domctia' and made great havoc among the Chris- 
tians, crossed over with twenty- three ships to the coast of Devon, 
and there was slain, with twelve hundred of his followers, wh* 
thus perished miserably iu their wicked aLrtrrossinn before the 
stronghold of Cvnuit, in which many of the ting's thanes hid 
shut themselves up with their families as a place of refuge. 
But the Pagans, seeing that the place was quite unprepared, 
and had no fortifications except ramparts thrown up after «ff 
fashion, made no attempt to effect a breach, because it vtt 
impregnable from its natural position on every sid ■ . 
east (as I have myself observed), they sat down lief'oiv it. 
supposing that as there was no water near the fort, those nit*> 
would soon lie compelled by hunger, thirst, and the bhx'kwle, 

e of Pembrokeshire and iLe 




to surrender. But it did not turn out as they expected ; for 
the Christians, divinely inspired, before they were reduced to 
such extremities, and preferring either death or victory, made 
a sally upon the Pagans before the dawn of day, and taking 
them by surprise at the first onset, cut to pieces the king and 
most of his army, a few only escaping to their ships. 

The same year, after Easter, king Alfred, with his slender 
force constructed a fortress at a place called Aethelingaeig 
(Athelney) ; and from that fort, with his Somersetshire 
vassals, kept up an incessant warfare with the Pagans. Again, 
in the seventh week after Easter, he rode to Egbert's stone, 
in the eastern part of the forest of Selwood, which means in 
Latin, " the Great Wood ;" and there he was met by all the 
people of Somerset, Wilts, and Hants, who had not been 
driven across the sea by fear of the Pagans. These people, on 
seeing the king come to life again, as we may say, after 
suffering such great tribulations, were filled with joy beyond 
measure, as well they might, and encamped there for one 
night. At dawn of day, the king moved his camp from that 
spot, and came to a spot called Ecglea (Iley), where he 
encamped for the night. The following day he unfurled his 
standards, and marched to a place called Ethandun (Hedding- 
ton), where, at the head of his troops in close order, he fought 
a desperate battle with the Pagans, and maintaining the 
contest with spirit for a long time, at last, by God's help, he 
gained the victory with great slaughter of the Pagans, pursuing 
the fugitives to their fortress ; and all that he found outside 
the fortifications, men, horses, and cattle, he seized, putting 
the men to death. He then boldly encamped his army before 
the gates of the Pagan fortress, and having remained there 
fourteen days, the Pagans suffering from cold, hunger, and 
terror, and at last driven to despair, sued for peace, on the 
terms that the king should receive as many hostages as he 
pleased, naming them himself, and not giving a single one in 
return — terms of peace such as they had never before conceded. 
The king, having heard their proposal, was touched with pity, 
and selected as many hostages as he thought proper; and 
after they were delivered, the Pagans swore, besides, that they 
would forthwith depart from the king's territories. Moreover, 
king Guthrum engaged to embrace Christianity, and receive 
baptism at king Alfred's hands, all of which articles he and 

72 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [A.D. 879 — 882. _ 

his men fulfilled as they had promised ; for, seven week* 
afterwards, Guthrum, the king of the Pagans, with thirty of 
his principal warriors, came to king Alfred at a place called 
Aalr (Aller), near Atholucy, and there the king receiving him 
as his son by adoption, raised him up from the font of holy 
baptism, and gave him the name of Athelstan : the loosing of 
his erism took place on [he eighth ilay at the royal vill called 
Wedmoro. He staid with the king twelve nights after liis 
baptism, the king assigning him and all his attendants spueiuua 
and handsome lodgings. 

[a.D. 879. j The aforesaid army of Pagans, leaving 
Chippenham, as they had promised, removed to Cirencestur, 
which i.s situated in the southern part of the Wiociaii territory, 
and there they remained one year. In the same year, a largo 
army of Pagans sailed from foreign parts, and, entering thfl 
Thames, joiued the former army ; hut they wintered at 
Fulhain, near the river Thames. The same year there was 
an eclipse of the sun, between nones and vespers, but nearer 
nones. 1 Dunberht, bishop of Winchester, died, and was 
succeeded by Denewlf. This man, if report may be trusted, 
was, during the early part of his bfe, not only illiterate hut 
a swineherd. King Alfred, when yielding to the fury of hi* 
enemies he had taken refuge in a forest, chanced to light upon 
him as he was feeding his swine. Remarking his intelligence, 
the king caused him to lie taught learning, and when he WW 
sufficiently instructed made him bishop of Winchester; a 
thing that may almost be considered miraculous. 

[a.d. 880.] The oft-mentioned Pagan army, hroakim: up 
from Cirencester, marched into East-Anglia, and parcelling 
out the country began to settle in it. The same year, the 
Pagan army whi.-h had wintered at Fulham quitted the island 
of Britain, and again sailing across the sea reached the 
eastern part of Franco, when they remained a year, at a place 
called Gendi, that is Gand (Ghent). 

[a.d. 881.] The oft -mentioned a rim of Pagans penetrated 
inU> France, and the Franks fought against it ; and after tin 1 
battle the Pagans supplied themselves with horses, and became 
mounted troops. 

[a.d. 882.] The aforesaid army of the Pagans dragged 

Ipse occurred on the 11th Man 

AJ>. 883 — 885.] KING ALFRED'S WABS. 73 

their ships up the river Mese (Meuse), far into France, and 
wintered there one year. In the same year king Alfred 
fought a battle by sea against the Pagan fleet, of which he 
took two ships, having slain all who were on board; and 
the commanders of two other ships with their crews, exhausted 
by fighting and wounds, laid down their arms, and, on bended 
knees, with humble supplications, surrendered themselves to 
the king. 

[a.d. 883.] The aforesaid army dragged their ships up the 
river called Scaldad (Scheld) against the stream, to a convent 
of nuns called Cundath (Gonde) and there remained a whole 
year. Asser, 1 bishop of Sherborne, died, and was succeeded 
by Swithelm, who carried king Alfred's alms to St Thomas in 
India, and returned thence in safety. 

[a.d. 884.] Marinus was the hundred and seventh pope. 
For the love he bore Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, and at 
his earnest request, he graciously freed the school of the 
Saxons living at Borne from all toll and taxes. He also 
exchanged many gifts with the king; among those he sent 
him was a no small portion of the most holy cross, on which 
our Lord Jesus Christ hung for the salvation of man. The 
aforesaid army of Pagans entering the mouth of the river 
Summe (Somme), sailed up it as far as Embene (Amiens), and 
remained there for one year. 

[a.d. 885.] The aforesaid army of the Pagans was divided 
into two bodies, one of which went into East France, and the 
other coming over to Britain landed in Kent, and laid siege to 
the city called in Saxon, Hrofceastre (Rochester), which 
stands on the eastern bank of the river Medway. The Pagans 
ran up a strong fort before the city gate, but were unable to 
storm the place, as the citizens made a stout resistance until 
king Alfred came to their relief with a powerful force. On 
the king's sudden arrival, the Pagans abandoned their fort, 
leaving behind them all the horses they had brought with 
them from France; and, releasing most of their prisoners, fled 
to their ships. The Saxons immediately secured the captives 

1 Asser did not die till 910 (see Saxon Chronicle) ; and he con- 
tinued his Life of Alfred to the forty-fifth year of that prince's age, 
a.d. 803. Ethelward, not Swithelm, appears to have been Asser's 
successor as bishop of Sherborne. See the list of bishops at the end 
of this work. 

74 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 89-i, S..SI.i. 

and horses left by the Pagans, who, compelled by stern 
necessity, returned the same summer to France. The same 
year, Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, sailed with a fleet full 
of troops from Kent to East-Anglia, for the sake of plunder; 
and when they were off the mouth of the river Stour, they fell 
in with sixteen of the leans' ships: a naval enLrugement iiisuwi, 
and after desperate lighting on j ■« > l 1 i sides, the Pagans were ill 
alain, and the ships: and all their treasure became the priie of 
the vietors. But while the royal fleet was retiring in triumph, 
the Pagans who lived in the eastern part of England, having 
collected ships from all quarters, met it at sea near the mouth 
of the river, and after a naval battle the Pagans gained tto 

Carloman, king of the Western-Franks, came to a miserable 
end while hoar-hunting, being torn by the tusk of a singularly 
savage beast which he had attacked singly. His brother 
Lewis, who was also a king of the Franks, had died three 
years before. They were both son* of Lewis, king of the 
Frauks, who died in the year in whieh the eclipse of tlia son 
already mentioned took place. This Lewis was tin- sun «( 
Charles, king of the Frauks. whose daughter Judith, Etheiwulf, 
king irf Weasel, had made his queen, with her lathers consent 
In the present year, also, a vast army of the Pagans poured 
forth from Germany into old Saxony, but those Saioufc 
joining their forces with the Prisons, fought bravely again* 
them twiee in one year, and, by God's mercy, gained the 
victory in both battles. Moreover, in the same year, Charles, 
king of the Alemanni, succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Western- Franks, and to all the kingdoms between the Tuscan 
sea and the gulf which separates Old Saxony and Gaul; all 
the nations roakinsr voluntary submission to him. except those 
ofArmorica (Brittany). This Charles (Charles-le-Groa) wa» 
the son of king Lewis, who was the hrother of Charles (the 
Bald), king of the Franks, who was the father of the before- 
mentioned Judith ; the two brothers were sons of Lewis (L# 
Debonnaire), and Lewis waa son of Charles the Great, the 
antient and wise, who was sou of Pepin. In this year, also, 
the army of the Pagans which had settled in Eaat-Anglia, 
disgracefullv broke the peace which thev had made with king 

[a.D. 886.] The army of Pagans, so often before-montiooed. 


quitting East-France, came again into the country of the 
Western-Franks, and entering the mouth of the Seine, sailed 
up it a long way against the stream as far as the city of Paris, 
where they wintered. They besieged that city the whole of 
that year, but by the merciful interposition of God, they were 
unable to break through its defences. The same year, Alfred, 
king of the Anglo-Saxons, after the burning of cities and 
slaughter of the people, nobly rebuilt the city of London, and 
made it again habitable; he entrusted the custody of it to 
Ethered, earl of Mercia. To which king came all the Angles 
and Saxons who before had been dispersed everywhere, or 
dwelt among the Pagans without being bondsmen, and volun- 
tarily placed themselves under his dominion. 

[a.d. 887.] The above-mentioned army of the Pagans, 
leaving the city of Paris unharmed, as they found they could not 
succeed, rowed their fleet up the Seine against the current, a 
long way until they reached the mouth of die Malerne (Marne), 
where they left the Seine and entered the Marne, and after a 
long and toilsome voyage up that river, they came at last to a 
place called Chezy, that is, "the Royal Vill," where they 
passed the winter of that year. In the following year they 
entered the mouth of the river Yonne, to the no small damage 
of that country ; and there they sat down for a whole year. 
In this year Charles, king of the Franks, went the way of all 
flesh ; but six weeks before his death he had been expelled 
from his kingdom by Arnulf, his brother's son. As soon as 
Charles was dead, five kings were appointed, and the kingdom 
was divided out into five parts ; but the highest rank devolved 
upon Arnulf; and justly and deservedly, save only his dis- 
graceful outrage on his uncle. The other four kings promised 
fealty and obedience to Arnulf, as was right; for none of 
them had any hereditary claims to the throne, on the father's 
side, except Arnulf only. Although, therefore, five kings 
were appointed immediately on Charles's death, Arnulf had 
the empire. The dominions were divided as follows : Arnulf 
had the country to the east of the Rhine ; Rodolph the interior 
of the kingdom ; Oda (Eudes) had the western states ; Beorngar 
(Berenger) and Witha (Guido) had Lombardy and the terri- 
tories on that side of the mountains. But with such vast and 
important kingdoms they did not remain in amity, for they 
fought two pitched battles, and often ravaged each otl * 


territories, and each, in turn, drove the other out of his 

In this year, Athelelm, caldorman of Wiltshire, carried the 
alms of king Alfred and the Saxons to Koine. The same 
year, on the feast of St. Martin, bishop of Tours, Alfred, tlte 
often-named king of the Anglo-Saxons, by God's assistance, 
first began to translate, as well as read, books. This king, 
although seated on a throne, was pierced through by manj 
sorrows ; for, as we have already said, from his twentieth W 
his forty-fifth year and more, he was in constant suffering 
from the severe attacks of an unknown disease, so that he ym 
not safe for a single hour either from the pain it caused, or 
from apprehension of it. Besides this, he was perpetually 
harassed by the constant invasions of foreigners, which he bid 
to resist vigorously both by Jand and by sea, without I 
moment's rest. What shall I say of his frequent expeditions 
against the Pagans, of his battles, of his unceasing cares in 
the government of his kingdom, in the restoration of cine 
and towns, and building others where there were none before, 
of edifices incomparably ornamented with gold and silver 
under his own siiperiiitendcnee, of the royal halls and chamber), 
both of stone and wood, admirably erected by his command 
of the royal vills, constructed of stone, which lie caused to be 
removed from their old site, and handsomely rebuilt in more 
fitting places? Although he stood alone, yet G-od being his 
helper, he never suffered the helm of government to ivhich ho 
had once put his hand, to waver and become unsteady, though 
tossed by the waves and storms of this present life. For be 
unceasingly and most wisely used both gentle instruction, 
admonition, mid command, to win over his bishops, ealdormen. 
mid the better sort of Ids favourite thanes and officers to ha 
own wishes and the public good ; and where these failed, after 
long forbearance, la- had rueoiu>c to severe ehasti-iOTii-m of lb" 
disobedient, holding vulgar stupidity and obstinacy in utter 
abomination. If the royal commands were not attended M, 
and in consequence of the pi-dplus slugirislmeis. things ordered 
were not completed, or wore begun so late that in time of need 
they were of little use for want of being perfectly done — f« 
instance, the castles which he ordered to be built, and which 
were not begun, or taken in hand so late that the 
forces broke in by sea and land before they were nuiahi 

the enemy'* 
dished, tl I ' : 


;he opponents of the royal ordinances repented when it was 
:oo late, and sorely grieved that they had inconsiderately 
leglected his orders, and extolling the king's forethought, 
engaged with the utmost zeal in the execution of what they 
lad before disregarded. 

Among this king's other good deeds, he directed two 
monasteries to be built, one for monks, at a place called 
A.thelney, where he collected various descriptions of monks, 
ind appointed John, a priest and monk, and a native of Old 
Saxony, first abbot. He also ordered a monastery proper for 
the residence of nuns to be built near the east gate of 
Shaftesbury, of which he made his own daughter, Ethelgeovu, 
who was already a consecrated virgin, abbess ; and these two 
monasteries he richly endowed with possessions in land and 
wealth of all kinds. Moreover, he vowed that he would 
religiously and faithfully dedicate to God one half of all the 
money which flowed into his coffers every year, being justly 
acquired ; and this vow he made his serious business to fulfil 
with a willing mind. He also, by a plan divinely inspired, 
3ommanded his officers to divide his yearly revenues into two 
squal parts. When this was done, he ordered one of these 
parts to be distributed into three portions ; one of which he 
mnually bestowed on his noble officers who were continually 
engaged by turns about his person, performing various duties. 
For the king's attendants were most judiciously divided into 
:hree companies, so that one should be on duty at court, night 
ind day, for a month ; at the end of which, on the arrival of 
mother, the first returned home, and remained there two months, 
attending to their private affairs. At the end of the second 
nonth it was relieved by the arrival of the third, and returned 
lome for two months. So the third company, on being 
•elieved by the first, also spent two months at home. In this 
•otation the service at court was administered by turns during 
;he whole life of the king. The second portion was paid to 
/he artificers, who flocked to him in vast numbers, from 
lifferent nations, or were engaged on hire, men skilled in 
jvery kind of construction. The third portion was cheer- 
ully dispensed with admirable judgment to the foreigners 
vho resorted to his court from all countries, far and near, 
whether they asked him for money or not. As to the 
rther moiety, half of all his means derived from his yearly 


revenues, he ordered his ministers to divide it exactly into 
four equal portions, to the intent that the first portion kliould 
be discreetly bestowed on the poor of every nation win 
came to him ; the second, on the two monasteries he had 
founded, and [hose who did God's service it) them ; the third, 
on the school in which he had collected, with the utmost ewe, ' 
not only many of the sous of the nobility of liis realms hot 
Others also of the lower order ; the fourth, he distributed 
among the neighbouring monasteries throughout the whole 
of Saxony and Mercia, and even some years, by turns, among 
the churches of Britain (Wales), Cornwall, France, Brittany, 
Northumbrin, and Ireland, according to his ability. Having 
put these affairs in order, he undertook, as far as his infirmity 
and means would allow, to devote earnestly to God one half 
of his services, both of mind and body, bv day and by night 
In consequence, he began to consider by what moans h 
might regularly keep his vow until his death. At length at 
shrewdly devised a useful plan, and sending for a quantity of 
wax had it weighed against pennies, and when there was wax 
in the scales of the weight of seventy-two pennies, he caused 
his chaplains to make six candles of equal she; so that each 
candle might be twelve inches in length, with the inches' 
marked ujnrn it. By this plan, therefore, six of these candles 
sufficed to born for twenty-four hours, night and day, l«iug 
set up before the relics of different saints, which he always 
took with liim wherever he went. 

Moreover, the king made the strictest enquiries into the 
administration of justice, as well as into all other matters; 
reviewing with much shrewdness nearly all the judgments 
pronounced throughout the kingdom at winch he was not 
present himself, with a view to consider whether they were 
just or unjust. If he perceived any iniquity in these 
decisions he gently remonstrated with the judges, either 
personally, or through trusty friends, on their unrighteous 
decrees, inquiring whether they proceeded from ignorance or. 
malevolence, that is, from afteetion, fear or ill-will to others, 
or from a greediness for lucre. In short, if [In.- judges as-erud 
that they had so given judgment because they knew no better, 
he discreetly and gently reproved their inexperience and 
ignorance in such words as those: "I marvel much at war 
presumption in that having, by God's favour and 

id my own. 

a.d. 888 — 891.] Alfred's administration of justice. 79 

taken upon you an office and station belonging to wise men, 
you have neglected the study and practice of wisdom. Either, 
therefore, at once resign the execution of the temporal authority 
now vested in you, or apply yourself to the study of wisdom 
much more earnestly than you have hitherto done. Such are 
my commands." Filled with consternation at such language 
as this, the ealdormen and presiding officers would strive to 
devote all their power to the study of justice, just as if they 
had been most severely punished. Thus, almost all the 
ealdormen and judges, however illiterate from their youth 
upwards, applied themselves surprisingly to the learned studies, 
preferring rather to undergo a new discipline as scholars than 
to resign their offices. If, however, any one could not make 
progress in learning, either from his advanced age or from 
dullness of an intellect unused to such exertions, the king 
required his son, if he had any, some kinsman, or, if no one else 
was to be had, one of his Hege-men, whether a freeman or 
serf, for whom he had long before provided means of instruc- 
tion, to read to him Saxon books, by day or night, whenever 
he found leisure. The old men sighed deeply, and heartily 
grieved that they had not attended to such studies in their 
early days ; counting the young men of the present generation 
fortunate who had such excellent opportunities of instruction 
in the liberal arts ; and regretting their own unhappy lot in 
neither having studied them while young, nor being able to 
acquire them in old age, however ardently they might desire 
to do so. 

>.d. 888.] 

jl.j>. 889.] Beocca, a noble ealdorman, conveyed the alms 
of king Alfred and the West-Saxons to Borne. The same 
year died Ethelswitha, queen of Burhred, king of Mercia, an£ 
was buried at Ticinum (Pavia). In this year, also, Ethel wold, 
the ealdorman, and Ethered, archbishop of Canterbury, died 
in the same month. Ethered was succeeded by Plegmund, a 
man of deep erudition. 

>.d. 890.] 

Ja.d. 891.] Abbot Beornhelm carried the alms of king 
Alfred and the West-Saxons to Borne. Guthrum, the king 
of the Northmen, who, as we mentioned before, was lifted by 
Alfred from the holy font, receiving the name of Athelstan, 
died this year. He and his followers were settled in East- 

80 FLORENCE OF WOKCESTEH. [a.d. 892—894. 

Anglia, and first took possession of and colonized that province 
after the- dc.itli of St. Edmund, the martyr and king. Tiie 
same year, the oft-mentioned Pagan army departed from the 
Seine and stationed themselves at a place vailed Santhuidiin 
{St. Lo), situated between France and Brittany. The Brntom 
fought against them ; and, having put some to the sword, 
and the rest to flight, some of whom were drowned ill the 
river, remained masters oftlic field. 

[a.d. 892.] The afoivsaid Pagan army removed from Emt 
to West-France; hut before their fleet could join them, the 
emperor Arnulf, with the Eastern -Franks, the Ohl-Sawm;, 
and the Bavarians, Littacked the land army and routed it 
Three Scotchmen, Dusblan, Mahbetliu (Macbeth), and Malin- 
mumin (Maelinnon ?), desiring to lead a pilgrim's life for the 
Lord's sake, tied secretly from Ireland, taking with them a 
week's provisions, and embarking in a coracle made of nothing 
but two hides and a half; they reached Cornwall after in 
extraordinary voyage of seven days, without sails or tackling, 
and afterwards paid a visit to king Alfred. In the same year 
died Swifneh, the most learned doctor among the Scots. Ill 
this year also a star called a comet was seen about the tiiin- i>l 
the Itogation days. 

[a.d. 893.] The fleet and cavalry of the Pagans quitting 
East-France came to iioulogne, and crossing thence, with their 
horses in two hundred and fifty ships, to Kent, landed at the 
mouth of the liver Limen (Lyme), which flows out of the 
great forest called And red ; and having dragged their ship 
four miles from the river-mouth into this forest, they demolished 
a half-built fort which was inhabited by a few churls, and 
threw up for themselves a stronger one at a place called! 
Applednre. Not long afterwards the Pagan king entered the 
mouth of the river Thames with eighty galleys, and built fw 
himself a fortress in the royal vill called Middletun (Milton). 

[a.d. 894:.] The Pagans who had settled in Northiinibri 
made a lasting peace with king Alfred, which they confirmed 
by their oaths; so also did those who dwelt in East-Anglia; 
and, in addition, delivered sis hostages ; but they broke the 
treaty, and as often as the army stationed in Kent sallied fortb 
from their stronghold to plunder the country, they also either 
oined them, or pillaged whatever they could on their o*a 
When this wax known, king Alfred, j ' 

A.D.1016.] LONDON BESIEGED. 129 

words, more from the atrocity of the manoeuvre, than from 
their belief of what was announced ; . so that some waverers 
were on the point of taking to night, but as soon as it became 
known that the king was alive their courage revived, and 
charging the Danes more vigorously than ever, they slew 
great numbers, fighting with the utmost resolution until dusk, 
when the armies separated as they had done the day before. 
But when the night was far advanced Canute gave orders for 
his troops to leave their camp in silence, and marching 
towards London regained his ships ; and shortly afterwards he 
again laid siege to London. 

When, however, day broke, king Edmund Ironside, discover- 
ing that the Danes had retreated, retired to Wessex with the 
intention of raising a stronger army ; and the wily ealdorman, 
Edric, perceiving his brother-in-law's dauntless courage, went 
over to him as his rightful lord, and renewing the peace 
between them, swore that he would henceforth be faithful to 
him. In consequence, the king with the army he had 
assembled for the third time raised the siege of London and 
drove the Danes to their ships. Two days afterwards he 
crossed the Thames, at a place called Brentford, and fought 
a third battle with them, in which he defeated them and came 
off victorious. On this occasion many of the English were 
drowned, while imprudently crossing the river. Again the 
king retired into Wessex to assemble a more numerous force, 
whilst the Danes marched back to London, surrounded it with 
their entrenchments, and assaulted it on all sides, but, by 
God's help, they made no progress. In consequence, they 
drew off with their fleet, and entering the river Arewe 
(Orwell ?), landed, and went to pillage in Mercia, slaughtering 
all they met, and, burning the vills in their usual manner, 
swept off the plunder, with which they returned to their 
ships. The foot-soldiers were conveyed in their ships to the 
river Medway, while those who were mounted drove thither 
by land the cattle they had captured. 

Meanwhile, king Edmund Ironside assembled a powerful 
army for the fourth time, from all England, and crossing the 
river Thames in the same place he had done before, speedily 

as it should seem, the identical words used by the traitor, " Flet Engle, 
flet Engle; this is Edmund." — Antiq. Lib., p. 195. 



entered Kent, and fought a battle with tin- Danes near Orford 
They were unable to withstand his attack, and turning that 
horses' heads lied to SIti.'|>|x-y. However, lie slew all he eouH 
overtake, and if the false ealdorman, Edrie, had not held hue 
back at Aylesford from further pursuit, by his crafty ]>«■ 
suasions, lie would that day have gained a complete virility, 
The king having returned into WV'.is, (.'.'mute with his foK8 
crossed the river into Essex, and again pillaged Mora* 
ordering- liis army to commit greater enormities than l*fw6 
Readily obeying his orders, they butchered all who fd 
into their hands, burned a great many vills, laid waste the 
fields, and then, loaded with booty, regained their ilups, 
Edmund Iron.--ii.le, kins; of England, went in pursuit of tk« 
with the army lie had collected throughout the whole d 
England, and came up with fheiu. as they were retreating, it 
aihill called Assamlun, 1 which means the Ass's hill. Tlww 
he quickly formed his amiy into three lines, supporting cadi 
Other : lie then went round to each division exhorting theiu and 
adjuring them, mindful of their former valour and auocenw, 
to defend themselves and liis kingdom from tlie npMflpi 
of the Danes, and that they were going to engage with time 
whom they had conquered before. Meanwhile Canute W 
his troops by a slow march down to a level ground; wkiki 
on the other hand, king Edmund moved forward his fwe* 
rapidly in the order he hud marshalled them, and, giving ll« 
signal, fell suddenly on the enemy. Doth armies fought witt 
desperation, and many fell on either side; but the traitor* 
Edrie Streon, perceiving that the ranks of ihe Danes w«c 
wavering, and the English were getting the victory, 
the Magesatas' and the division he commanded, according 
to a previous understanding with Canute, Leaving his l"rd 
king Edmund, and the English army in the lurch, ami 
treacherously throwing the victory into the hands of tin 
Danes. There were slain in this battle citric the ealdonaau 
Godwin the ealdorman, 1 ' Ulfkytel ealdorman of East-Annie 
Ethelward the ealdorman. son of Ethelwin, ealdorman o 
East-Anglia, the friend of God, and almost all the Englul 
nobility, who never sustained so severe a shock in buttle a* « 
! Not Ashdown, as it has been stated, liut I'l-uljiibly 
1 The people ol'tbo Hwic^Bs. See the note p. li'i. 


that day. Eadnoth, bishop of Lincoln, 1 formerly abbot of 
Ramsey, and abbot Wulsy, 2 were also slain ; having come to 
offer up prayers to God for the troops engaged in the battle. 
After the lapse of a few days, when king Edmund Iron^de 
still wished to renew the battle with Canute, the traitorous 
ealdorman Edric, and some others, would not consent, but 
counselled him to make peace with Canute and divide the 
kingdom. At length he yielded to their suggestions, though 
with great reluctance, and after an exchange of messages,* and 
hostages given on both sides, the two kings met at a place 
called Deerhurst. Edmund and his Mends took their station 
on the western bank of the Severn ; and Canute, with his, on 
the eastern bank. Then the two kings went in fishing boats 
to an island called Olanege (Olney?) 3 in the middle of the 
river, and agreeing there on a treaty of peace, amity, and 
fraternity, ratified by oaths, they divided the kingdom. 
Wessex, East-Anglia, Essex, with the city of London, [ and* 
all the country south of the Thames, were allotted to 
Edmund, while Canute obtained the northern parts of Eng- 
land ; but the supremacy of] the crown was still vested in 
Edmund. Then, having exchanged their arms and dress, and 
fixed the tribute to be paid to the fleet, the two kings parted. 
The Danes returned to their ships with the plunder they had 
taken, and the citizens of London having secured peace by 
payment of a sum of money, allowed them to pass the winter 
among them. 

After these events, king Edmund Ironside died at London, 8 
about the feast of St. Andrew the apostle [30th Nov.] in the 
fifteenth indiction, but he was buried with his grandfather, 
king Edgar the Pacific, at Glastonbury. On his decease, 

1 Of Dorchester. 

2 Of Ramsey. 

8 Henry of Huntingdon relates that the issue was decided by a single 
combat between the two kings in this island. See the note to p. 105 
of his History in the Antiq. Lib. Roger of Wendover gives the same 

4 "There is here a chasm in all the MSS. of about a line. Imme- 
diately following the word ' Lundonia,' ' Canute ' is written in a later 
hand. The words within brackets are supplied from R. de Wend- 
over.' ? — Thorpe. 

6 The Saxon Chronicle, as well as our author, is silent as to the 
tragical death attributed to Edmund Ironside by Henry of Huntingdon 
and Roger de Wendover, the latter of whom places the scene at Oxford. 

J 2 


kins Canute commanded all the bishops, ealdormen, and chief 
men of England, tu assemble at London. When they were 
crane before them, pretending ignorance, he shrewdly 
quired of those who had been witnesses between himself 
Edmund when they concluded the treaty for amity and 
partition of tin; kingdom, what had passed between Edmund 
and him with regard to Edmund's brothers and 
Whether his brothers and sons were to succeed him 
kingdom of Wesscx if Edmund died in his (Canute's) life- 
time 1 They immediately began to say, that they could 
certainly affirm thai king Edmund intended to give no part of 
his kingdom to his brothers, either during his lifetime or after 
Lis death ; and they added, that they knew that it was king 
Edmund's wish that Canute should be the guardian and 
protector of his suns until they were of age to govern. But, 
as God knows, they bore false witness and (bully lied, thinking 
that he would be more favourable to them, and reward them 
Landsdjiiely, for their falsehood. Instead of that, some of 
these false witnesses were soon afterwards put to death by the 
king's orders. After these inquiries, king Canute used every 
effort to induce the meat men of the realm, already mentioned, 
to swear allegiance to hhn ; and they gave him their oatiis 
that they would elect him king and humbly obey him, and 
lind p.'iv for his army; and he, on his part, giving them his 
naked hand as his pledge, aeeompanied by the oaths of the 
Danish chiefs, thev utterly ivpudhiti'd the claims of Edmund'* 
brothers and sons, and denied their rights to the throne. 

Edwy, one of these ethelings, the illustrious and murfi 
reverenced brother of king Edmund, was at once, by a most 
infamous policy of the wittan, sentenced to be banish' 1 -! 
Canute, having heard the flatteries of these men, and tk 
affront they had offered to Edwy, retir«l to his chamber in 
great joy, and calling Edric, the perfidious ealdorman. tu bi 
presence, demanded how he could manage to deceive Edwy, 
so that his death might be compassed. Ho replied that lie 
knew a man named Ethelward who could betray Edwy i" 
death easier than he could, and that the king might >i"'^ 
with him and offer him a great reward. Having learnt th* 
man's name, the king sent for him, and said designingly r '-' 
him: " Thus and thus has Edric the ealdorman spoken 
saying that you can contrive to lead Edwy the etheli 

A.D. 1017.] CANUTE. 133 

destruction. Only do what we devise, and you shall be con- 
finned in the honours and rank of your ancestors ; and find 
means to take his life, and you shall be dearer to me than a 
brother." He replied that he was ready to seek him out, and 
betray him to death, if it was anyhow in his power. But he 
made this promise without any intention to be Edwy's mur- 
derer, and only by way of pretence, for he was of the noblest 
blood in England. Leofsy, the reverend abbot of Thorney, 
succeeded to the bishopric of Worcester. 

[a.d. 1017.] In this year king Canute undertook the 
government of all England, and divided it into four parts, 
reserving Wessex to himself, and committing East-Anglia to 
earl Thurkill, Mercia to Edric the ealdorman, and Northum- 
bria to Eric the earl. He also made a compact with the 
nobles and all the people, in which they joined ; and they 
ratified a solemn concord between them on their respective 
oaths, and thus terminated and put into oblivion all their past 
animosities. Then king Canute, by the advice of Edric the 
traitor, outlawed Edwy the etheling, king Edmund's brother, 
and Edwy, who was called king of the churls. This Edwy 
was in the course of time reconciled with the king, but Edwy 
the etheling, betrayed by those he had hitherto supposed to 
be his best friends, was the same year, by the order, and at 
the instance of, king Canute, put to death, although innocent. 
Edric also advised him to make away with the young ethelings 
Edward and Edmund, king Edmund's sons; but as he thought 
it would be a foul disgrace to him, if they were murdered in 
England, he sent them, after a short time, to the king of 
Sweden, to be put to death there ; but, although they were 
allies, that king was by no means disposed to execute his 
wishes, and he sent them to Solomon king of Hungary, to spare 
their lives, and have them brought up at his court. One of 
them, namely Edmund, in course of time died there ; but 
Edward married Agatha, a daughter of the brother of the 
emperor Henry, by whom he had Margaret queen of the Scots, 
Christina, a nun, and Edgar the etheling. 1 In the month of 

1 Solomon was not king of Hungary till 1063. Stephen was king 
from 997 to 1038. For the errors and improbabilities of this account 
of the fortunes of Edward Ironside's descendants, which is given in 
nearly the same way by Ordericus Vitatis, see the notes to that work in 
Bonn's edition, vol. i, p. 148. 

134 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1018— 1020. 

July king Canute married the queen Elgiva, king litlielrcd's 
widow; and on the feast of our Lord'* Nativity, whioh he 
kqit at London, he ordered Edrie tlie perfidious wildon .ism to 
l>e slain in the palace, apprehending that he himself in ijrhi 
.some day become a victim to his treachery, as he had lilt 
former lord? Ethclred and I'M i num.! frequently deceived: and 
lie caused liia body to he tlirown over the city walls, and left 
iinhuriiv.l.' Along- with him were slain A or man,, son of Loot- 
win the ealdorman, who was brother of earl Leofric, and 
Ethelward son of Ethelmar the ealdorman, and Brihtrie son 
of Alphege, governor of Devon, id! of whom were iiinooenti 
The king appointed l.eolYic oaldorman in his brother's place, 
and afterwards treated liiru with great kindness. 

[a.d. 1018.] Tins yew seventy-two thousand pounds mw 
levied from all England, besides ten thousand five hundred 
pounds contributed by London, for the pay of the DanM 
army. Forty ships of the ncct remained with king Canute, 
and the rest returned to Denmark. The English and Dnuia 
came to an agreement at Oxford respeoting the oliservanoeuf 
king Edgar's laws. 1 

[a.c. 1U19.] This year, Canute, king of the English nnd 
the Danes, went over to Denmark, and remained there during 
the winter. On the death of .'Elmar, bishop of Si ■!■ ■ 
rie succeeded. 

[A.D. 1020.] King Canute returned to England, and held 
n great council fit Cirencester on Easter-day [i?th April], ami 
outlawed Ethelward the caklorman. Living, archbishop of 
Canterbury, departed this lite, and was succeeded by Ethd- 
iiotli, surnamed the Good, son of Ethelmar, a noble. The 
same year, the church which king Canute and earl Tliurkill 
had built on the hill called Assendtnr 1 was consecrated in their 

1 Heqit nf Huntingdon ^iv.-s a somewhat different aeconnt of tilt 
period, the cause, and the mode of Edrio'fi Bzeoiahm. Saa Lis lustmr, 
inAntitj. Li.b„f. 106. 

: The Danelag, or limit!. law, was in force through the whol* »i 
England to the M.rr. of (he Walling Street. In c. 12 of l,i: 
Lbivs, it is said, " I will, tliet with tlie Dunes such good I .. 
they may heat chuse," <fcc; and in the following chapter. "Lettii 
Danes chuse. according to luws, wlmi. punishment they will adopt" 

3 AssingKin, in Essex, mentioned before. One M.S. of the Shod. 

Kt ; [Canute] " caused to he built there a minstpr of =:■ 
or the souls of the men who were tliore slain," ic. 

^D. 1021— 1027.J CANUTE. 135 

presence by Wul&tan, archbishop of York, and several other 
nshops, with great pomp and magnificence. On the death of 
Udhun, bishop of Lindisfarne, that church was bereaved of 
Mustoral care for nearly three years. A chapter of the canons 
laving assembled, when the election of a bishop was proposed, 
t certain good priest named Edmund stood up, and said in 
oke, "Why do you not choose me your bishop?" Those 
^resent did not treat this as a jest, but elected him, and after 
ippointing a fast for three days, consulted St. Outhbert's will 
respecting it. And the priest stood at the saint's head, cele- 
brating mass, a voice was heard, while he was in the middle 
>f the canon, apparently proceeding from the saint's tomb, 
nrhich thrice named Edmund bishop. 

[a.d. 1021.] Before the feast of St. Martin [11th Nov.], 
Canute, king of England and Denmark, banished from England 
rhurkill, the earl often mentioned, and his wife Edgitha. 
AJgar, bishop of the East- Angles (of Elmham) died, and 
pas succeeded by Alwin. 

[a.d. 1022.] Ethelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury, went 
X) Rome, and was received with great honour by pope 
Benedict, who gave him the pallium. 1 

[a.d. 1023.] The body of St. Alphege, the martyr, was 
translated from London to Canterbury. Wulfstan, archbishop 
[>f York, died at York on the fifth of the calends of June [28th 
May], but his body was carried to Ely and buried there. He 
was succeeded bv MUrio Puttuc, provost of Winchester. 

>.d. 1024.] " 

'a.d. 1025.] Edmund, a monk, was made bishop of Lindis- 

[a.d. 1026.] -rfElfric, archbishop of York, went to Borne, 
and received the pallium from pope John. Bichard II., duke 
of Normandy, died, and was succeeded by Richard III., who, 
dying the same year, was succeeded by his brother Robert. 

[a.d. 1027.] Canute, king of England and Denmark, 
received intelligence that the Norwegians held their king 
Olaf in contempt on account of his meekness and simplicity, 
bis justice and piety. In consequence, he sent large sums of 
£old and silver to certain of them, earnestly entreating them 
bo reject and depose Olaf, and submitting to him, accept him 

1 The Sax. Chron. gives fuller details of the journey and ceremonial. 


nd caused 


for their king. They groodilv accepted his bribes, and ci 
a message to be returned to Canute that they were prepared 
to receive Mm whenever lie chose to come. 

[a.d. 1028.] Canute, king of England and Denmark, 
went over to Norway with tifty stout ships, anil expelled 
king Olaf from (he kingdom, which lie subjugated to himself. 

[The same year was born Mariauus, of Ireland, the cele- 
brated Sent, by whose study and pains (his excellent Chronicle 
was compiled from various books.] 

[a.d. 1029.] Canute, king of England, Denmark, and' 
Norway, returned to England, and after the feast of 
St. Martin [11 Nov.] banished Hakon, a Danish earl, who 
had married the noble lady Gunildii, his sister's daughter by 
Wyngeorn, king of the Winidi, sending him away under 
pretence of an embassy ; for he feared that the earl would 
take either his lift; ov his kingdoms. 

[a.d. 1050.] The before-mentioned earl Haco perished 
at sea : some, however, say that he was killed in the iatandi 
of Orkney. Olaf, king and martyr, son of Harold, king of 
Norway, was wickedly slain by the Norwegians. 

[a.d. 1081.] Canute, king of England, Denmark, and 
Norway, went in great state from Denmark to Rome, 1 
and, having made rich offerings in gold, silver, and other 
precious objects, to St. Peter, prince of the apostles, he 
obtained from po|>o John that the Kiiirlidi .School should 1* 
free from all tribute and taxes. On his journey to Borne and 
back, he distributed large ;ilins among the poor, and procured 
at great cost the abolition of the (oils levied at many barriers 
on the roads, where they were extorted from pilgrims. He also 
vowed to God, before the tomb of the apostles, that lie would 
amend his life and conduct ; and he sent thence a memorable 
letter by the hands of Living, the companion of his journey, 
(a mail of great prudence, at that time abbot of Tavistock, 
and afterwards, in the course of the same year, EdnouVs 
successor in the see of CreditonV and others his envoys W 
England, uiiih.: he himself came back from Home by the sum 
road he went there, visiting Denmark before his return to 
England. I think it right to subjoin the text of this letter, 

! The Saxon Chron. and Henry of Huntingdon agree with Florence 
bs to the date of Canute's journey to Home ; but it was probably fiie 
or six years earlier. Wippo, a cotemporary writer, places it ' 

l it in UBt, 

uD. 1031.] Canute's letter. 137 

" Canute, king of all England, and of iJenmark, Norway, 
ind part of Sweden, to Ethelnoth, metropolitan, and Alfric, 
jchbishop of York, and to all the bishops and prelates, and 
o the whole nation of the English, both the nobles and the 
ommons, greeting : — 

" I notify to you that I have lately taken a journey to 
itome, to pray for the forgiveness of my sins, and for the wel- 
are of my dominions, and the people under my rule. I had 
ong since vowed this journey to God, but I have been 
dtherto prevented from accomplishing it by the affairs of my 
angdom and other causes of impediment. I now return most 
tumble thanks to my God Almighty for suffering me in my 
ifetime to visit the sanctuary of his apostles, SS. Peter and 
5 aul, and all others which I could find either within or 
vithout the city of Rome, and there in person reverentially 
worship according to my desire. I have performed this 
.hiefly, because I have learnt from wise men that St. Peter the 
,postle has received from God great power in binding and in 
oosing, and carries the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and 
herefore I esteemed it very profitable to seek his special 
>atronage with the Lord. 

" Be it known to you that, at the celebration of Easter, a 
Feat assembly of nobles was present with our lord, the pope 
Tohn, and Conrad the emperor ; that is to say, all the princes 
>f the nations from Mount Garganus to the neighbouring sea. 
Lll these received me with honour and presented me with 
aagnificent gifts ; but more especially was I honoured by the 
anperor with various gifts and valuable presents, both in 
^old and silver vessels, and in palls and very costly robes. 
'. spoke with the emperor himself, and the lord pope, and the 
>rinces who were there, in regard to the wants of my people, 
English as well as Danes ; that there should be granted to 
hem more equal justice and greater security in their journeys 
o Rome, and that they should not be hindered by so many 
carriers on the road, nor harassed by unjust tolls. The 
tmperor assented to my demands, as well as king Rodolph, in 
diose dominions] these barriers chiefly stand ; and all the 
>rinces made edicts that my people, the merchants as well as 
hose who go to pay their devotions, Shall pass to and fro in 
heir journies to Rome in peace, and under the security of just 
iws, free from all molestation by the guards of barriers or 

138 FLORENCE OF WOnCESTLlI. [a.D. 1031', [ 

the receivers of tolls. I made further complaint to my i< ml Qg 
pope, and expressed my high displeasure, that my arehbisliopi 
arc sorely aggrieved by the demand of immense sums of money, 
when, according to custom, they resort to the apostolical s*» - 
to obtain the pallium ; and it is decreed that it .should no 
longer be done. All things, therefore, which I requested for 
the good of my people from my lord the pope, and the 
emperor, and king Rodolph, 1 and the other princes through 
whose territories our road to Rome lies, tliey have most freely 
granted, and even ratifled their concessions by oath ; to which 
four archbishops, twenty bishops, and an Innumerable multi- 
tude of dukes and nobles who were there present, an 
witnesses. Wherefore I return most hearty thanks to Almighty 
God for my having successfully accomplished all that 1 iitfl 
desired, as I had resolved in my mind, and having satisfied my 
wishes to the fullest extent. 

" Be it known therefore to all of you, that I have humlily 
vowed to the Almighty God himself henceforward to amend 
my life in all respects, and to rule the kingdoms and the 
people subject to me with justice and clemency, giving equit- 
able judgments in all matters; and if, through the intem- 
perance of youth or negligence, I have hitherto exceeded tl"J 
bounds of justice in any of my acts, I intend by God's aid tt 
make an entire change for the better. 1 therefore adjure 
and command my counsellors to whom I have entrusted tk 
affairs of my kingdom, that henceforth they neither commit 
themselves, nor sutler to prevail, my sort of injustice through- 
out my dominions, either from fear of me, or from favour to 
any powerful person. 1 also command all sheriff and magis- 
trates throughout my whole kingdom, as they tender my 
regard and their own safety, that they use no unjust violence 
to any man, rich or poor, but that all, high and low, rich or 
poor, shall enjoy alike impartial law; from which thev are 
never to deviate, either on account of royal favour, respect "f 
person in the .great, or for the sake of araamang money wronp- 
fully, for I have no need to accumulate wealth by uiiquiWiu 

"I wish you further To know, thai, returning by the way I 
went, I am uow going to Denmark to conclude a treaty for r 

Rodolph II., king of Burgundy. 

A.D. 1032 — 1034.] CANUTE'S LETTER. 139 

solid peace, all the Danes concurring, with those nations and 
peoples who would have taken my life and crown if it had 
been possible ; but this they were not able to accomplish, God 
bringing their strength to nought. — May He, of his merciful 
kindness, uphold me in my sovereignty and honour, and hence- 
forth scatter and bring to nought the power and might of all 
my adversaries ! When, therefore, I shall have made peace 
with the surrounding nations, and settled and reduced to 
order all my dominions in the East, so that we shall have 
nothing to fear from war or hostilities in any quarter, I pro- 
pose to return to England as early in the summer as I shall 
be able to fit out my fleet. I have sent this epistle before me 
in. order, that my people may be gladdened ai my success ; 
because, as you yourselves know, I have never spared, nor 
will I spare, myself or my exertions, for the needful service of 
my whole people. I now therefore command and adjure all 
my bishops and the governors of my kingdom, by the duty 
they owe to God and myself, to take care that before I come 
to England all dues belonging to God, according to the old 
laws, be fully discharged ; namely, plough-alms, the tythe of. 
animals born in the current year, and the pence payable to 
St. Peter at Rome, whether from towns or vills ; and in the 
middle of August the tythes of corn; and at the feast of 
St. Martin the first-fruits of grain (payable) to every one's 
parish church, called in English ciric-sceat. If these and 
such-like dues be not paid before 1 come, those who make 
default will incur fines to the king, according to the law, 
which will be strictly inforced without mercy. Farewell." 

[A.n. 1032.] The church of St. Edmund, king and martyr, 
was dedicated this year. 

[a.d. 1033.] Leofsy, bishop of the Hwiccas, a devout and 
humble man, died at the episcopal vill of Kempsey, on 
Tuesday, the fourteenth of the calends* of September [19th 
August], and, as we may be allowed to hope, ascended to the 
heavenly realms : his body was buried with honour in the 
church of St. Mary, at Worcester. Brihteag, abbot of 
Pershore, sister's son of Wulfstan, archbishop of York, was 
raised to the vacant see. 

[a.d. 1034.] Eatheric, bishop of Lincoln [Dorchester]; died, 
and was buried in the abbey of Ramsey; Ednoth succeeded 
him. Malcolm, king of the Scots, died. 

140 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 103.J, 103G. 

[a.d. 1035.] Canute, king of England, before his death, 
gave the kingdom or' Norway to Sivevn, who was reported 
to be his son by Elfgiva of Northampton, the daughter of 
Alfhelm the ealdorman, and the noble lady Wulfruna. Some, 
however, asserted that this Elfgiva desired to have a son bjr 
the king, but as she could not. slie caused the new-born child 
of a certain priest to be brought to her, and made the king 
fully believe that she hiid just borne him a son. He alw 
gave the kingdom of Denmark to Hardieanute, his son by 
the queen Elfgiva. Afterwards, the same year, be departed 
this life at Shaftesbury on Wednesday, the second of ihe ides 
[the 12th] of November; but he was buried at Winchester ia 
the Old Minster, with due honours. After his burial the 
queen Elfgiva took up her abode there. Harold also slid 
that he was the son of king Canute and Elfgiva of North- 
ampton, although that is far from eertain ; for some say thU 
he was the son of a cobbler, and that Elfgiva bad acted witi 
regard to him as she had done in the case of Swcvn : for .im- 
part, as there are doubts on the subject, we cannot settle with 
any certainty the parentage of either, Harold, however, 
assuming the royal dignity, sent his guards in the utmost 
haste to Winchester, and tyrannically seized the largest aad 
best part of the treasure and wealth which king Canute had 
beiji lent bed to queen KliVna, and having thus robbed her, 
permitted her to continue her residence at Winchester. He 
then, with the consent of many of the higher orders i>f 
England, began to reign as though he nns the lawful heir; 
but he had not the same power as Canute, because the arrival 
of Hardieanute, the more rightful heir, was looked for. HenWi 
shortly aftewards, the kingdom was divided by lot, Harold 
getting the northern, and Hnrdieamue th<: southern portico. 

Robert, duke of Normandy, died, and was succeeded by 
bis son William the Bastard, then a minor. 

[a.D. 1036.] The innocent ethelings Alfred and Edward, 
sons of Ethelred, formerly king of England, sailed from 
Normandy, where they had been for many years at the court 
of their uncle Richard, and, attended by many Normta 
knights, crossed over to England with a small fleet to confer 
with their mother, who still abode at Winchester. Some of 
the men in power were very indignant at tlu's, being n 
e devoted to Harold, however unjustly, than to tl 

more devot 

AJ>. 1037, 1038.] MURDER OF PRINCE ALFRED. 141 

lings : especially, it is said, earl Godwin. The earl, therefore, 
arrested Alfred on his road to London to confer with king 
Harold as he had commanded, and threw him into prison. 
At the same time he dispersed some of his attendants, others 
he put in fetters and afterwards deprived of their sight, some 
he scalped and tortured, amputated their hands and feet and 
heavily mulcted: many he ordered to be sold, and put to 
death six hundred of them at Guilford with various torments : 
but we trust that the souls of those, who, guilty of no crime, 
had their bodies so cruelly slaughtered in the fields, are now 
rejoicing with the saints in paradise. On hearing of this, 
queen Elgiva sent back her son Edward, who had remained 
with her, in all haste to Normandy. Then, by order of 
Godwin and others, Alfred was conducted, heavily chained, to 
the Isle of Ely ; but as soon as the ship touched the land, his 
eyes were most barbarously plucked out while he was on 
board, and in this state he was taken to the monastery and 
handed over to the custody of the monks. There he shortly 
afterwards died, and his body was buried, with due honours, 
in the south porch at the west end of the church ; but his 
spirit is in the enjoyment of the delights of paradise. 

[a.d. 1037.] Harold, king of Mercia and Northumbria, 
was elected by the nobles, and the whole people, king of all 
England; Hardicanute being entirely deposed, because he 
wasted his time in Denmark, and deferred coming over, as he 
was requested. His mother Elfgiva, formerly queen of England, 
was banished from the kingdom, without mercy, at the begin- 
ning of winter. As soon as a ship could be got ready she 
sailed for Flanders, where she received an honourable welcome 
from the noble count Baldwin, who, with a liberality becom- 
ing his rank, took care that she should be freely supplied with 
all things needful, as long as she required it. A little before 
this, the same year, -*Efic, dean of Evesham, a man of deep 
piety, died. 

[a.d. 1038.] Ethelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury, departed 
this life on the fourth of the calends of November [29th 
September]. Seven days after, Ethelric, bishop of Sussex, 
died ; for he had prayed to God that ho might not long sur- 
vive his beloved father Ethelnoth. Grimkytel succeeded him 
in the bishopric, and Eadsige, one of the king's chaplains, 
succeeded Ethelnoth in the archbishopric. In the same year 

142 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 103!.*, 1040. 

died iElfric, bishop of East-Anglia, ami Brihteag, bishop of the 
Hwiccas, ended his days on Wednesday the third, of the 
calends of January [20th Deeemljer], whose see king HaroW 
gave to Liiiiig, bishop of Credit on. Stigaiid, the kingi 
chaplain, was appointed in jElfric'a place, but was afterwat* 
ejected, and Griinkytel chosen in Ins stead ; so that lie held fct 
the time the two dioceses of Sussex and Essex; but Stigind 
was restored, and Grinikytel ejected, and Stigand kept the 
bishopric of Sussex for himself, and procured that of East- 
Anglia for his brother Ethelmar; hut not satisfied with this, 
he was raised to the throne.-! of WinehestiT and Canterbury: 
he also strove hard to hold with them the bishopric 4 
Sussex, and nearly carried his point. Ethelmar was succeeded 
by jEsfest, bishop of Ehnham, who, lest he should h»W 
seemed to have done nothing— for the Normans lire v«y 
ambitious of future renown — transferred the see from Ehuliwi 
to Thetford. 

[a.d. 1039.] Brihtmar, bishop of Litchfield, died, and m 
succeeded by Wulfsy. Tin' Welsh slew Edwin, earl Leofries 
brother, with Turkill and jElfgeat, son of Eatsy, two nobta 
king's thanes, and many others af the same time. HardicanitW, 
king of Denmark, sailed to Flanders, on a visit to his motlier, 

[A.D. 1040.] Harold, king of England, died at London, 
and was buried at Westminster. After his funeral, the noble* 
of almost the whole of England sent envoys to IlardicamiU' «!■ 
Bruges, where he was staying with his mother, and, thinking 
it was for the, invited him to come to Eimhuidand nswod 
the throne. Thereupon, he fitted out fifty ahips, and «o- 
barking Danish troops, before midsummer sailed MET B 
England, where he was received with universal joy, ind. 
shortly afterwards crowned ; but during his government b» 
did nothing worthy his royal power, Eur a* soon as he hegin 
to reign, calling to mind the injuries wbieh hfith lie and his 
mother had suffered at the hands of his predi ■ 
reputed brother, king Harold, he despatched to London. JEitrk. 
archbishop of York, and earl Godwin, with Stor, t! ■ 
Ilia household, Edrie, his steward, Thrond, captain of ■ 
guards, and other men of high rank, with orders to i 
body of Harold and throw it into a sewer ; sad ml 
thrown there, he caused it to he dragged out and 

UD. 1040, 1041.] HAROLD. HARDICANUTE. 143 

the river Thames. Shortly afterwards, it was picked up by a 
fisherman, and being immediately brought to the Danes, was 
honourably buried by them in a cemetery they possessed at 
London. 1 After this, he ordered that eight marks should be 
paid to every rower in his fleet, and twelve to each steersman, to 
be levied from the whole of England ; a tax so burthensome, 
that scarcely any one would pay it, and he became thoroughly 
detested by those who at first were most anxious for his 
coming. Besides, he was greatly incensed against earl Godwin, 
and Living, bishop of Worcester, for the death of his brother 
Alfred, of which they were accused by ^Elfric, archbishop of 
York, and some others. In consequence, he took the bishopric 
of Worcester from Living and gave it to iElfric ; but the 
following year, he ejected iElfrie and graciously restored 
Living, who had made his peace with him. 

Godwin, to obtain the king's favour, presented him with a 
galley of admirable workmanship, with a gilded figure-head, 
rigged with the best materials, and manned with eighty chosen 
soldiers splendidly armed. Every one of them had on each 
am a golden bracelet weighing six ounces, and wore a triple 
coat of mail and a helmet partly gilt, and a sword with gilded 
hilt girt to his side, and a Danish battle-axe inlaid with gold 
and silver hanging from his left shoulder ; in his left hand he 
bore a sliield, the boss and studs of which were also gilt, and 
in his right hand a lance, called in the English tongue 
** Atagar."- Moreover, he made oath to the king, with almost 
all the chief men and greater thanes in England, that it was 
not by his counsel, or at his instance, that his brother's eyes 
were put out, but that he had only obeyed the commands of 
his lord, king Harold. 

[a.d. 1041.] This year Hardicanute, king of England, sent 
his huscarls 3 through all the provinces of his kingdom to 
collect the tribute which he had imposed. Two of them, 
leader and Thurstan, were slain on the 4th of the ides [the 
4th] of May, by the citizens of Worcester and the people of 

1 The cemetery of St. Clement-Danes, where the Northmen had a 
settlement oh the bank of the Thames, outside the -walls of London. 
The Saxon Chron. is silent as to Harold's corpse being thrown into 
the Thames und fished up, but Henry of Huntingdon gives the same 
account as our author. 

* Au-.jlo Sa?:on, <rttjar ; old Norsk, atyeirr. 

3 The Danish body-guards. 

144 FLOREKCE OP 1VOHCEBTEH, [a.d. 1041, 1042, 

thiit neighbourhood, in an upper chamber of the abbey-toner, 
where they concealed themselves during a, tumult. This 
so incensed the king, that to avenge their deaths he sent 
Thorold, earl of Middlesex, Leofric, earl of Mcreia, Godwin, 
earl of Wessex, Siward, earl of North umbriii, Roni, earl of 
Hertford, and all the other Engli-h carls, with almost nil his 
huscarls, and a large body of troops, to Worcester, where 
/Elt'ric was .still bishop, with orders to put to death all the 
inhabitants they could find, to plunder and burn the city, and 
lay waste the whole province. They arrived there on the second 
of the ides [the 12th] of November, and beginning their work 
of destruction through the nicy and province continued it for 
four days ; but very few of the citizens or provincials were 
taken or skin, because, having notice of their coming, the 
people fled in all directions. A great number of the citizens 
took refuge in a small island, called Beverege, situated in tht 
middle of the river Severn, and having fortified it, defended 
themselves so stoutly against their enemies that they obtained 
terms of peace, and were allowed free liberty to return home, 
On the fifth day, the city having been burnt, every one 
marched ofi' loaded with plunder, and the king's wrath wis 
satisfied. Soon afterwards, Edward, son of Ethclred the late 
king of England, came over from Normandy, where he had 
been an exile many years, and being honourably received ly 
his brother, king Hardicanute, remained at his court. 

[a.d. 1042.] Hardicanutc, king of England, while he w» 
present at a joyous feast given at a place called Lumktli, 
by Osgod Clapa, a man of great wealth, on occasion of his 
giving the hand of his daughter (jitha in marriage to Tovi, 
surnamed Prudan, a noble and powerful Dane, — and carous- 
ing, full of health and merriment, with the bride and soiuc 
otliers, fell down, by a sad mischance, while in the act of 
drinking, and continued speechless until Tuesday the sistli <*' 
the ides [the 8th] of June, when he expired. He was carried 
to Winchester and buried near his father Canute. His 
brother Edward Mas proclaimed king .at London, chiefly h}' 
the exertions of earl Gmhviri, aud Living, bishop of Worcester. 
Edward was the son of Ethelred, who was the son of Edgar, 
who was the son of Edmund, who was the son of Edward 
the Elder, who was the son of Alfred. 

Abbot Elias, a Scot, died on the second of the it 

the ides [*> 

AJ>. 1042, 1043.] EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. 145 

12th] of April. Being a prudent and religious man, he was 
intrusted with the government of the monastery of St. Pan- 
taleon, as well as of his own abbey of St. Martin. He com- 
mitted to the flames, in the monastery of St. Pantaleon, a 
beautiful missal which a French monk had copied, without 
leave, for the use of the community, 1 that no one in future 
might dare to do it without permission. He was succeeded 
by Maiolus the Scot, a holy man. 

|Xd. 1043.] Edward was anointed king at Winchester 
on the first day of Easter, being the third of the nones [the 
3rd] of April, by Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury, ^Elric, 
archbishop of York, and nearly all the bishops of England. 
In the same year, fourteen days before the feast-day of St. 
Andrew the apostle [16th November], the king went suddenly 
and unexpectedly from the city of Gloucester to Winchester, 
accompanied by the earls Godwin, Leofric, and Siward ; and 
by their advice took from his mother all the gold, silver, 
jewels, precious stones, and other valuables she possessed, 
because she had been less liberal to him than he expected, and 
bad treated him harshly both before and after he was king. 
Kotwithstanding, he gave orders for her being supplied with 
all necessaries, and ordered her to remain there quiet. 

Animchadus, a Scottish monk, who led a life of seclusion 
in the monastery at Fulda, died on the third of the calends of 
February [30th January], Over his tomb lights were seen, 
and there was the voice of psalmody. Marianus, the author 
of this chronicle, took up his station as a recluse for ten 
years at his feet, and sang masses over his tomb. He has 
related, what follows respecting this Animchadus : "When I 
was in Ireland," says Marianus, "in an island called Keltra, 
he entertained, with the permission of his superior, named 
Cortram, certain brethren who came there. Some of them 
departed after their meal, but those who remained sat warni- 
ng themselves at the fire, and asked him for something to 
drink, and on his refusing to give it without leave, they urged 
him to comply. At last he consented, but first sent some of 
the beverage to his superior, as for his blessing. On the mor- 

In commune scriptum. This somewhat obscure phrase has been 
e Jsewhere translated "in the vulgar tongue," — a turn which we 
think it hardly admits, while we confess that we are not quite satisfied 
w ith our own version. 

146 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [ A.D, 1043-5. 

row, being asked for what reason lie sent it, he related all 
the circumstances. But his superior, for thia slight fault, 
immediately ordered him to quit Ireland, and lie humbly 
obeyed. He then came to Eulda, and lived a life of holy 
seclusion, as I have already said, until his death. 

" This was told us by the superior, Tigerimh, on my com- 
mitting some slight fault in his presence. Moreover, I my- 
self heard, while I was in seclusion at Fulda, a very devout 
monk of that monastery, whose name was William, implore 
the aforesaid Animchadus, who was then in his tomb, to gire 
him his benediction ; and, as he afterwards told me, he s»» 
him in a vision standing in Ins tomb, shining with great 
brightness., and giving him Lis benediction with outstretched 
arms; and I too passed the whole of that night in the midst 
of a mellifluous odour." These are the words of Marianus. 

[a.d. 1044.] jElfward, bishop of London, who was abbot of 
Evesham, both before and while ho was bishop, being unabli' 
to perform duly his episcopal functions, by reason of his 
in Anilities, wished to retire to [his abbey of] Evesham, but 
the monks of that house would by no mentis consent.' 
Wherefore he removed the greatest part of the books and 
ornaments which he had collected in that place, and some, it 
is said, which others had contributed, and withdrawing to the 
abbey of Ramsey, took np Ins abode there, and ottered all he 
bad broil glit with him to St. Benedict. He died on Wednes- 
day, the eighth of the calends of August (the 25th July), in 
this same year, and is buried there. 

At a general synod, held about that time in London, Wulf- 
inar, a devout monk of Evesham, also called Manni, tb 
elected abbot of that monastery. The same year, tlte uoblu 
lady, Gunhi Ida, daughter of king Wyrtgcorn, by king Canute's 
sister, and successively the wife of earls Hakon and Harold, 
was banished from England with her two sons, Hemming »nd 
Thurkill. She went over to i'lauders, and resided lor some 
time at a place called Bruges, and then went to Demnirk. 
Stigand, the king's chaplain, was appointed bishop of ftast- 

[a.d. 1045.] Brihtwold, bishop of Wilton, died; and v. -.,■< ■■ k 
cecded by the king's chaplain, llerimun, a native of Lorraine, 
afflicted with the lepras;. See Hist I 

AJ>. 1046-8. J A FLEET COLLECTED. 147 

The same year, Edward, king of England, assembled a 
very powerful fleet at the port of Sandwich, to oppose 
Magnus, king of Norway, who threatened to invade England ; 
but the expedition was abandoned in consequence of Sweyn, 
king of Denmark, having commenced hostilities against 

[a.d. 1046.] Living, bishop of the Hwiccas, 1 Devonshire, and 
Cornwall, died on Sunday, the tenth of the calends of April 

gie 23rd March], Soon after his death, the bishoprics of 
editon and Cornwall were given to Leofric the Briton, 
who was the king's chancellor ; and Aldred, who had been a 
monk of Winchester and was then abbot of Tavistock, was 
made bishop of the Hwiccas. Osgod Clapa was banished 
from England. Magnus, king of Norway, son of St. Olaf 
the king, defeated Sweyn, king of the Danes, and reduced 
Denmark under his own dominion. 

[a.d 1047.] So much snow fell in the West, that it crushed 
the woods, and this year the winter was very severe. Grimkytel, 
bishop of Sussex, died, and was succeeded by Heca, the king's 
chaplain. ^Elfwine, bishop of Winchester, also died, and 
Stigand, bishop of East-Anglia, was translated to his see. 
Sweyn, king of Denmark, sent ambassadors to Edward, king 
of England, requesting that he would send a fleet to join 
him against Magnus, king of Norway. Then earl Godwin 
counselled the king to send at least fifty ships, full of soldiers; 
but as the proposal was objected to by earl Leofric and all 
the people, he declined to furnish any. After this Magnus, 
king of Norway, having collected a numerous and powerful 
fleet, fought a battle with Sweyn, in which a vast number of 
troops were killed on both sides, and having driven him out 
of Denmark, reigned there himself, and made the Danes pay 
him a heavy tribute : shortly afterwards he died. 

JA.D. 1048. J Sweyn recovered Denmark, and Harold Har- 
faager, 2 son of Si ward, king of Norway, and brother of St. 
Olaf by the mother's side, and by the father's uncle to king 
Magnus, returned to Norway, and shortly afterwards sent 

1 It will be recollected that the ancient territory of the Hwiccas 
deluded and nearly corresponded with the diocese of Worcester. 

It should be Harold Hardrada, a common blunder of the English 
chroniclers. King Harold Harfaager reigned from about a.d. 861 to 
a hout 931.— See his Saga in Laing's Hemiskringla, vol. i. p. 271. 


148 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER, [a.d. 1048, 1049 

ambassadors to king 'Edward, making oilers of peaee auc 
amity, which were accepted. 1 

There was a great earthquake i>n Sunday the first of M»y. 
at Worcester, Wick, Derby, and many other places. Hanj 
districts of England were visited with a mortality among men 
and cattle ; and a fire in the air, commonly called wild-ire, 
burnt many vills and cornfields in Derbyshire and some othei 
districts. Edmund, bishop of Lindisi'anie, died at Gloucester, 
hut was carried by his people to Durham, and buried there. 
Edred succeeded him, but being struck by the divine ven- 
geance, Ethelric, a monk of Peterborough, was appointed in 
his stead. 

[a.d. 1049.] The emperor Henry assembled a vast array 
against Baldwin, count of Flanders, chiefly because he h*d 
burnt and ruined his stately palace at Nimeguen. In tha 
expedition were pope Leo, and many gnat and nobte inett 
from various countries. Sweyn, king of Denmark, was also 
there with his fleet at the emperor's command, and swore 
fealty to the emperor for that occasion. He sent also H 
Edward, king of England, and requested him not to let 
Baldwin escape, if he should retreat to the sea. Inconse- 
quence, the king went with a large fleet to the port of 
Sandwich, and remained there until the empernr had obtained 
of Baldwin all he desired. Meanwhile, earl Sweyn, son of 
earl Godwin and Githa, who had left. England and gone » 
Denmark, because he was not permitted to marry Edjjin, 
abbess of the monastery of Leominster, whom he had de- 
bauched, returned with eight ships, alleging falsely that ht 
would now remain loyally with the king. Earl Beorn, sun Of 
his uncle Ulf, a Danish carl, who was son of Spracing, who 
was son of ITrso, and brother of Sweyn, king of Deimittrk, 
promised him to obtain [Venn the king the restoration of \ot 
earldom. Earl Baldwin having made peace with the empetWi 
the earls Godwin and Beorn, by the king's permission, can* 
to l'evensey with forty-two ships ; but he ordered the rest of 
the fleet to return iiome, with the exception of a few ship* 
which he retained there. When, however, he was informed 

' The paragraph inserted in the Chronicle under the year lWo 
desi-ril'in^ Swcvh's ;i[i|>lii:;uiiiu Cur iinviJ aid, and the refusal itm* 1 
with, is here repeated in the original text, apparently from iwl- 
in almost the same words. 

4.D. 1049.] MURDER OF BEORN. 149 

that Osgod Clapa lay at Wulpe 1 with twenty-nine ships, he 
recalled as many as possible of the ships he had sent away. 
But Osgod, taking with him his wife whom he had left for 
safety at Bruges, returned to Denmark with six ships ; the 
rest sailed over to Essex, and returned with no small plunder, 
which they carried off from the neighbourhood of Eadulfs 
Ness;* however, a violent tempest overtook and sunk all except 
two, which were captured at sea, and all on board perished. 

During these occurrences earl Sweyn went to Pevensey, 
and perfidiously requested earl Beorn, his cousin, to go with 
him to the port of Sandwich, and make his peace with the 
king, according to promise. Beorn, relying on his relation- 
ship, accompanied him with only three attendants; but 
8weyn conducted him to Bosham, where his ships lay, and, 
taking him on board one of them, ordered him to be bound 
with thongs, and kept him on board until they reached the 
mouth of the river Dart. There they slew him, and threw 
him into a deep trench, and covered him with earth. They 
then sent away six of the ships, two of which were soon after- 
wards taken by the men of Hastings, who, having killed all 
on board, carried them to Sandwich and presented them to 
the king. Sweyn, however, escaped to Flanders with two 
ships, and remained there until he was brought back by 
Aldred, bishop of Worcester, who reconciled him with the king. 
Jn the month of August of the same year, some Irish 
pirates, entering the mouth of the river Severn with thirty- 
six ships, landed at a place called Wylesc-Eaxan, and, with 
the aid of Griffyth, king of South-Wales, plundered in that 
neighbourhood, and did considerable damage. Then, joining 
their forces, the king and the pirates crossed the river Wye and 
burnt Dymedham, massacring all they found there. Aldred, 
bishop of Worcester, with a few of the people of Gloucester- 
shire and Herefordshire, flew to arms against them ; but the 
Welshmen who were in their ranks, and had promised to be 
faithful to them, sent a messenger privately to king Griftyth, 
begging him to lose no time in attacking the English ; in 
consequence of which he hastened to the spot with his own 
followers and the Irish pirates, and falling on the English be- 
fore day-break, slew many of them and put the rest to flight. 

1 A village on the coast of Flanders, N.W. of Sluys. 

2 Ness, a promontory. 



Eadnoth, bishop of Dorchester, diet!, and was suceeedf 
Ulf, the king's chaplain, a native of Normandy. Oawy, i 
of Thorney, and \Vulfnotli, abbot, of Westminster, died; 
Siward, coadjutor -bishop of Eadsige, archbishop of Co 
bury, and ho was buried at Abingdon. Moreover, in 
year pope St. Leo came to France, at the request of the 
excellent abbot Heriniar, liming in his company the pi 
and some of the principal persons of Rome, and dedi 
with great ceremony the monastery of St. ltemjgius 
apostle of the Franks, built at lthcims, in which cit 
afterwards held a numerous synod of archbishops, bis 
and abbots, which lasted six days. There were prese 
this synod Alfwinc, abbot of Ham soy, anil the abbot o 
Augustine's monastery [at Canterbury], who were sent 
by Edward, king of England. 

[a.d. 1050.] Macbeth, king of Scotland, distributed i 
large sums of money at Koine. E:id:-ige, arehbisliop <•!' ('a 
bury, died, and was succeeded by Hubert, bishop of Loi 
a Norman by birth. Spearheafoe, abbot of Abingdon, 
elected bishop of London, but was ejected by king Ed 
before consecration. Hertman, bishop of Wilton, and Al 
bishop of Worcester, went to Rome. 

[a.d. 1051.] (Elfric, archbishop of York, died at Si 
well, and was buried at Peterborough ; Kinsige, the It 
chaplain, succeeded him. dving Edward released the Ei 
from the heavy tax payable to the Danish troops, ir 
thirty-eighth year after his father Ethelred had first im| 
it. After this, in the month of Seprember, Eustace the ( 
count of Boulogne, who had married a sister of king Edi 
named Goda, sailed to Dover with a small fleet. 1 His soli 
while they were bluntly and indiscreetly inquiring for 1 
ings, killed one of the townsmen. A neighbour of his 
nessing this, slew one of the soldiers in revenge. At thi 
eount and ids followers were much enraged, aud put i 
men and women to the sword, trampling their babes 
eliildren under their horses' hoofs, But seeing the towni 
flocking together to resist them, they made their escape, 
cowards, with some difficulty, and leaving seven of their i 
ber slain, they fled to king Edward, who was then at G 
eester. Earl Godwin, being indignant that such things sh 
Cf. Sax. Chron. under the years 1048 and 106 

ad 1062. 


be done within his jurisdiction, in great wrath raised an 
immense army from the whole of his earldom, that is, from 
Kent, Sussex, and Wessex \ his eldest son, Sweyn, also 
assembled the men of his earldom, that is, of the counties of 
Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berks ; and his 
other son, Harold, assembled the men of his earldom, namely, 
Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridge. This did 
not escape the notice of king Edward, and he therefore sent 
messages to Leofric, earl of Mercia, and Siward, earl of 
Northumbria, begging them to hasten to him with all the 
men they could muster, as he way in great peril. They came 
at first with only a few followers ; but when they learnt the 
real state of affairs, they sent swift messengers throughout 
their earldoms and gathered a large army. Likewise earl 
Ralph, son of Goda, king Edward's sister, assembled as many 
as he could from his county. 

Meanwhile, Godwin and his sons, with their respective 
armies, entered Gloucestershire after the feast of the nativity 
of St. Mary [8th September], and encamping at a place called 
Langtreo, sent envoys to the king at Gloucester, demanding 
the surrender of count Eustace and his followers, as well as 
of the Normans and men of Boulogne, who were in possession 
of the castle on the cliff at Dover, on pain of hostilities. The 
king, alarmed for a time at this message, was in great distress, 
and in the utmost perplexity what to do. But when he found 
that the troops of the earls Leofric, Siward, and Ralph were 
on their march, he replied with firmness that he would by no 
means consent to give up Eustace and the rest who were 
demanded. On hearing this, the envoys returned from their 
bootless errand. As they were departing, the army entered 
Gloucester, so exasperated, and unanimously ready to fight, 
that, if the king had given permission, they would have in- 
stantly engaged earl Godwin's army. But earl Leofric con- 
sidering that all the men of greatest note in England were 
assembled either on his side or the other, it appeared to him and 
some others a great folly to fight with their own countrymen, 
and he proposed that, hostages having been given by both 
parties, the king and Godwin should meet at London on a day 
appointed, and settle their controversy in a legal way. This 
advice being approved, and after the exchange of messages, 
hostages having been given and received, the earl returned 

1-52 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1051, 1052. 

into Weasex ; and the king MaemMed a more powerful army 
from the whole of Mereia and Northumbrian, and led it to 
London. Meanwhile, Godwin and his sons came to South- 
wark with a vast multitude of the people of Wessex ; but his 
army gradually dwindling iiwav and deserting him, he did 
not venture to abide the judgment of the king's court, but 
fled, under cover of night. When, therefore, the morning came, 
the king, in his witan, with the unanimous consent of the 
whole army, made a decree that Godwin and his five sons 
should he banished. Thereupon he and Ids wife Githa, and 
Tosti and bis wile Judith, [.lie daughter of Baldwin, count of 
Flanders, and two of his, other sons, namely, Sweyu nnd 
Chirtli, went, without loss of time, to Thorney, where a ship 
had been got ready for them. They quickly laded her »ith 
s much gold, silver, and other valuable articles as she could 
hold, and, embarking in preat haste, directed her course 
towards Flanders and Baldwin the count. His sons Harold 
and Leofwine, making their way to Brycgstowe [Bristol], 
went on board a ship which their brother Sweyn had pre- 
pared for them, and crossed over to Ireland. The king repu- 
diated the queen Edgitha, on account of his wrath against 
her father Godwin, and sent her in disgrace, with only a 
single handmaid, to Wherwell, where she was committed to 
the custody of the abbess.' 

After these occurrences, William, earl [duke] of Normandy, 
came over to England with n vast retinue of Normans. Kinr 
Edward honourably entertained him and his companions, wid 
on their return made them many valuable presents. The 
same year, William, the king's chaplain, was appointed to the 
bishopric of London, which was before given u> Spearlieal'oe. 

[a.T>. 1053.] Marianus, the chronicler, departed this life. 

Elfgiva Emma, wife of the kings Etholrod and Canute, 
died at Winchester on the second of the nones [the 6th] of 
March, and was buried there. In the same year, Gririydi. 
king of Wales, ravaged a great part of Herefordshire : the 
inhabitants of that province, with some Normans from » 
castle, flew to arms and attacked him ; but, having *1»it> 
a great number of them, lie obtained the victory and puM 
oil' much plunder. This battle was fought on the same d»J 

> She * 

a sister of the king. 

>. 1052.] Godwin's successes. 153 

which, fourteen years before, the Welsh slew Edwin, earl 
ofric's brother, in an ambuscade. A short time afterwards, 
•1 Harold and his brother Leofwine, returning from Ireland, 
i sailing into the mouth of the river Severn with a large 
3t, landed on the borders of Somersetshire and Dorsetshire, 
d plundered many villages and farms in those parts. A great 
mber of the people of Devonshire and Somersetshire gathered 
aether in arms against them ; but Harold defeated them with 
3 loss of more than thirty noble thanes, and many others. 
e then returned to his fleet with the booty, and sailed 
and Penwithsteort. 1 Thereupon, king Edward quickly de- 
atched forty ships, well provisioned, and having on board 
chosen body of soldiers, to the port of Sandwich, with 
ders to wait and look out for the arrival of earl Godwin, 
stwithstanding this, he escaped observation, and, returning 
th a few ships, landed in Kent ; and, by his secret emis- 
ries, gained over to espouse his cause, first, the Kentishmen, 
d then the people of Sussex, Essex, and Surrey, with all the 
►atmen 3 of Hastings and other places on the sea-coast, be- 
les some others. All these, with one voice, declared that 
ey were ready to live or die with him. 
As soon as his arrival was known in the king's fleet, which 
v at Sandwich, it went in chase of him ; but he escaped 
id concealed himself wherever he could, and the fleet re- 
rned to Sandwich, and thence sailed to London. On hear- 
g this, Godwin shaped his course again for the Isle of 
ight, and kept hovering about along the shore until his sons 
arold and Leofwine joined him with their fleet. After this 
nction, they desisted from plundering and wasting the 
untry, taking only such provisions as necessity required 
r the subsistence of their troops. Having increased their 
rce by enlisting as many men as they could on the sea- 
ast and in other places, and by collecting all the mariners 
ey met with in every direction, they directed their course 
wards the port of Sandwich. Their arrival there was 
>tified to king Edward, who was then at London, and he 
st no time sending messengers requiring all persons, who 
id not revolted from him, to hasten to his succour ; but they 

1 Penwdh-Steort— the Land's End. 

2 Butsecarles — Boats-carles. Our author uses the word again, a 
w sentences later, in the general sense of mariners, seamen. 


were too slow in their movements, and did not arrive in lime. 
Meanwhile, carl (li.ijivii], having sailed up the Thames against 
the current, reached Southwark on the day of the Exaltation 
of the Holy Cross [14th September], being Monday, and 
waited there until the flood- tide came np. In the interval, he 
so dealt with the citizens of London, some in person, others 
through ids emissaries, having before seduced them by i 
variety of promise?, that lie persuaded nearly all of them n> 
enter heartily into his designs. At last, everything being 
duly planned and set in order, on the tide's flowing up they 
ijuiekly weighed anchor, and, no one offering them any resist- 
ance at the bridge, sailed upwards along the south bank of 
the river. The land army also arrived, and, being drawn up 
on the river-bank, formed a close and formidable column. 
Then the fleet drew towards the northern bank, with the 
intention, apparently, of enclosing the king's fleet, for the 
king had also a fleet, as well as a numerous land army. Ent 
as there were very few men of any courage, either on the 
king's or Godwin's side, who were not Englishmen, nearly all 
shrunk from fighting against their kinsfolk and countrymen! 
so that the wiser sort on both sides interfered to restore 
peace between the king and the ear), and both armies re- 
ceived orders to lay down their anus. The next morning 
the king held a council, and fully restored to their forme' 
honours Godwin, and his wife, and all his sons, except Swim. 
who, touched with repentance for the murder of his cousin 
Beorn. mentioned before, lmd undertaken a journey barefoot 
from Flanders to Jerusalem, and who, on his return, died in 
Lycia 1 from illness brought on by the severity at the cold. 
The king, also, took back with due honour queen Edgitlia, 
the earl's daughter, and restored her to her former dignity. 

The alliance being renewed, and peace established, thev 
promised right law to all the people, and banished all the 
Normans, who had introduced unjust laws and given Un- 
righteous judgments, and in many things had influenced the 
king to the disadvantage of Ids English subjects. A fe« 
of them only were allowed to stay in England, namely, 
Robert the deacon, and his son-in-iaw Richard Fitz-Scropei 

1 According to the Saxon Chronicle, Swc-vn died a! Const antinopl* 
on his journey home. Malmesbnry relates that he was shun by thr 

A.B. 1052, 1053.] THE NORMANS BANISHED. 155 

Alfred, the king's horse-thane, Anfrid, surnamed Cock's-foot, 
-with some others who had been the king's greatest favourites, 
and had remained faithful to him and the commonwealth. But 
Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, William, bishop of London, 
and Ulf, bishop of Lincoln, with their Normans, had some 
difficulty in making their escape and getting beyond sea. 
William, however, was, for his worth, soon afterwards re- 
called and reinstated in his bishopric. Osbern, surnamed 
Pentecost, and his companion Hugh, surrendered their castles ; 
and, being allowed by earl Leofric to pass through his terri- 
tories in their way to Scotland, received a welcome from 
Macbeth, king of the Scots. The same year there was such 
a violent wind in the night of the feast of St. Thomas the 
apostle [the 21st December], that it threw down many 
churches and houses, and shattered or tore up by the roots 
trees without number. 

[a.d. 1053.] Rhys, the brother of Griffyth, king of South 
Wales, was put to death by order of king Edward at a place 
called Bullington, on account of the plundering inroads he 
had frequently made, and his head was brought to the king at 
Gloucester on the eve of our Lord's Epiphany [5th January]. 
In the same year, on the second day of the festival of Easter 
[12th April], which was celebrated at Winchester, earl God- 
win came to his end while he was sitting at table with the 
king, according to his usual custom ; for, being suddenly 
seized with a violent illness, he fell speechless from his seat. 
His sons, earl Harold, Tosti, and Gurth, perceiving it, carried 
him into the king's chamber, hoping that he would presently 
recover ; but his strength failing, he died in great suffering 
on the fifth day afterwards [15th April], and was buried in 
the Old Minster. His son Harold succeeded to his earldom, 
and Harold's earldom was given to Algar, son of earl 

In the month of October died Wulfsige, bishop of Litch- 
field, Godwin, abbot of Winchcombe, and Ethelward, abbot 
of Glastonbury. Leofwine, abbot of Coventry, succeeded 
Wulfsige ; and Ethelnoth, a monk of the same monastery, 
succeeded Ethelward. But Aldred, bishop of Worcester, kept 
the abbey of Winchcombe in his own hands until such time as 
he appointed Godric, the son of Goodman, the king's chaplain, 
to be abbot. jElfric, brother of earl Odda, died at Deerhurst 

1.56 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1054, 1055. 

on the eleventh of the calends of January [22nd December], 
hut he was buried in the monastery at Pershore. 

Aed, a long-bearded clerk in Ireland, a man of great emi- 
nence and earnest piety, had a large school nf clerks, maidens, 
and laymen; but he subjected the maidens to the tonsure b 
the same manner as clerks, on which account he was compelled 
to leave Ireland. 

[a.D. 1054.] Siward, the stout earl of North urobria,' by 
order of the king entered Scotland, with a large body of 
cavalry and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with 
Macbeth, king of the Scots', in which the king was defeated 
with the loss of many thousands both of the Scots and of the 
Normans before mentioned; he then, as the king had com- 
manded, raiser! to the throne Malcolm, son of the king of the 
Cumbrians. However, his own son and many English and 
Danes full in that battle. 

The same year, on the feast of St. Kenelm, the martyr, 
[17th July], Aldred, bishop of Worcester, instituted God'ric 
as abbot of Wincheombe. The bishop was then sent by tilts 
king as ambassador to the emperor, with rich presents ; and 
being received with great honour by him, and also by Heri- 
man, archbishop of Cologne, he remained at his court font 
whole year, and in the king's name proposed to the emperor 
to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward, the kings 
cousin, son of king Edmund Ironside, and have him con- 
ducted to England. 

[a.d. 1055.] Siward, earl of Northumberland, died *' 
York, and was buried in the monastery at Cralmanho,' which 
he had himself founded : his earldom was given to Tosti, earl 
Harold's brother. Shortly afterwards, king Edward, iu » 
council held at London, banished earl Algar, earl Leufri" 
son, without any just cause of offence. Algar presently wen 1 
to Ireland, and having collected eighteen pirate ships, returned 
with them to Wales, where lie implored (irillyth the king to 
lend him his aid against kiuir Edward. Grinylh immediate'* 
assembled a numerous army from all parts of his dominions, 


1 Henry of Huntingdon tells as that Siward employed htl sen '■ 
this expedition, in which lie fall. Sec that historian's account of d>« 
which Siwnnl rciviv.-d the itii.-lli^cncc, and of the cirmno- 

incp attending his own death, pp. '2114, 20*: An' 1 ./. Lib. 
1 An abbey at York, afterwards restored, and called St. 

D. 1055.] HEREFORD STORMED. 157 

id directed Algar to join him and his army at a place an- 
ointed with his own troops ; and having united their forces 
ley entered Herefordshire, intending to lay waste the English 

Earl Ralph, the cowardly son of king Edward's sister, 
aving assembled an army, fell in with the enemy two miles 
•om the city of Hereford, on the ninth of the calends of 
November [24th October]. He ordered the English, con- 
rary to their custom, to fight on horseback ; but just as the 
ngagement was about to commence, the earl, with his French 
nd Normans, were the first to flee. The English seeing 
his, followed their leader's example, and nearly the whole of 
he enemy's army going in pursuit, four or five hundred of the 
ugitives were killed, and many were wounded. Having 
rained the victory, king Grifiyth and earl Algar entered 
Hereford, and having slain seven of the canons who defended 
he doors of the principal church, and burnt the monastery 
milt by bishop Athelstan, $hat true servant of Christ, with 
ill its ornaments, and the relics of St. Ethelbert, king and 
nartyr, and other saints, and having slain some of the citizens, 
md made many other captives, they returned laden with 

On receiving intelligence of this calamity, the king imme- 
liately commanded an army to be levied from every part of 
England, and on its being assembled at Gloucester, gave the 
ommand of it to the brave earl Harold, who, zealously 
obeying the king's orders, was unwearied in his pursuit of 
Jriffyth and Algar, and boldly crossing the Welsh border, 
encamped beyond Straddell [Snowdon] ; but they knowing 
lim to be an intrepid and daring warrior, did not venture to 
trait his attack, but retreated into South Wales. On learning 
his, he left there the greatest part of his army, with orders to 
aake a stout resistance to the enemy if circumstances should 
equire it ; and returning with the remainder of his host to 
lereford, he surrounded it with a wide and deep trench, and 
ortified it with gates and bars. Meanwhile, after an inter- 
hange of messages, Grifiyth, Algar, and Harold, with their 
.ttendants, met at a place called Biligesteagea, and peace l?eing 
proposed and accepted, they contracted a firm alliance with 
ach other. After these events, earl Algar's fleet [of pirates] 
ailed to Chester, and waited there for the hire he had en- 

158 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [i.D. 105."', 1036. 

gaged to pay them ; but he himself went to court and wm 
restored by the king to his earldom. Ac that time died 
Tremerin, a Welsh bishop, 1 who had been a monk. He was, 
for a long time, coadjutor to Athelstan, bishop of Hereford, 
after Atlie1stii.ii became iiK-iiptiblc of performing !)is episcopal 
functions, having been blind for thirteen years. Herimsa, 
bishop of Wiltshire, beinir otll.-ndeil at the king's refusing to 
allow him to remove the seat of his bishopric from the vill 
called Ramsbury to the abbey of Mahncsbnrv, resigned liis 
bishopric and, going beyond sea, took the monastic habit 
at St. Bertin, 3 in which monastery he abode for three yei». 

[a.d. 1056.] Athelstan, bishop of Hereford, a man of gretl 
sanctity, died on the fourth of the ides [the 10th] of February, 
at the episcopal vill called Eosbury; his body was carried 
lo Hereford, and buried in the church which he himself hid 
built from the foundations. He was succeeded by Lcovegsr, 
earl Harold's chaplain, who, ou the sixteenth of the ealaidj 
[the llith] of June in the same year, together with his clerks 
and Ethelnoth the vice-reeve and many others, was massacred 
by Griffyth, king of Wales, at a place called Claftfrjlij 
rCleobury ?]. He held the see only eleven weeks and four 
days. On his being' thtia^cut off, the bishopric of Hereford 
was administered by Aldrerl, bishop of Worcester, until I 
successor could be appointed. This same bishop Aldred »wi 
the earls Leofric and Harold afterwards reconciled Griilytri, 
king of Wale.-, with king lidward. 

Marianus, becoming a pilgriln for the sake of his heaven! J 
country, went to Cologne and took the habit of a monk in 
the monastery of St. Martin, belonging to the Scots, on 
Thursday, which was the calends -the 1st] of August. 

Earl Ethelwin, that is Odda, 3 the friend of the churches, 
the solace of the poor, the protector of widow? and orphans 
the enemy of oppression, the shield of virginity, died at 
Deerimrat on the second of the calends of Si-ptvml'i-'i 
[31st August], having been made a monk by Aldid. 
bishop of Worcester, before his death; but he lie.* hi tH 
abbey of Pershore, where he was buried with great pow|'- 
-Ethelric, bishop of Durham, voluntarily resigned his see and 

1 Bishop of St. David's. 

1 The abbey of S(. Her tin, at St. Omer. 

1 Odda, earl of Devon. 

A.D. 1056, 1057.] EDWARD ETHELING RETURNS. 159 

retired to his monastery of Peterborough, where he had been 
brought up and made a monk ; and there he lived twelve 
years, having been succeeded in his bishopric by his brother, 
Jilgelwin, a monk of the same abbey. 

[a.d. 1057.] Edward the etheling, son of king Edmund 
Ironside, accepting the invitation of his uncle, king Edward, 
returned to England from Hungary, where he had been 
exiled many years before. For the king had determined to 
appoint him his successor and heir to the crown ;* but he died 
at London soon after his arrival. The renowned Leofric, son 
of the ealdorman Leofwine, of blessed memory, died in a good 
old age, at his own vill of Bromley, on the second of the 
calends of September [31st August], and was buried with 
great pomp at Coventry ; which monastery, among the other 
good deeds of his life, he and his wife, the noble countess 
Godiva, a worshipper of God, and devoted friend of St. Mary, 
Ever-a- Virgin, had founded, and amply endowing it with lands 
on their own patrimony, had so enriched with all kinds of orna- 
ment, that no monastery could be found in England possessed 
of such abundance of gold, silver, jewels, and precious stones 
as it contained at that time. They also enriched, with 
valuable ornaments, the monasteries of Leominster and 
Wenlock, and those at Chester dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist and St. Werburgh, the virgin, and the church which 
Eadnoth, bishop of Lincoln, had built on a remarkable spot, 
called in English St. Mary's Stow, 9 which means in Latin St. 
Mary's place. They also gave lands to the monastery at 
Worcester, and added to the buildings, ornaments, and endow- 
ments of Evesham abbey. During his whole life, this earl's 
sagacity was of the utmost advantage to the kings and the 
whole commonwealth of England. His son Algar was 
appointed to his earldom. Hakon, bishop of Essex, died, and 
iEthelric, a monk of Christ-church at Canterbury, was ap- 
pointed in his stead. The afore-mentioned earl Ralph died 

1 See a brief notice of the conflicting accounts of the chroniclers on 
this controverted question in Ordericus Vitalis, vol. i., page 459, 
Bohn's Antiq. Lib. 

2 Henry of Huntingdon describes it as "under the hill at Lin- 
coln ;" but Bishop Farmer says that " Stowe was in the bishop's manor 
by Trent side." The priory of Stowe, or Mary-Stowe, was annexed 
to Eynsham abbey, in Oxfordshire. 

160 FLORENCE OF WOHCESTER. [a.D. 1058, 106& 

on the twelfth of the calends of January [21st December], 
and. was buried in the abbey of Peterborough. 

[i.D. 1058.] Six days before Palm-Sunday [10th April], 
the city of Paderborn, and two monasteries, that of the 
cathedral and that of the monks, were destroyed by fits. 
In the monks' monastery there was a Scottish monk named 
Pater niM, who had been in the cloister for a great number of 
years, and bad foretold this lire; yet such was bis desire uf 
martyrdom that nothing could induce him to leave the plwv, 
and he was burnt to death in liis cell, passing through tlie 
flames to the cool refreshment of paradise. Some blessed 
things are related concerning his tomb. "Within a few days 
after this occurrence, on the Tuesday after the octave of Easter 
[20th of April], as I was departing iVi.m Cologne on theruad 
to Fulda in company with the abbot of FuMa, for the sake uf 
seclusion, prayed on the very mat on which he was buret.'' 
Thus saith Marianus, the Scottish recluse. 

Algar, earl of Mercia, was outlawed by king Edward for 
the second time, but, supported by Grifl'ytb, king of Wilt", 
and aided by a Norwegian fleet, which unexpectedly came ID 
Iris relief, he speedily recovered his earldom by force of arins. 
Pope Stephen died on the third of the calends of A(jril 
[30th March], He was succeeded by Benedict, who seutth* 
pallium in Sti^and, ai' of Canterbury, ..Ethelric *w 
ordained bishop of Susses; and abbot Siward was consecrated 
bishop of Itoehester. Aldred, bishop of Worcester, dedicated 
with great ceremony to Peter, prince of the apostles, tin' 
church which he had built from the foundations hi the city «' 
Worcester, and afterwards, with the king's license, appoint"' 
Wulfstan, a monk of Worcester, ordained by him, abbul of 
the new foundation. Then, having resigned the bishopric oi 
Wilton, which he held in ooinmendani, and restored it I" 
Heriman, before mentioned, be crossed the sea, and we"' 
through Hungary to Jerusalem ; a pilgrimage wkicb M 
English archbishop or bishop is known to have performed 

[a.d. 1059.] Nicholas, bishop of Florence, was nltfM 
pope, and Benedict was deposed. Marianns having shut 
himself lip in the cloister with Sigefrid, abbot of Fulda, wi* 
ordained priest at the tomb of St. Kilian, at Wurtzburg, on 
Saturday in Mid-Lent, the third of the ides [the If ' ' 

>.!>. 1060-2.] LIFE OP ST. WULFSTAN. 161 

klarch, and on Friday after Our Lord's Ascension, being the 
Lay before the ides [the 14th] of May, he entered on his ten 
gears' inclosure in the abbey of Fulda. 

[a.d. 1060.] Henry, king of the Franks, died, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son Philip. Duduc, bishop of Wells, 
died, and was succeeded by Giso, the king's chaplain ; they 
were both natives of Lorraine. Kinsi, archbishop of York, 
died at York on the eleventh of the calends of January [22nd 
December]. His body was carried to the abbey of Peter- 
borough, and buried there with great pomp. Aldred, 
bisbop of Worcester, was elected his successor as archbishop 
of York at Christmas ; and the see of Hereford, which had 
been intrusted to his administration on account of his great 
diligence, was given to Walter, a Lorrainer, and chaplain to 
queen Edgitha. 

[a.d. 1061.] Aldred, archbishop of York, went to Rome 
in company with earl Tosti, and received the pallium from 
pope Nicholas. There, also, Giso of Wells, and Walter of 
Hereford, were consecrated bishops by the same pope. Until 
John, the successor of Giso, all the bishops of Wells had their 
episcopal see at Wells, in the church of St. Andrew the 
Apostle. Maiolus, abbot of the Scots, died at Cologne ; 
Foilan succeeded him. 

[a.d. 1062.] Wulfstan, 1 a venerable man, was made bishop 
of Worcester. This prelate, beloved of God, was born in 
Warwickshire, in the province of Mercia, of pious parents; 
his father's name being Ealstan, and his mother's Wulfgeova, 
but he was well instructed in letters and ecclesiastical func- 
tions at the monastery of Peterborough. Both his parents 
were so devoted to a religious life, that long before their end, 
they took the vows of chastity, and separated from each 
other, delighting to spend the rest of their days in habits of 
holy devotion. Inspired by such examples, and chiefly in- 
duced by his mother's persuasions, he quitted the world 
while he was yet in his youth, and took the monastic habit 
and profession in the same monastery at Worcester where 

1 Our author, who has already, on several occasions, given fuller 
particulars than other chroniclers of events connected with the 
counties of Worcester and Hereford, here furnishes us very naturally 
with an account of the life and character of Wulfstan, the celebrated 
bishop of Worcester, afterwards archbishop of York. 



his father had before devoted himself to the service i 
being admitted by the venerable Erihteag, bishop of the si 
church, who also conferred upon hihi the orders I 
deacon and priest. Entering at once on a strict and A 
religious course of life, he quickly became remark* 
his vigils, his fastings, his prayers, and all kinds of v 
In consequence of this regular discipline, he was appc 
first, for some time, master and tutor of the r 
afterwards, from his intimate acquaintance with the * 
siastical services, his superiors nominated him preconto 
treasurer of the church. 

Being now intrusted with the custody of the ehur 
embraced the opportunities afforded him of serving G 
greater freedom; and, devoting himself wholly to . 
cun temp] Liti on, he resorted to it by day and night, t 
prayer or holy reading, and assiduously mortified his b 
lasting for two or three day* together. He 
to devout vigils, that lie not only spent the nights si 
hut often the day and night together, and sometimes « 
four days and nights without sleep,— a thing we could b 
have believed, if we had not heard it from his own moo 
so tiiat he ran great risk from his brains being parched, o 
he hastened to satisfy the demands of nature by the ri ' 
ment of sleep. Even, at last,, when the urgent (' 
nature compelled him to yield to sleep, he did not i 
himself by stretching his limbs to rest on a b 
would lie down for awhile on one of the benches ii 
church, resting his head on the book which he had u 
praying or reading. After some time, on the death of 2 
wine, prior of the monastery, bishop Aldred app( 
reverend man to he prior and father of the convent, I 
which he worthily filled ; hy no means abating the s 
of his previous habits, but rather increasing it in t 
respects, in order to afford a good example to the rest. 

After the lapse of some years, on the elevation of J 
bishop of Worcester, to the archbishopric of York, tl 
unanimous consent both of the clergy and the whole h 
of the laity [of Worcester] in the election of WulfsUn »• | 
their bishop; the Ling having granted them pertiiissiiui i" 
choose whom they pleased. It so chanced that the l< 
from tiie apostolical sec were present at the election, ■ 


rmenfred, bishop of Sion, 1 and another, who were sent by 
lr lord the pope Alexander to king Edward on some eccle- 
ELstical questions, and by the king's orders spent nearly the 
hole of Lent at Worcester, waiting for the reply to their 
iission at the king's court in the ensuing Easter. The 
gates, during their stay, observing Wulfstan's worthy con- 
ersation, not .only concurred in his election, but used their 
special influence with both the clergy and people to advance 
., and confirmed it by their own authority. But he most 
bstinately declined the office, exclaiming that he was un- 
worthy of it, and even declaring with an oath that he would 
either submit to lose his head than be advanced to so high a 
ignity. When he could by no means be persuaded to consent 
y the arguments frequently addressed to him by many pious 
nd venerable men, at last being sharply reproved for his 
bstinate wilfulness by Wulfsi the hermit, a man of God, 
rho was known to have lived a life of solitude for more 
han forty years, and being also awed by a divine revelation, 
e was compelled, with the greatest reluctance, to give his 
onsent ; and his election having been canonically confirmed 
n the feast of the Decollation of St. John the Baptist [29th 
Lugust], and having accepted the office of bishop, he was 
onsecrated on the day on which St. Mary's Nativity is cele- 
►rated by the church, which happened on a Sunday, and 
hone forth in the splendour of his life and virtues as bishop 
<f Worcester. The consecration was performed by the 
enerable Aldred, archbishop of York, Stigand, archbishop of 
Canterbury, being then interdicted by the pope from perform- 
Qg his episcopal functions, because he had presumed to take 
he archbishopric while Robert, the archbishop, was still 
iving ; but Wulfstan made his canonical profession to Sti- 
gand, the aforesaid archbishop of Canterbury, and not to 
Udred, who ordained him. Moreover, Stigand having made 
, protest against its being a precedent in future, the arch- 
►ishop of York, who ordained Wulfstan, was ordered to declare 
>efore the king and the great men of the realm, that he 
^ould not thereafter claim any submission, either in ecclesi- 
stical or temporal affairs, in right of his having consecrated 
iim, or of his having been his monk before he was conse- 

1 Sedunensem — Of Sedunum, now Sion, the capital of the Valais. 


16i FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D. 1062, 106% 

crated. Wiilfs.taii\ ordination took place when lie was more 
than fifty years old, in the twentieth year of the reign rf 
king Edward, and in the fifteenth indiction. 

[a. d. 1063.] When Christmas was over, Harold, H 
brave earl of Wessex, by king Edward's order, put himsrif 
at the head of a small troop of horse, and proceeded by rspU 
marches from (iloucester, whore the king then was, to Knui!- 
dlan, 1 with the determination to punish Grifryth, king of 
Wales, for his continual ravages on the English marshes, ami 
his many insults to his lord, Ling Edward, by faking his lile, 
But GrhTyth, being forewarned of the earl's approach, M 
with his attendants, and escaped by getting aboard a ship 
hut not without extreme difficulty. Harold, finding he vu 
gone, ordered his palace to be burnt, and setting tire to lib 
ships and all their rigging, began bis march homeward tbt 
same day. But about lingati<>i'i days [20 May] he sailed froa 
Bristol with a iiaval force, and circumnavigated a great ]«t 
of Wales. His "brother met him, by the lung's command, with 
a body of cavalry, and uniting their forces, they began to Uy 
waste that part of tlie country. In consequence, the Welsh 
were reduced to submission, and, giving hostages, engaged to 
pav him tribute, and they deposed and banished their king* 

[a.D. 1064.] The great paschal cycle now begins, in the 
second indiction, A multitude of people, both rich and pour, 
to the number of seven thousand, accompanied (!.■■■ 
of Meats, and the bishops of Utrecht, Bamberg, and Ratis- 
bon, In a pilgrimage to Jerusalem," after the feast of StJ 
Martin [1.1 tli November]. Wherever the bishops made anv st.iv", 
they wore their palls on their shoulders, and their meat and 
drink was served in gold and silver vessels. The Aratiites 

[Arabs ?], allured by the fame of their wealth, slew u y uf 

them on Good-Friday [9th April], Those who were :il'U- 1" 
escape took refuge in a deserted castle called ('an;; 

1 A strong castle in Flintshire. Sou the note to Oi'diriuuo Viuli*. 
vol. ii- pp. 444, 445, Autiq. Lib. 
* The not .™nt here extracted from Marianne of a pilgrimage V> 

Jerusalem, just hefure the Cru.-inh--, is so turiciii thai ... 

.unit t '.'i I in ill..- tin l;I i-li I Ii.- Ii.mijiI'!- edition of " [■ [ u ri;»i 

Worcester," ive have;lit il ri-!it In insert it in uur texL 
a This wore] sounds very like ■lei'Uniilom, near which the k 
palmer's tale, wliii-h . v ideal I v furnished this entry ii 
supposes the pilgrims to have arrived. 

;;';,!'";::'.: ' 


trricadoing it, defended themselves with stones and staves 
gainst the darts of the Arabites, who sought their money, or 
teir lives and their money. Then one very brave soldier, 
ho was resolved that no peril should withhold him from see- 
ig the tomb of our Lord, went forth ; but the Arabs imme- 
iately laid hold of him, and stretching him flat on the ground, 
1 the form of a cross, nailed his hands and feet to the earth, 
nd cutting him open from the bottom of his belly to his 
hroat, examined his entrails. 1 At last, having torn him limb 
rom limb, their chief first threw a stone upon him, and after- 
rards all the rest did the like. Then they called to his 
somrades, who beheld all this from the castle : — " Your fate 
hall be the same, unless you deliver to us all your wealth." 
Che Christians promising to comply, the chief of the Arabites 
fame into the castle to them, with sixteen others armed with 
iwords. The chief found the bishops still seated in great 
(tate, and observing that the bishop of Bamberg, whose name 
vas Gunther, excelled the rest in stature and shape, con- 
cluded that he was the lord of the Christians. Putting a 
:hong round the bishop's neck, in the way the Gentiles confine 
;heir criminals, he said, " You and all yours shall be mine." 
Die bishop replied, through an interpreter, " What will you 
lo to me ?" He answered, " I will suck that bright blood 
rom your throat, and I will hang you up like a dog before 
:he castle." Then the bishop, seizing the chief by the head, 
Felled him to the ground with one blow of his fist, and all the 
>thers were bound. Those who remained without being in- 
formed of this assaulted the castle ; but the prisoners were 
mspended from the walls in front of the assailants, and 
:o save them, the attack was given up. Then the thieves 
>egan to quarrel concerning the money which they had already 
baken from the Christians, and most of them fell by each 
others' hands. Meanwhile, the prince of Ramula, at the 
sntreaty of those of the Christians who had contrived to escape, 

1 In search of money? A cotemporary writer says, " The cruelty 
jf the infidels was carried to such a pitch, that, thinking the wretches 
"Christians] had swallowed gold or silver, they made them drink 
draughts of scamony till they vomited, or even threw up their 
iritals. Not only so, but, shocking to say, they cut open their bellies, 
ind tearing out their entrails, laid bare all the parts which nature 
tiolds private." — Abbot Guibert's Getta, Dei per Francos, p. 379. 

166 FLOEENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1064, lOflfi 

came with a strong band, on the second day of Easter [12th 
April], and drove away the Arabites. Then, after accepting 
fifty gold pieces from the Christians, he and an Arabite chief 
who was at variance with his lord, the king of the Saracens, 
conducted the pilgrims to Jerusalem, and thence to their sbijw. 
The vast multitude of Christians so wasted away, that oat of 
seven thousand or more, barely two thousand returned. 

[a.d. 1001 ] Griffyth, king of Wales, was slain by his 
own people, on the nones [the 5th] of August, and his haul 
and the beak of his ship, with its ornaments, were sent to 
earl Harold, who, shortly afterwards, presented them to king 
Edward. The king then gave the territories of the Wish 
king to his brothers Bletligent and Rithwulon, 1 and they 
swore to tie faithful to him and Harold, and promised to he 
ready to obey their orders by sea and land, and that flu y 
would faithfully pay whatever was paid before from tint 
country to former kings. 

[a.d. 1065.] jEthelwin, the reverend bishop of Durham, 
raised the bones of St. O.Mvin, formerly king of Bernicia, from 
the tomb in which they had lain for four hundred and fifteen 
years, in the monastery which stands at the mouth of the river 
Tyne, and placed them in a. shrine with great ceremony. I" 
the month of August, Harold, the brave earl of Wessei, 
ordered a large mansion to be built at a place called Portaseith,' 
on the territory of the Welsh, anil gave directions that it 
should be well stored with meat ami drink, that his lord, king 
Edward, might sometimes reside there for tile sake of hunt- 
ing. But Caradoe, son of Uriffyth, king of South Wales, vli<> 
a few years before had slain Griffyth, king of North Wale*, 
and usurped iiis kingdom, came there with the whole force M 
could gather, on the feast-day of St. Bartholomew, the apostle 
[21th August], and slew all the workmen and their overseers, 
and carried off nil the materials which had Imvii collected there. 

Soon after the feast of St. Michael, the archangel, on 
Monday, the fifth of the nones [the 3rd] of October, &» 
Northumbrian thanes, Gamelbearn, Buustan, son of Athel- 
neth, and Glonicorn, son of Heardulf, entered York with 

1 Bletlijn and Rhywallon, princes ef North Wales and Po"«i 
IfjfiO— 106(1. 

' Portakewrt, on tin; i'oa«t yf Mimmoiilhshii-.*, whore there utM* 
relict Of a church supposed to have been tuilt by Harold. 

A.l>. 1065, 1066.] DEATH OP EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. 167 

two hundred soldiers, to revenge the execrable murder of the 
noble Northumbrian thane, Cospatric, who was treacherously 
killed by order of queen Edgitha at the king's court on the 
fourth night of Christmas,, for the sake of her brother Tosti ; 
as also the murder of the thanes Game], the son of Orm, and 
Ulf, the son of Dolfin, whom earl Tosti had perfidiously caused 
to be assassinated in his own chamber at York, the year be- 
fore, although there was peace between them. The insurgent 
thanes were also aggrieved by the enormous taxes which Tosti 
unjustly levied through the whole of Northumbria. They 
therefore, on the day of their arrival, first seized his Danish 
hus-carles, Amund and Ravenswart, as they were making their 
escape, and put them to death outside the walls, and the next 
day slew more than two hundred of his liege-men, on the 
north side of the river Humber. They also broke open his 
treasury, and retired carrying off aH that belonged to him. 
After that, nearly all the men of his earldom assembled in a 
body, and met, at Northampton, Harold, earl of Wessex, and 
others whom the king, at Tosti' s request, had sent to restore 
peace between them. There first, and afterwards at Oxford, 
on the feast of the apostles St. Simon and St. Jude [28th 
October], when earl Harold and the rest endeavoured to re- 
store peace between them and earl Tosti, they all unanimously 
rejected the proposal, and outlawed him and all who had 
prompted him to enact the oppressive law ; and after the feast 
of All-Saints [1st November], with the assistance of earl 
Edwin, they banished Tosti from England. Thereupon he went, 
accompanied by his wife, to Baldwin, earl of Flanders, and 
passed the winter at St. Omer. After this, king Edward fell 
into a lingering sickness, but he held his court at London 
during Christmas as well as he was able, and on Holy Inno- 
cents' day caused the church, which he had built from the 
foundations [at Westminster], to be dedicated with great 
splendour to St* Peter, the prince of the apostles. 

[a.d. 1066 J King Edward the Pacific, the pride of the 
English, son of king. Ethelred, died at London on Thursday, 
the eve of the Epiphany, in the fourth indiction ; after having 
filled the royal throne of the Anglo-Saxons twenty-three 
years, six months, and twenty-seven days. He was buried 
the next day with royal pomp, amidst the tears and lamen- 
tations of the crowds who flocked to his funeral. After his 


interment, Harold, the vice-king, son of earl Godwin. 
Nwhoui the king before his death chosen for liia sucoessar,' 
was elected king by the loading men of ull England ; and, [be 
same day, was crowned with great ceremony by AJdred, 
archbishop of York. A? soon as he had taken the reins of 
government, lie made ii his business to revoke unjust laivs, 
and establish good ones; to become the protector of the 
churches and monasteries : to cherish and reverence [lie 
bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks ; and to show himself kiii'l, 
humble, and courteous to all good men, while to iualef:i'''titr.i 
he used the utmost rigour. Eor he gave orders to his eark 
ealdormen, vice -reeves, and all his officers, to arrests!! 
thieves, rohhers, and disturbers of the peace ; mil I.- 
laboured himself tor die defence of the country by land iinil 
by sea. 

' The same year a comet was seen on the eighth of tta 
"^-ealends of May [24th April], not only in England, but, is it 
is reported, all over the world: it shone with excesses 
brilliance for seven days. Soon after wards earl Tosti rr- 
turned from Flanders, and landed in the Isle of Wight ; iinii, 
having compelled (In- i-hindcrs to give Irini pay and ti'ilmlc 
he departed, and plundered along the sea-coast, umil In- 
arrivt'd at Sandwich. King Harold, who was 
Lotidon, having been informed of this, ordered a i»ii- 
siderable fleet and a body of horse to be got ready, and pre- 
pared to go in poison to the port of Sandwich. On receiving 
this intelligence, Tosti took some of t lie boatmen of the pl,w*. 
willing or unwilling, into his service, and. departing tlictnv, 
shaped his course for Liurtsey, where he burnt sever;! 1 'ill' 
and slew a number of men. Thereupon Edwin, earl it 
Mereia, and Morear, earl of North umbria, flew to the *[>"< 
with some troops, and drove him out of that noighbourliO"l; 
and, on his departure, he repaired to Malcolm, ki 
Scots, and remained with him during the whole HnuMfi 
Meanwhile king 13 avoid arrived at the port of Sandwich. JinJ 
waited there, for his fleet. When it was assembled, he sails' 
to the Isle of Wight; and as William, earl of Xonuaailv, 
king Edward's cousin, was preparing an army for the in\a.-i"" 
of England, he kept watch all the summer and autumn, I" 

L.B. 1066.] KING HAROLD. 169 

prevent his landing ; besides which, he stationed a land army 
it suitable points along the sea-coast ; but provisions failing 
towards the time of the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th 
September], both the fleet and army were disbanded. 

After these transactions, Harold Harfaager, 1 king of Nor- 
way, brother of St. Olave the king, 8 suddenly arrived at the 
mouth of the river Tyne, with a powerful fleet of more than 
five hundred great ships. Earl Tosti joined him with his 
fleet, as they had before agreed, and they made all sail into 
the Humber ; and then ascending the river Tyne against the 
current, landed their troops at a place called Richale. As 
soon as king Harold received this news, he marched with all 
expedition towards Northumbria; but, before the king's 
arrival, the two brothers, earls Edwin and Morcar, at the 
head of a large army, fought a battle with the Norwegians 
on the northern bank of the river Ouse, near York, on the 
eve of the feast of St. Matthew the Apostle [20th September], 
being Wednesday ; and their first onset was so furious that 
numbers of the enemy fell before it. But, after a long 
struggle, the English, unable to withstand the attack of the 
Norwegians, fled with great loss, and many more of them 
were drowned in the river than slain in the fight. The Nor- 
wegians remained in possession of the field of death ; and, 
having taken one hundred and fifty hostages from York, and 
leaving there one hundred and fifty hostages of their own, 
returned to their ships. However, on the fifth day after- 
wards, viz. on Monday, the seventh of the calends of 
October [25th September], Harold, king of England, having 
reached York, with many thousand well-armed troops, en- 
countered the Norwegians at a place called Stanford-bridge, 
and put to the sword king Harold and earl Tosti, with the 
greatest part of their army ; and, although the battle was 
severely contested, gained a complete victory. Notwith- 
standing, he allowed Harold's son Olaf, and Paul, earl of 
Orkney, who had been left with part of the army to guard 
the ships, to return to their own country, with twenty ships 
and the relics of the [defeated] army ; having first received 
from them hostages and their oaths. 

While these events were passing, and when the king might 

1 See note, p. 147. 

2 He was halt-brother only of St. Olave, on the mother's side. 


have supposed that all his enemies were quelled, he 
intelligence of the arrival of William, earl of Normandy, 
an innumerable host of horsemen, slingers, archers, 
foot soldiers, having taken into his pay auxiliary fori 
great bravery from all parts of France ; and that Ite 
moored his fleet at a place called Pevensey. Thereupoi 
king- led his army towards London by forced marches; 
although he was very sensible that some of the brave 
in England had fallen in the two [recent] battle?, 
one half of his troops was not yet assembled, he did not h 
tate to meet the enemy in Sussex, without loss of time; 
on Saturday, the eleventh of the calends of November f 
October], before a third of his army was in fighting i 
gave them battle at a place nine miles from Hastings, 
they had built a fort. The English being crowded in a eo 
position, many of them kit their ranks, and few stood by 1 
with resolute hearts : nevertheless lie made a stout resist,! 
from the third hour of the day until nightfall, and defend"! 
himself with such courage and obstinacy, that the enemy 
almost despaired of taking his life. When, however, number! 
had fallen on both sides, he, alas ! fell at twilight. There 
fell, also, his brothers, the earls Ourth and Leofric, andalnuWt 
all the English nobles. Earl William led his army back to 

Harold reigned nine months and as many -lays. The earU 
Edwin and Morear, who had withdrawn with their IfOCft 
from the battle on hearing that he was dead, went to Lund™. 
and sent off their sister, queen Elgitha, to Chester : l'« r 
Aldred, archbishop of York, and the earls just mentioned, 
with the citizens of London and the seamen, were desirous to 
proclaim Edgar the etheling king, he being nephew of king 
Edmund Ironside ■; and promised that they would renew the 
war under his banner. But while many were preparing to p 
forth to battle, the earls withdrew their support, and return"! 
home with their army. 

Meanwhile, earl William was laying waste Susses, Km*- 
Hampshire, Surrey, Middlesex, and Herefordshire, and ceaieJ 
not from burning vllls and slaughtering the inhabitants, until 
he came to a v ill called P. core ham [Berkhampstead], whtfre 
Aldred, the archbishop. Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, W;lr "■ 
of Hereford, Edgar the etheling, the earls Edwin a»I 

L.D. 1066, 1067.] WILLIAM I. CROWNED, 171 

MEorcar, and some Londoners of the better sort, with many 
>thers, met him, and, giving hostages, made their submission, 
ind swore fealty to him ; but, although he concluded a treaty 
with them, he still allowed his troops to burn and pillage the 
vills. The feast of our Lord's Nativity approaching, he 
marched the whole army to London that he might be pro- 
claimed king there ; and as Stigand, the primate of all Eng- 
land, lay under the censure of the apostolical pope for not 
having obtained the pall canonically, he was anointed by 
Aldred, archbishop of York, with great ceremony, at West- 
minster, on Christmas-day, which that year fell on a Monday ; 
having first, as the archbishop required, sworn before the 
altar of St. Peter the apostle, in the presence of the clergy 
and people, to protect the holy churches of God and their 
governors, and to rule the whole nation subject to him with 
justice and kingly providence, to make and maintain just laws, 
and straitly to forbid every sort of rapine and all unrighteous 

[a.d. 1067.] Lent drawing near [21st February], king 
William returned to Normandy, taking with him Stigand, 
archbishop of Canterbury, Athelnoth, abbot of Glastonbury, 
Edgar the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, Waltheof, 
son of earl Siward, the noble Ethelnoth, reeve of Kent, and 
many others of the chief men of England ; leaving his brother 
Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and William Fitz-Osborne, whom he 
had created earl of Hereford, governors of England, with 
orders to build strong castles in suitable places. 

Wulfwi, bishop of Dorchester, died at Winchester, but was 
buried at Dorchester. 

There lived at that time a very powerful thane, Edric, 
surnamed the Forester, the son of Elfric, brother of Edric 
Streon, whose lands were frequently ravaged by the garrison 
of Hereford and Richard Fitz-Scrope, because he disdained 
submission to the king ; but as often as they made inroads on 
his territories, they lost many of their knights and squires. 
This Edric, therefore, having summoned to his aid Blethgent 
and Rithwallon, 1 kings of the Welsh, about the feast of the 
Assumption of St. Mary [15th August], laid waste the county 

1 Blethyn and Rhywallon, already mentioned, princes of North 
Wales and Powis. 

ul carriad 
illiam re- 


if Hereford as far as the bridge on the river Lug 

iff a great booty. 

After this, winter being near at hand, king Willis 1 
turned from Normandy to England, and imposed on tlie 
English an insupportable tax. He then marched troops into 
Devonshire, and besieged and speedily reduced the city of 
Exeter, which the citizens and some English thanes held 
against him. But the countess Githa, mother of Harold, 
king of England, and sister of Sweyn, king of Denmark, 
escaped from the city, with many others, ami retired 1" 
Flanders; and the citizen* submitted to the king, and p»id 
him iealtv. Siward, nineteenth bishop of Rochester, died. 

[a.D. 1068.] After Easter [23rd March], the counteM 
Matilda came to England from Normandy, and was crowned 
queen by Aldrod, archbishop of York, on Whitsunday [lit! 
May]. After this, Maries woyn and Cospatrie, and soaie of 
the most noble of the Northumbrian nation, in order to 
escape the king's tyranny, and fearing that, like oili'TS. (I l 
might be thrown into prison, took with them Edgar the 
etheling, with his mother Agatha and his two sisters, Hal" 
garet and Christina, and, embarking for Scotland, wintered 
there under favour of Malcolm, king of Scots. Meanndiik 1 . 
king William marched his army to Nottingham, and, having 
fortified the castle there, proceeded to York, where be 
ereeted two strong forts, and having stationed in them fif* 
hundred men, he gave orders that strong castles should l» 
built at Lincoln and other places. 

While these events were in process, the son- 
Harold, Godwin, Edmund, and Magnus, returned from Ire- 
land, and landed in Somersetshire, where Eadnoth, who hid 
been the horse-thane of king Harold, opposed them with Id" 
forces, and giving them hattle, was slain, with many of I"' 
troops. Flushed with victory, and having carried off much 
plunder from Devon and Cornwall, they returned to Ireland, 
[ad. 10611.] Marianus, after his ten years' seclusion •' 
Fulda, came to Mentz, by order of the bishop of Mint; and 
the abbot of Eulda, on the third of the nones [the 3rd] " f 
April, being the Friday before l'alm-Sunday. 

, Two of Harold's sons earn* again from Ireland, with slicy- 
fotir ships, and landing about the Nativity of St. John tlie 
Baptist [24th June] at the mouth of the river Ttvy, fought i 


severe battle with Brian, count of Brittany ; after which they 
returned to the place whence they came. 

On the sixth of the ides [the 10th] of July, being the 
Friday in the Nativity of the Seven Holy Brothers, Marianus 
secluded himself near the principal monastery in the same 
city [Mentz], 

Before the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September] Harold 
and Canute, sons of Sweyn, king of Denmark, and their uncle, 
earl Asbiorn, with earl Thurkill, arriving from Denmark with 
two hundred and forty ships, landed at the mouth of the 
river Humber, where they were met by Edgar the etheling, 
earl Waltheof, Marlesweyn, and many others, with a fleet they 
had assembled. Aldred, archbishop of York, was so dis- 
tressed at their arrival, that he fell dangerously sick, and 
departed this life, as he besought of God, on Friday the third 
of the ides [the 11th] of September, in the tenth year after 
he became archbishop, and was buried in the church of St. 
Peter on the eighth day afterwards, namely, on Saturday the 
thirteenth of the calends of October [19th September]. The 
Normans, who garrisoned the forts, set fire to the adjacent 
houses, fearing that they might be of service to the Danes in 
filling up the trenches ; and the flames spreading, destroyed 
the whole city, together with the monastery of St. Peter. 
But they were speedily punished for this by an infliction of 
the divine vengeance ; for on Monday the Danish fleet arrived 
before the city was entirely consumed, and the forts being 
stormed the same day, and more than three thousand of the 
Normans killed (the lives of William Malet and his wife and 
two children, with very few others, being spared), the ships 
drew off laden with plunder. 

King William, receiving intelligence of this, immediately 
assembled an army, and hastened into Northumbria, giving 
way to his resentment ; and spent the whole winter in laying 
waste the country, slaughtering the inhabitants, and inflicting 
every sort of evil, without cessation. Meanwhile, he de- 
spatched messengers to the Danish earl, Asbiorn, and promised 
to pay him secretly a large sum of money, and grant per- 
mission for his army to forage freely along the sea-coast, on 
condition that he would depart without fighting when the 
winter was over ; and he, in his extreme greediness for lucre, 
and to his utter disgrace, consented to the proposal. In 

174 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER, [a.d. 1069, 1 

consequence of the ravages of the Normans, first, hi Northm 
bria the preceding year, and again in the present and follow- 
ing year, throughout nearly the whole of England, so severe 
a famine prevailed in moat parts of the kingdom, hut chiefly 
in Northnmbria and. the adjacent provinces, that me 
driven to feed on the flesh of horses, dogs, cats, and i 
human beings. 

[a.d. 1070.] By the advice of William, earl of Hereford, 
and some others, kin^' William, during Lent [1 7th February], 
caused all the monasteries of England to be searched, and tint 
money deposited in them by tlie richer sort of the English, tW 
security against his violence and rapacity, to bo seized and 
carried to his own treasury. 

In the octaves of Easter [4th April] a great synod was iit-ld 
at Winchester, by eoininund of king William, who was present 

himself, and with the < eiinvnce of the lord Alexander the 

pope ; his legates, Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, and John and 
Peter, cardinal-priests of the apostolic see, representing his 
authority. In this synod, Stlgand, arehbhliop of Canterbury, 
was degraded on three charges: first, for having unlawfully 
held the bishopric of Winchester with the archbishopriu; 
next, for having taken the archbishopric while arehbis)i»|i 
llobert was living, and even sometimes, hi saying mast, 
wearing the pailinm which Robert left behind him at Canter- 
bury when he was unjustly driven from England ; and lastly, 
for having accepted the pallium from Benedict, who was 
excommunicated by the Holy Roman Church for having 
simonheally usurped the apostolic see. His brother, Ethel- 
mar, bishop of the East-Angles, was also degraded ; as were 
also a few abbots, the king doing his utmost to deprive tlic 
English of their dignities, that lie might appoint persons uf 
his own nation to their preferments, and thus confirm his 
power hi his new kingdom. He also deprived several bishop 
and abbots, convicted of no open crimes cither by the councils 
or the laws of the realm, and detained them in prison to tlw 
end of their lives on mere suspicion, as we have said, of their 
being dangerous to his newly-acquired power. In this synod 
also, while the rest, aware of the king's bias, were trembling 
at the risk they ran of losing their appointments, Wulfstau. 
bishop of Worcester, boldly demanded the restoration of nuor 
" the possessions of his see which had been retained in his o 


K>wer by archbishop Aldred, when he was translated from 
Worcester to York, and on his death had fallen into the king's 
lands ; and demanded, not only from those who presided at 
;he synod, but from the king himself, that justice should be 
done him. But as the church of York was silent, not having 
a pastor to plead her cause, it was decided that the suit 
should stand over until such time as, by the appointment of 
an archbishop, there should be some one who could reply to 
Wulfstan's claims, and after hearing the pleadings on both 
sides, a clearer and more equitable judgment might be given. 
Thus the case was adjourned for the present. 

On Whitsunday [23rd May] the king, at Windsor, gave 
the archbishopric of York to the venerable Thomas, canon of 
Bayeux, and the bishopric of Winchester to his chaplain, 
Walkeline. On the following day, by the king's command, 
Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, held a synod, [the other legates] 
the cardinals John and Peter having returned to Rome. At 
this synod, Ethelric, bishop of Sussex, was uncanonically 
deposed ; and although he was guilty of no crime, the king 
soon afterwards placed him in confinement at Marlborough ; 
several abbots were also deprived. After these depositions, 
the king gave the bishopric of East- Anglia to Arfast, and the 
bishopric of Sussex to Stigand, 1 who were both his chaplains ; 
which Stigand transferred his see to Chichester, the chief city 
in his diocese : the king also gave abbeys to some Norman 
monks. The archbishop of Canterbury being degraded, and 
the archbishop of York dead, Walkeline was, by the king's 
command, consecrated by the same Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, 
on the octave of Whitsunday [30th May]. 

The feast of St. John the Baptist being near, earl AsbiSrn 
sailed to Denmark with the fleet which had wintered in the 
Humber ; but his brother Sweyn outlawed him, because he 
had accepted money from king William, to the great regret of 
the Danes. Edric, surnamed the Forester, a man of the most 
resolute courage, of whom we have spoken before, was recon- 
ciled with king William. After this, the king summoned 
from Normandy Lanfranc, abbot of Caen, a Lombard by birth, 
a man of unbounded learning, master of the liberal arts, and 
of both sacred and secular literature, and of the greatest 

1 This first bishop of Chichester must not be confounded with the 
archbishop of the same name. 


prudence in counsel and [In: administration of' worldly at); 
and on the day of ilie Assumption of St. Mary, appoii 
hini archbishop uf ('unterbury, cruising him to bo conseer, 
nt. Canterbury on the feast of St. John the Baptist, b 
Sunday. He was consecrated by Giso, bishop of Wells, 
Walter, bishop of Hereford, who were belli ordained :it 11 
by pope Nicholas, when Aldrod, archbishop of York, rece 
the pallium, — for ho evaded being ordained by Srigand, 
t lieu held the archbishopric of t'auierbury, knowing him 
to have received the pallium canouically. Bishop Herii 
who had already transferred the seat of his bishopric ' 
Shei'buurue to Salisbury, also assisted at his consecral 
with some others. Afterwards, Lauihine consecrated Tlmi 
archbishop of York. The suit of the reverend WuJfi 
bishop of Worcester, was again prosecuted, there being 
a bishop who could advocate the cause of the ehurcl 
York; and the affair was, by the aid of God's grace, deei 
at a eouncil held at a place called I'ndivd, before the k 
archbishop Lanfranc, and the bishops, abbots, earls, 
lords of all England. All the groundless assertions by wi 
Thomas and his abettors strove to humble the church of V 
cester, and reduoe her to subjection and servitude to 
church of York, were, by God's just judgment, end 
refuted and negatived by written documents, so that Wall: 
not only recovered the possessions he claimed, but, by (J 
goodness, and the king's assent, regained for his -n- all 
immunities and privileges freely granted to it by it* 
founders, tlie holy king Ethered, Oshere, sub-king of 
Hw iotas, and the other kings of Jlercia, Cenred, Ethelh 
Ott'a, Kenulf, Edward the Elder, Athelstan, Edmund, Ed 
and Edgar. 

Ethel wine, bishop of Durham, was taken by king Willi; 
retainers, and thrown into prison, where, refusing all fouii 
the depth of Ins distress, lie died of grief and starvation. 1 
the death of Siward, bishop of Rochester, Arnostus, o m 
of Bee, succeeded him, and was himself succeeded by Gunc 
a monk of the same church. 

[a.d. 1071.] Lanfranc and Thomas went to Borne, 

1 The death of Ethelwine is here anticipated, as we find hut 

I'oll'jivmjj year with Mortar, Ilei't-wai'd, and their associate* at 
-— ---J, prison at Abingdon, where be died. 


eceived the pallium from pope Alexander. Earls Edwin and 
ftorcar escaped secretly from king William's court, finding 
hat he intended to arrest them, and they were for some time 
n arms against him ; but seeing that their enterprise was not 
wccessful, Edwin resolved to go to Malcolm, king of the 
Scots, but, during the journey, he fell into an ambuscade laid 
by his own people, and was killed. Morcar and Ethel wine, 
bishop of Durham, Siward, surnamed Barn, and Hereward, a 
man of great bravery, with many others, took ship and went 
to the Isle of Ely, intending to winter there. The king, 
hearing of this, blocked up every outlet on the eastern side of 
the island by means of his boatmen, and caused a bridge, two 
miles long, to be constructed on the western side. When 
they saw that they were thus shut in, they resisted no longer, 
and all surrendered themselves to the king, except the brave 
Hereward, who escaped through the fens with a few others. 
The king immediately sent bishop Ethelwine to Abingdon, 
where he was imprisoned, and died the same winter. The 
earl and the rest were dispersed in various parts of England, 
some being placed in confinement, and others set at liberty 
with the loss of their hands or eyes. ' 

[a,d. 1072.] After the Assumption of St. Mary [15th 
August], William, king of England, attended by Edric the 
Forester, made an expedition into Scotland with a naval force 
and an army of cavalry, and reduced it under his own domi- 
nion ; and Malcolm, king of Scots, met him at a place called 
Abernethy, and did him homage. Ethelric, formerly bishop 
of Durham, died at Westminster, where king William had 
sent him into confinement, on Monday, the ides [the 15th] of 
October. Walchere, a native of Lorraine, succeeded Ethelwine 
in the see of Durham. 

[a.d. 1073.] William, king of England, reduced to sub- 
jection the city of Mans, and the province belonging to it, 
chiefly by the aid of the English whom he had taken over 
with him. Edgar the etheling came from Scotland to 
Normandy, passing through England ; and was reconciled to 
the king. 

[a.d. 1074.] Roger, earl of Hereford, son of William, 
earl of the same county, gave his sister to wife to Ralph, 
earl of East Anglia, 1 contrary to the command of king 

1 Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk.— Saxon Chronicle. 



William,' anil while he was celebrating the nuptials with great 
magnificence, and a great number of nobles were assembled 
on the occasion at a place called Yxninga, in the province of 
Cambridge, a great conspiracy was formed against the king, in 
which many of them were concerned, and they inveigled aad 
over-persuaded earl Waltheof to join their league. However, 
as soon as lie was able, he went to Lanfranc, archbishop <>f 
Canterbury, ;ind nxviung absolution at his hands from hit 
involuntary oath, by his advice hastened to king William 
in Normandy, and laying the whole affair before him 
threw himself upon his mercy. The other chiefs of the 
conspiracy, being resolved to carry out their enterprise, retired 
to their castles, and used all their efforts with their adherent* 
to foment the rebellion. But Widsta:i, bishop of Worcester, 
with a strong body of troops, and Kthelwy, abbot of Evesham, 
with his vassal.-, suppm-ted by Urso, sheriff of Worcestershire, 
and Walter de Lacy, with their own followers, and a general 
muster of the people, marched against the carl of Hereford, 
to prevent his fording the Severn and joining his forces to 
those of earl Ralph at the place appointed, Odo, hi ship 
of Bayeux, [lie king's brother, and Geoffrey, bishop of Coo- 
tances, having assembled a large army, both of the Encash 
and Normans, fell in with earl Ralph as he was pitching hi* 
camp near Cambridge. The earl, finding that his plans were 
frustrated, and terrified at the number of his oppouenU, 
retired privately to Norwich, and hawng committed bis castle 
to the keeping of his wife and his knights, emh 
England for Little Britain, Ids enemies pursuing him, Mid 
putting to death or mutilating in various ways such of bit 
followers as they were able to capture. The cotnmanden 
of the king's army then besieged his castle, until [»»i* 
being granted by the king's permission, the countess bid 
leave to quit England with ber attendants. After the*e 
occurrences, in the course of (lie autumn, the king returned 
from Normnndy, and put earl Roger in confinement; hells* 
gave earl Waltheof into custody, although he had implored 
his mercy. 

Edgithu, sister of King Harold, and formerly queen of 
England, died at Winchester on the fourteenth of the calends 

1 The Saxon Chronicle says that king William "gave 1 
Fit a- Ua beta's daughter in marriage to earl Ralph." 

A.D. 1075 — 7.] WALTHKOP*S EXECUTION, 179 

of January, that is in the month of December [the 19th], 
Her corpse was, by the king's command, carried to London, 
and buried with great pomp near the body of her husband, 
king Edward, at Westminster, where the king held his court 
at the ensuing Christmas ; and of those who had lifted up 
themselves against him, some he banished from England, and 
others he ignominiously punished by the loss of their eyes or 
hands, and the earls Waltheof and Roger having been found 
guilty by a judgment of the court, were thrown into closer 

[a.d. 1075.] Earl Waltheof having been brought outside 
the city of Winchester, by king William's order, was cruelly 
and undeservedly beheaded, and thrown into a hole on the 
the spot ; but in the course of time, by the providence of 
God, his body was exhumed, and conveyed with great honour 
to Croyland, where it was entombed in the church with due 
ceremony. The earl, during the close of his life, when in 
close confinement, ceaselessly and most bitterly lamented 
whatever he had done amiss, and strove to propitiate God by 
vigils, prayers, fastings, and alms. Men, indeed, sought to 
blot out the remembrance of him on earth, but we firmly 
believe that he is rejoicing with the saints in heaven. For 
this we have the faithful testimony of archbishop Lanfranc, of 
pious memory, who having received his confession, and ad- 
ministered absolution and penance, declared that he was 
guiltless of the crime laid to his charge, the conspiracy 
already mentioned ; and as to his other otFences, he had 
lamented them with tears of penitence, so that he himself 
should have reason to be thankful if, after his own departure, 
he should be partaker of the same blessed rest. 1 After this, 
the king crossed the sea, and invading the lesser Britain, sat 
down before the castle of Dol, until Philip, king of France, 
forced him to retreat. 

a.d. 1076.] 

"a.d. 1077.] Robert, king William's eldest son, feeling 
aggrieved at not being put into possession of Normandy, 

1 Cf. the very circumstantial account given by Ordericus Vitalis, of 
earl Waltheof s share in the conspiracy, his trial and tragical imprison- 
ment and execution, and the removal of his remains to Croyland. B. 
iv. cc. xiv. and xvii. Vol. ii., pp. 79, 86, and 102, 103, BohrCs Antiq. 
Lib, See also Ingulph's Chronicle, ibid, pp. 145-7 and 209. 



which his father had granted him in the presence of Philip, 
king of Franco, before his expedition to England, went to 
France, and, supported by Philip, made frequent inroads into 
Normandy, plundering and burning the villa and destroying 
the people, so that he occasioned his father no little loss tod 
anxiety. 1 

[a.o. 1070.] Malcolm, kin? of the. Scots, after the feast of 
the Assumption of 8 1. Mary [15th August], ravaged Noitk 
nmbria as far as the great river Tyne, and having slain 
numbers of the people, and made still more captives, here- 
turned with an immense booty. King William, while engaged 
in a combat with his son Hubert before die castle of Uerberoi, 
which king Philip had granted to him, was wounded by him 
in the arm and unhorsed ; but Hubert, recognising his father 1 ! 
voice, instantly dismounted, and, bidding him mount hu 
own charger, suffered hint to depart. The king soon after- 
wards retreated, having had many of his men slain and sraw 
taken prisoners, and his son William and several otliwi 

The venerable Robert, who had received the order of 
priesthood by the hands of Wulfstan, the most reverend bishop 
of Worcester, was conseeratcd bishop of Hereford by Lanfranc, 
the archbishop, on the fourth of the calends of Jaiuiiirj 
[l'9th December], at Canterbury. 

[a.D. 1080.] Walchere, hishop of Durham, a native of 
Lorraine, was slain by the Northumbrians on Thursday the 
second of the ides [14th] of May, at a place called "Caput 
Capro:" (Goat's or Gates-head), in revenge for the death of 
Liulf, a noble thane. This man had many hereditary 
domains in various parts of England ; but as the Norman) 
at that time gave free vent to their ferocity in every quarter, 
he retired to Durham with all belonging to him, having * 
devoted regard for St. Outhbert : for, as tie was wont to 
relate to Aldred, archbishop of York, and other men of 
religion, that saint often appeared to him, both sleeping tad 
waking, and revealed to him, as his faithful votary, all that be 
wished to have done. Under his protection, then, Liulf li»W 
for a long time, sometimes in the town, sometimes on tk 
estates he held in that part of the country. Bishop Walcliere 

' Cf, Orderly Vitalis, b. iv. c. 


had welcomed his arrival at Durham, being himself entirely 
devoted to the same saint, and he therefore entertained so 
great a regard for him that he was loath to transact any 
business of importance in his secular concerns without his 
advice. In consequence of this, his chaplain Leobwine, whom 
he had raised to such a pitch of power that scarcely anything 
was moved either in the bishopric or in the county without 
his consent, at once stung to the quick by jealousy, and 
puffed up with excessive pride by his own pre-eminence, 
treated Liulf with great arrogance; making light of his 
opinions and counsels, and using every effort to render them 
null. Frequently also, when arguing with him in the bishop's 
presence, he provoked him to anger by opprobrious language, 
and even used threats. On one occasion, when this same 
Liulf, having been called to his counsels by the bishop, hdd 
given his decisions according to law and justice, Leobwine 
violently opposed him, and exasperated him by contemptuous 
expressions. As the other, however, replied to him with 
more vehemence than he was wont, he immediately left the 
court, and calling aside Gilbert, to whom the bishop, as being 
his kinsman, had deputed the government of the county of 
Northumbria, earnestly besought him to avenge' him by com- 
passing Liulf s death on the first opportunity. Gilbert, 
readily consenting to this iniquitous request, having collected 
in a body his own retainers and those of the bishop and 
Leobwine, went one night to the vill where Liulf then was, 
and wickedly slew him in his own house with nearly all his 
household. On hearing this, the bishop uttered a deep groan, 
and tearing off his hood from his head and casting it on the 
ground, said mournfully, " This has been effected through 
your crafty devices and most ill-advised suggestions, and 
I would have you know that, for a surety, you have destroyed 
both yourself and me and all my establishment by the sword 
of your tongue." Saying this, he hastily shut himself up in 
the castle, and took care, by despatching, messengers with all 
speed throughout Northumbria, to make it generally known 
that, so far from having been privy to Liulf s death, he had 
banished from Northumbria his murderer Gilbert and all his 
accomplices, and was ready to clear himself by submitting to 
the judgment of the pope. Then, by the exchange of mes- 
sengers, he and the kindred of those who were slain, having 


made a truce between themselves, fixed time and place i 
which they would meet and conclude a firm peace wit 
each other. 

At the time appointed they assembled at the place agree 
on ; but the bishop was unwilling to hove the cause pleale 
in the open air, anil entered a church which was on the sptt 
with his clerks and the more lionour.ible of his knights; am 
having consulted with them, sent out to them again and »g»i 
chosen friend a to treat of tonus of peace: but they would b 
no means assent to his proposals considering it certain th» 
LiuU' had been put to death by the bishop's orders; for nc 
only had Leobwine, on the very night after the murder of hi 
Neighbour, entertained (.-filbert and liis associates with fnenii] 
familiarity, but the bishop hinisclf had admitted him amon 
iiis household with the same favour as before : wherefore, the; 
tlrst massacred all those of the bishop's party who were out 
side the church, a few only saving themselves by flight 
Seeing this, to satisfy the rage of his adversaries, the bisho] 
ordered the bofure-incmiuiLed (iilbert, his kinsman, whose lit 

was sought, to go out of the church ; who, as he went, «* 
closely followed by men-at-arms ready to defend him ; lit 
the enemy fell upon them instantly with swords and spews 
and killed them all, except two English thanes, who wen 
spared out of regard to their kindred. 

They also slew Loofwine, dean of Durham, as soon as In 
came out, beeause he had often given the bishop sdiersi 
counsels, and the rest of tlioelergy with him. Lot the hishiip 
finding that their rage could not be appeased by any menu! 
short of the sacrifice of the chief author of all the calitnitr 
Leobwine, requested him to go forth. Being, bu 
tirely unable to prevail upon him to venture, lie proceeded 
himself to the door of the church and intreated that his own 
lite might be saved. Llis prayers being rejected, he coveted 
his head with the skirt of bis robe, and. passing through lii* 
open door, was instantly despatched by the swords of the 
enemy. They next emnnianded Leobwine to come forth, udi 
on his refusing, set firo to the walls and roof of the church: 
hot he preferring to end his life by fire rather than hy ik 
sword, bore the flames for some time. At length, lialf-borei 
he ka]K'd down, and. being dashed in pieces, paid the p 
"" 'i iniquity by his miserable end. r ™ 

e the at' - ' I 


murder of these men, king William ravaged Northumbria the 
same year. 

[a.d. 1081.] William, abbot of the monastery of St. Vincent, 
the martyr, having been chosen by king William, was appointed 
to the bishopric of Durham, and consecrated by archbishop 
Thomas on the nones [the 5th] of January. 

[a.d. 1082.] King William caused his brother Odo, bishop 
of Bayeux, to be placed in confinement in Normandy. 

[a.d. 1083.] There was a dreadful quarrel between the 
monks of Glastonbury and their abbot, Thurstan, a man un- 
worthy of the dignity, who had been raised to it by king 
William from being a monk of Caen, indiscreet as he was. 
Among his other acts of folly, he attempted to force the 
monks to relinquish the Gregorian chaunt, which he despised, 
and to learn to sing that of one William, a monk of Fecamp. 
They were much aggrieved at this, having grown old in the use 
of this, as well as in other ecclesiastical offices, according to 
the usage of the Koman church ; whereupon he suddenly 
broke into the chapter-house at the head of an armed band of 
men in arms, one day when they least expected it, and pursued 
the terrified monks, who took refuge in the church, to the 
foot of the altar. The armed band pierced the crosses and 
the images and shrines of the saints with darts and arrows, 
and even speared to death one of the monks as he was clinging 
to the altar ; another was shot by arrows on the altar-steps ; 
the rest, driven by necessity, defended themselves bravely 
with the benches and candlesticks of the church, and, although 
severely wounded, drove the soldiers out of the choir. Two 
of the monks were killed and fourteen wounded, and some of 
the soldiers also received wounds. 

On the trial for this outrage, it appeared that the abbot was 
most to blame, and the king removed him and sent him back 
to his monastery in Normandy. A great number of the monks 
were, by the king's command, dispersed among the cathedrals 
and abbeys, where they were confined. After his death, the 
abbot repurchased the abbey from his son, king William, for 
five hundred pounds ; and, after wandering about for some 
years among the possessions of the church, ended his life in 
misery far from the monastery, as he deserved. Queen 
Matilda died in Normandy on Thursday the fourth of the 
nones [the 2nd] of November, and was buried at Caen. 1 
1 Ordericus Vitalis, vol. ii., p. 376, in Antiq. Lib, 


[A3. 1094.] William, king of England, levied six shillin| 
from every hide of land throughout England. 

[a.D. 1085.] Edmund, abbot of l'ershore, ;i man of eminei 
worth and piety, died in a good old age on Sunday the sevw 
teenth of the calends of July [T5th Juno], and was honourao 
buried by Serlo, the venerable ablwt of Gloucester : be wi 
sueoi 'cdeil by Thurstan, a monk of Gloucester. The s»n 
year, Canute, king of Denmark, assembled a powerful fie 
for an expedition to England, in which he had the support i 
his fal her- in-law, Robert, earl of Flanders. In COUMQIMH 
king Wilhiam took into his pay a great many thousand trouj) 
consisting of archers and foot-soldiers, from every put < 
France, and some from Normandy, and, returning toEnghui 
in the time of autumn, distributed them throughout it 
kingdom, giving orders to the bishops, abbots, earls, baron 
sheriffs, and royal officers to supply them with provision! 
Finding, however, that the threatened hostilities were frro 
trated, he disbanded part of his army, detaining the ret) i 
England through the whole winter. During Christmas h 
held his court at Gloucester, where he gave bishoprics i 
three of his chaplains. Maurice had Loudon ; William, Ttet 
ford ; and Robert, Chester. 

[a.D. 1086.] King William caused a record 1 to be tnau 
through all England of how much laud each of his baron 
held, the number of knight-fees, of ploughs, of villains, am 
beasts ; and also of all the ready money every man possosW 
throughout his kingdom, from the greatest to the least, w 
how much rent each estate was able to pay ; and the ktn 
was sorely harassed by llie distress which ensued from it. 

In Whitsuu-week ""Jlili May] the king conferred the hono* 
of knighthood on his son Henry, at Westminster where he lid' 
his court. Soon afterwards he summoned all afchbuhtf 
bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and sheriffs, with their knight' 
to meet him at Salisbury on the calends [the 1st] of Augtul 
and on their appearance e-nforcod on (.he knights an oath < 
fealty to himself against all others. 

About this time, the etlieling Edgar, having obtained th 
king's licence, crossed the sea with two hundred knights in 
went to Apulia: his sister, the virgin Christina, entered ti 
monastery of Ramsey and became a nun. The s 

1 It ih hardly necessary to remark that our author refer 
r>u!!icafla.y Book. 

I g*BM fU 


there was a great murrain among the cattle, and the atmo- 
sphere was very sickly. 

[a.d. 1087.] This year there was great mortality, first 
from fevers, and afterwards from famine. Meanwhile, the 
devouring flames laid nearly all the cities of England in ruins, 
including the church of St. Paul the apostle, and the largest 
and best part of London. King Canute fell a martyr at the 
hands of his subjects in a church, on Saturday the sixth of 
the ides [the 10th] of July. 1 Stigand, bishop of Chichester, 
Scotland, abbot of St. Augustine's (Canterbury), Alsy, abbot 
of Bath, and Thurstan, abbot of Pershore, died. 

Before the feast of the Assumption of St. Mary [15th August], 
king William entered France with an army, and having burnt 
the town of Mantes, with all the churches in it, and two re- 
eluses, then returned to Normandy; but on his return he 
was seized by dreadful pains in the bowels, which grew worse 
from day to day. His disorder increasing so that he perceived 
that death was approaching, he liberated his brother Odo, bishop 
of Bayeux, the earls Morcar, Roger, and Siward, surnamed 
Barn, with Wulnoth, king Harold's brother, whom he had 
kept in prison from his childhood, and all whom he had im- 
prisoned either in England or Normandy. He then made 
over the kingdom of England to his son William, 2 and 
granted the duchy of Normandy to his eldest son, Robert, 
who was at that time an exile in France ; and so, strengthened 
by the heavenly viaticum, he yielded up his life and his 
kingdom on the fifth of the ides [the [Hh] of September, 
having reigned in England twenty years, ten months, and 
twenty-eight days. He lies buried at Caen, in the church of 
St. Stephen, the Proto-martyr, which he founded and en- 
dowed himself. 

His son William crossed over to England in great haste, 
taking with him Wulnoth and Morcar; but as soon as he 
reached Winchester he placed them in confinement as before ; 
and on Sunday the sixth of the calends of October 
[26th September] he was crowned at Westminster by 

1 Cf. Ordericus Vitalis, h. vii. c. xi. ; and two notes in vol. ii., pp. 
382, 383, of the edition in Bohn's Antiq. Lib. 

2 Ordericus Vitalis gives a different representation ; ibid; p. 413. 

Chapters xv xvii. of this work give the best account of the closing 

acts and scenes of the Conqueror's life. 

186 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1087, 1 OSS. 

Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. Then returning to 
Winctif'stor lie divided, his father's treasure among the 
churches in England, according to his directions : namely, 
that some of the principal churches should have ten marks of 
gold, some six, and others less ; and to each of the churches 
in his cities and villa he gave si sty pence : he also command^ 
that crosses, altars, reliipiaries, missals, 1 can (Ilea ticks, holj- 
water pota, a and chalices, 3 and various ornaments, atudded 
with gems, gold, silver, and precious atones, should be dis- 
tributed among I lie i;re;tl or churches and abbeys. His brother 
Robert also, on his return to Normandy, liberally distributed 
the treasures he found ; giving them to the monasteries and 
churches and the poor, for the good of hi? father's soul; and, 
releasing from prison Lf If, the son of Harold, formerly king of 
England, and Duncan, son of Malcolm, king of the Scots, 
conferred on them the honour of knighthood, and permitted 
them to depart. 

[a.D. 1088.] This year there was area t dissension among 
the English nobility ; for part of the Norman nobles, although 
they were few in number, favoured king William, while the 
other part, which was the most numerous, adhered to Robert, 
earl of Normandy, and wished to invite liim over, and either 
betray alive the brother who was king to his brother the earl, 
or deprive the khig of his crown and life. The chief mMH 
in this execrable design were Odu, bislk>]> of tiaycux, who itm 
also e.irl of Kent, and Robert, earl of Morton, his brother, 
both of whom were brothers of king William the Elder, but 
only by the mothers side. 1 There were also concerned in thf 

1 Texton. Looking to its connection with other church furniturr, 
this word might perhaps bo rendered coverings (for thealurortf 
ornaments), although in pure Latin it would then lie WM, lVeirr, 
however, inclined tn ihink that it means hooks used in the ser«iw "' 
thealtar; the missal, to-ethfr with the earion ot'tlioina-ss,containin'lh' 
inlroits. irrndurils, trails, lessons, ic, besides tin: epislles and gospel 
all wliicli may I"- railed texts. 

* Silvias; the word is so applied in an inventory of the church * 
Spires, a.d. 1419. " Item, unua bitulus cum aspergerio argent p" 
unuft henedictik. 

' FhUtht? ; the word was originally applied to the reed used in 
admiriisivriji^ t.lie eup to the faithful, when the communion wna gi" n 
in both kinds, 

' Bishop Odo and Robert, earl ef Morton, were the sons of Il.irWU. 
the mother of William the Conqueror, by Herloin de ContevHto, » 
whom she was married before tliu death of Habere. 

A.D. 1088.] THE BARONS' REVOLT, 187 

plot Geoffrey, bishop of Coutances, with his nephew Robert, 
earl of Northumbria, Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, and what 
was worse still, William, bishop of Durham ; for at this very 
time the king relied on his discretion as a faithful counsellor, 
he being a man of great sagacity, and the whole common- 
wealth of England was under his administration. They were 
men whose vast landed possessions gave them great pre- 
ponderance in England. The number of their comrades in 
arms, and associates in the conspiracy, daily increased. This 
execrable design was secretly discussed during Lent [March 
1st — April 9th], so that it might burst forth after Easter 
[10th April] ; for withdrawing from the king's court they 
fortified their castles, and prepared to spread fire and sword, 
rapine and slaughter through the country. What an accursed 
deed was this, a conflict worse than civil war ! Fathers fought 
against sons, brothers against brothers, friends against kins- 
men, foreigners against foreigners. 

Meanwhile, Odo, bishop of Bayeux, having fortified 
Rochester, sent to Normandy, exhorting earl Robert to lose 
no time in coming to England, informing him of what had 
taken place, and assuring him that the kingdom was ready for 
him, and that if he were not wanting to himself, the crown 
was his own. Struck with the unexpected news, the earl 
announces it to his friends with exultation, already anticipates 
a triumph, secure of success, and invites numbers to share the 
spoil. He sends an auxiliary force to the support of bishop 
Odo, his uncle, in England, and promises to follow it as 
soon as he can assemble a larger army. The troops despatched 
by earl Robert on their arrival in England had the custody 
of Rochester intrusted to them by bishop Odo ; Eustace the 
younger, count of Boulogne, and Robert de Belesme, as the 
men of highest rank, assuming the command. 

When the king received intelligence of this movement, he 
was strangely troubled ; but relying on his undaunted valour, 
and having sent messengers who, by virtue of his royal authority, 
summoned to his side those he considered loyal, he went to 
London for the purpose of ordering all matters and providing 
means for the prosecution of the war. Assembling troops, 
both horse and foot, to form an army, which, though small, 
contained as many Normans as he could at present muster, 
but consisted chiefly of English, and making [just] laws and 


promising all sorts of good things to his adherent*, he put 
his trust in God's mercy, and prepared to march to Rochester, 
where he heard the enemy's main body was stationed. For 
he was given to understand that the bishop Odo was there 
with all his force, arid the troops from beyond sea. Having; 
put his army in motion, lie found that Tunbridge, a place 
lielonging to Gilbert Fitz-Iii chard, was held against him; he 
therefore laid siege to it, stormed it in two days, and forced 
Gilbert, who was wounded, to surrender himself and bit 
castle. The report of this reaching Odo's ears, after uon- 
sntting with his friends, he left Rochester and ■ 
with a few followers to the castle of his brother Robert, 
earl of Morton, called Pevensey. Finding his brotltw 
there, he exhorted him to hold out, assuring them (hat tkw 
should be safe there; and while the king was engaged b 
the siege of Rochester, the carl of Normandy would arrive 
with a large army, and, relieving them and their garrison, 
make himself master of the kingdom, and amply reward Wl 

The king, having reduced Tunbridge and received tic 
fealty of the inhabitants, left Gilbert there in consequence of 
his wound, and, placing a garrison in the castle, was on thi 1 
point of continuing his march to Rochester according to his 
rirst intention, when he heard that his uncle had left it *wl 
gone to Pevensey. Acting, therefore, on sound advice, he 
led his army in pursuit of him to that place, hoping (list Hr 
should sooner terminate the war, if he could first iriuuil 1 ' 1 
over the authors of all the mischief we have described, fie 
marie forced marches, he prepared lis engines, lie beMDjjrf 
his two uncles. The place was strongly fortified, but I* 
made incessant efforts to reduce it. 1 

Meanwhile the storm of war raged in every part of Eng- 
land. The garrison of Rochester fell on the peoplfl * 
Canterbury and London with fire and sword; for Lanfrw*, 
the archbishop, and nearly all the nobles of that, province, 
were with the king. Roger, 3 an ally of Robert, was at b» 

1 Our author's account of tliu important events con ited witi '''; 

siege of Rochester, win v.h r'tnlrti in the expulsion of tho his>i'>p ''' 
May'eux, is very concise. Cf. Orderiuns Vitulis, vol. ii., pn.4ri(U Ml 

* Roger de Montgomery, curl of Shrewsbury. Arundel WW (*■ 
first English fief granted to his father. 

a.d. 1088.] civil wars. 189 

castle of Arundel, expecting the arrival of the earl of Nor- 
mandy. 1 Geoffrey, bishop of Coutances, held Bristol castle in 
conjunction with his nephew and accomplice in conspiracy and 
treason, Robert de Mowbray, a man of military experience ; 
who, collecting troops, attacked Bath, a city of the king's, 
and having burnt and plundered it, passed on towards Wilt- 
shire, where he ravaged the vills and slaughtered many of the 
inhabitants, and at length reached Ilchester, and sat down 
before it, determined to take it. The besiegers were animated 
in their attacks by the hope of plunder and the desire of 
victory. The men in the garrison made a stout resistance in 
defence of themselves and those who were dear to them. At 
length, of the two, those who were driven to extremity 
triumphed, and Robert, being repulsed, retired, mourning 
over his ill success. William d'Eu made an irruption into 
Gloucestershire, and having plundered the royal vill of 
Berkeley, committed great ravages through the country with 
fire and sword. 

[Worcester defended by Bishop Wid/stan."] 

While so much destruction was wrought in every quarter, 
Bernard du Neuf-March6, Roger de Lacy, who had lately 
wrested Hereford from the king, and Ralph de Mortemer,* 
accomplices in the conspiracy, with the vassals of Roger, earl 
of Shrewsbury, having assembled a numerous army of English, 
Normans, and Welsh, burst into the province of Worcester, 
declaring that they would burn the city of Worcester, 
plunder the church of God and St. Mary, and take summary 
vengeance on the inhabitants for their loyalty to the king. 
On hearing this, the reverend father Wulfstan, bishop of 
Worcester, 3 — a man of deep piety and dove-like simplicity, 

1 Comitis prcedicti. Florence of Worcester, throughout his chron- 
icle, designates Robert as earl, not duke, of Normandy. 

2 Ordericus Vitalis adds " Osbern, son of Richard, surnamed Scroop," 
to the list. He appears, by Domesday Book, to have held in capite 
lands in ^Worcestershire. 

3 St. Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, 1062— Jan. 18, 1095. Florence, 
in this and subsequent passages, naturally enters into more details of 
events connected with Worcestershire and the adjoining counties, than 
aay other chronicler. 


beloved alike by God and the people he entirely governed, 
faithful to the ting as his earthly lord, under all circum- 
stances, — was in great tribulation ; >>iir soon rallying, by God'l 
mercy, prepared himself like another Moses to stand manfully 
by his people and city. While they armed themselves to re- 
pel the enemy, he poured forth supplications in the impending 
danger, exhorting his people not to despair of the help uf 
God, who fighteth not with sword and spear. Meanwhile, tlie 
Normans, taking counsel, entreated the bishop to remove 
from the church into the castle, saying that his presence 
would give thorn more security if they should be in greater 
peri!: for they loved him much. Such was his extraordinary 
kindness of heart, that, from duty to the king and regard fur 
them, he assented to their request. 

Thereupon the bishop's retainers bravely made ready 1. 1 figlir: 
the garrison and the whole body of the citizens assembled, 
declaring that they would encounter the enemy o 
aide of the Severn, if the bishop would give them leave. 
Taking their arms, therefore, and being arrayed for battle, 
they met the bishop as he was going to the castle, and besought 
him to grant their desire, k> which lie freely assented, " («"," 
said he, "my sons, go in peace, go in confidence, with (In? 
blessing of God, and mine. Trusting in God, I promise JM 
that no sword shall hurt you this day, no disaster, no enemy, 
Be firm in your loyalty to the king, and do valiantly for the 
safety of the people and the city." On hearing these wonls 
they cheerfully crossed the hri.lge which had I>eeu repair^, 
and beheld from a distance the enemy rapidly approaching 
The fury of war was already raging with violence through 
their ranks, for, despite of the bishop's injunctions, they bod 
set fire to his own domains. On hearing this, the bishop WM 
striken with deep sorrow, seeing the impoverishment of t!« 
possessions of the church; and holding council upon it, "« 
wrought upon by the unanimous voice of all present IB 
pronounce a curse upon the enemy, 

A miracle ensued, which showed at once the power of God, 
«nd the worthiness of the man ; for the enemy, who were dis- 
persed in parties through the fields, were instantly struck with 
such feebleness in their limbs, and loss of eyesight, that thej 
were scarcely able to carry their arms, or recognise their enm- 
rades, or discern those who were advancing to attack t! .!'-■ 


While they in their blindness were at a loss what to do, con- 
fidence in God and the bishop's blessing encouraged our party. 
They had so lost their wits that they neither had the sense to 
effect a retreat, nor sought any means of defence ; but being 
by God's judgment given up to the fate of the reprobate, 
they easily fell into the hands of their enemies. The foot 
soldiers were put to the sword, the knights and their mounted 
followers, English, Norman, and Welsh, were taken prisoners, 
the rest barely managing in their feeble state to make their 
escape. The king's liege-men and the bishop's retainers 
returned home in triumph without the loss of a single man ; 
thanking God for the preservation of the propertv of the 
church, and the bishop for his salutary counsels. • 

[a.d. 1089.] Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, died 
on Thursday the 9th of the calends of June [24th May]. 
The same year, on Saturday the third of the ides [the 11th 
of August], about the third hour, there was a great earthquake 
throughout all England. 

[a.d. 1090.] William the younger, king of England, 
coveted to wrest Normandy from his brother Robert, and 
subject it to his own dominion. His first step was to make 
terms with Walter de St. Valery and Odo d' Aumale, for putting 
their castles into his hands, and he afterwards got possession 
of other castles in the same way ; and in all these he stationed 
troops, with orders to ravage Normandy. Earl Robert, find- 
ing this, and discovering the disloyalty of his nobles, sent 
envoys to Philip, king of France, his liege-lord, to invite him 
into Normandy ; whereupon he and the king laid siege 
to one of the castles in which his brother had placed a garri- 
son. This being reported to king William, he sent privately 
a large sum of money to king Philip, and earnestly entreated 
him to raise the siege and return home ; to which Philip con- 

[a.d. 1091.] In the month of February, king William the 
younger went over to Normandy with the determination to 
wrest it from his brother Robert; but while he remained 
there peace was made between them on the terms that the 
earl should freely cede to the king the county of Eu, the ab- 
bey of Fecamp, the abbey of Mount St. Michael, Cherbourg, 
and the castles which had revolted from him ; while the king 
undertook, on his part, to reduce the province of Maine, 

192 Florence or woncESTEM. [a.d. 1091. 

and the castles in Normandy which were then held against 
the earl to subjection to him; should restore their EggiM 
domains to all the Normans who had forfeited thorn by their 
adherence to the earl ; and should grant liiin such lands in 
England as they had already agreed on. It was stipulated, 
in addition, that if the earl should die without leaving a so* 
born in lawful wedlock, the king should be his heir ; and if 
the king should happen to die under similar circumstanced, 
the earl should he his heir. This treaty was ratified by the 
oaths of twelve barons on the king's side and twelve 08 the 

Meanwhile, their brother Henry, at the head of all the 
troops he* could muster, got possession of Mount St. Michael, 
some of the monks abettiug him ; and began to ravage the 
lands of the king, taking some of his vassals prisoners and 
plundering others. Thereupon the king and the earl assem- 
bled an army and besieged the mount during the whole of 
Lent [26th February], having frequent skirmishes with prima 
Henry, in which they lost some of their men and horses. The 
king, however, becoming weary of the length of the siege, drew 
off without coming to terms ; anil shortly after wards look Iron 
Edgar the etheling the possessions which the earl bad grant*! 
him, and forced him to quit Normandy. 

[Irruptions of tlie Scots.'] 

In the month of May, Malcolm, king of the Scots, made in 
irruption into Noitliuinbria with a great army, 1 intending, if 
he was successful, to proceed further and make the people of 
England feel his power. However, God would not allow it,»nd 
his enterprise failed ; but before lie returned his army pillaged 
Northumbria and they carried away much booty. On re- 
ceiving this intelligence the king returned to England with 
his brother Robert in the mouth of August, and not long 
afterwards set on foot an expedition, consisting i.>i" . 
able fleet and a large body of horse, to bring Malcolm the 
king of the Scots to submission ; but before he reached Scot- 
land, a few days before the i'east of St. Michael, nearly all 
the ships were sunk, and many of his horsemen perished from 
1 Cf. Ordericus Vitalis, b. riii. c. uii. 

l.D. 1091.] PEACE WITH MALCOLM. 193 

sold and hunger. He was met by king Malcolm, with his 
urmy, in the provinces of Lothian. 1 Earl Kobert perceiving 
this, invited over Edgar the etheling, who having been ex- 
pelled from Normandy by king William was then living with 
the king of the Scots. By his assistance he concluded a peace 
between the two kings, on the terms that Malcolm should do 
fealty to William in the same manner his father had done, and 
that William should restore to Malcolm twelve vills which he 
had held under his father, and should pay him, yearly, twelve 
marks of gold. But the peace concluded between them was 
of short duration. Edgar himself was also reconciled with 
the king through the earl's mediations. 

[Winchcornbe Church struck by Lightning.'] 

On Wednesday the first of the ides [the 15th] of October, 
a thunderbolt struck with great force the tower of Winch- 
combe church, making a large aperture in the wall near the 
summit, and, after having ri\*en one of the beams, struck the 
head from a crucifix and threw it on the ground, breaking 
also the right leg. An image of St. Mary, which stood near 
the crucifix, was also struck down. A thick smoke, with a 
suffocating stench, then burst forth and filled the whole 
church, lasting until the monks went the circuit of the cham- 
bers of the monastery, with holy water and incense, and 
the relics of the saints, chanting psalms. Moreover, on Fri- 
day the sixteenth of the calends of November [16th October] 
a violent whirl whind from the south-west shook and demo- 
lished more than six hundred houses and a great number of 
churches in London. Rushing through the church of St. 
Mary, called " le Bow," it killed two men, and tearing up 
the roof and timbers, and whirling them for a long time to 
and fro in the air, at last drove six of the rafters, in the same 
order in which they were before fixed in the roofs, so deep 
into the earth that only the seventh or eighth part of them 
was visible, although they were twenty-seven or twenty-eight 
feet long. 

1 Loidis ; not " the district of Leeds," as suggested in a note of the 
English Historical Society's edition of Florence. See Ordericus 
Vitalis, vol. iii., p. 10. 


194 FLORENCE OF WfjRCRSTER. [A.D, 1091. 1092. 

After (his the kins; returned from Norllintnhria into Wesses 
through Mercia, and kept tlie earl with him until ii'-'iirlv 
Oliristma?, but refused to fulfil the condition? r>f the treaty 
which had been nuule between them ; at which the earl was 

much dissatisfied that he hastened back to Normandy on 

the tenth of the calends of January p.'b'd Dec- her], taking 

Edgar the e the ling with him. 

[27(6 Pope and Antipope Urban If. and Clemens.] 

There were at this time, as was reported in England, t«o 
popes of Rome, so called, who opposed each other, and wide 
a schism in the church of God, namely, Urban, whose origtnil 
name was Odo, bishop of Ostia, and Clement, who was called 
Guibert, archbishop of R.iyenna. This affair so perplexed 
the church of England fur main' years, to say nothing of i>t-lnT 
parts of the world, that, t'roiii the time of the death of Gregory, 
who was also called Uihlebrand, up to (his period, it yielded 
submission and obedience to no one claiming to be pope. 
Italv and Gaul had already acknowledged Urban as the vicar 
" St. Peter. 
[a.d. 1092.] The city of Loudon was almost entirely 
destroyed by fire. On Monday the nones [the ,*>th] of April. 
Osmund, bishop of iSiili>bury, assisted by Walkelhi, bishop 
Winchester, and John, hishop of ilatli, von see rated the chun 
which -lie had built in tho castle of Sarura. Renii, who by 
license from William the Elder had transferred the seat of hit 
bishopric from Dorchester to Lincoln, was desirous of conse- 
crating the church which he had built at Lincoln. worthy 
indeed to be the cathedral of a bishop's sec, 1 becaus- 
that the day of his death was at hand ; but Thomas, arch- 
bishop of York, opposed him, asserting that the church **» 
built within his diocese. However, king William the younger, 

for a sum of money paid to him by Renii, summoned i i. 

all the bishops of England to assemble together on 
tieth of the ides [the !Jth] of May, and dedicate the ehurrli : 
but two days before the time fixed, hy the mysterious provi- 
dence of God, bishop Remi himself departed from I 
and in consequence the consecration of the church was de- 
ferred. After this the king went into North urn una, and 
1 Cf. Henry of Huntingdon, pp. 219, 220, Antiq. Lib. 

092, 1093.] WILLIAM n.'s ILLNESS. 195 

ed the city which is called in the British tongue Cairleu, 
l Latin Lugubalia (Carlisle), and built a castle there ; for 
ity, like some others in that quarter, had been laid in 
by the heathen Danes two hundred years before, and 
een uninhabited up to this time. 

D. 1093.] King William the younger being seized 
severe illness, at the royal vill called Alveston, hastily 
/ed to Gloucester, and lay there in a languishing con- 
i during the whole of Lent. Thinking that death was 
he vowed to God, at the suggestions of his barons, to 
d his life, to relinquish the practice of selling, and im- 
g taxes on, churches, but, on the contrary, to protect 
by his royal authority ; and, annulling unjust laws, enact 

such as were good. Moreover, he gave to Anselm, abbot 
c, who was then in England, the archbishopric of Can- 
ry, and to Robert, surnamed Bloet, his chancellor, the 
pric of Lincoln. But Anselm was not permitted to 
re anything from the archbishopric beyond what the king 
ed, until the annual rent which he had received from it 
Lanfranc's death was fully paid. 

ys, king of Wales, was slain in battle during Easter-week, 
Brecknock castle. From that day kings ceased to reign in 
i. 1 Malcolm, king of the Scots, met king William the 
*er at Gloucester, on the day of the feast of St. Bar- 
new the apostle, as they had previously concerted 
gh their-ambassadors, in order that peace being restored, 
might be a firm alliance between them, agreeably to the 
s of some of the principal English nobles. But they 
ated without coming to any agreement ; for William's 

and insolence was such, that he refused to have any 
dew and conference with Malcolm. Moreover, he sought 
npel him to do him homage in his own court, and abide the 
nent of his own barons only ; but Malcolm was by no means 
3ed to do this, except on the borders of his own kingdom, 
3 the kings of Scotland were wont to do homage to the 

lys-ap-Tewdwr, the last king, properly so called, of South Wales, 
t the age of* 90, fighting for the independence of his country, on 
lack Mountains, near Brecknock, a.d. 1091, according to War- 
>n. The country was then finally parcelled out among the 
an Lord- Wardens and inferior Welsh chiefs; Rhys's son never 
I been able to establish his rights. 



kings of England, and according to the judgment of tin 
barons of both kingdoms, After this a very wonderful sign 
appeared in the sun ; and Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, Gny, 
abbot of St, Augustine's monastery, and Paul, abbot of St 
Alban's, died. In the same year also died Robert, earl oi 
Flanders, a man of great valour ; and Ids eldest son Robert 

Malcolm, king of the 8-eots, and his eldest son, Edward, 
with many others, were slain by the troops of Robert, carl ol 
Northumbria, on the feast-day of St. Rrice [13th November]. 1 
Margaret, queen of tin; Sent?, was so deeply affected by the 
news of their death, that she fell dangerously ill. Calling the 
priests to attend her without delay, she went into the ehurci, 
and confessing her sins to them, Mused herself to be anointed 
with oil and strengthened with the heavenly viatieurn ; be- 
seeching God with earnest and diligent prayers that he would 
not sutler her to live longer in this troublesome world. Nor 
was it very long before her prayers were heard, for three 
days after the king's death she was released from the 1khm1» 
of the flesh, and translated, as we doubt not, to the joys of 
eternal salvation. For while she lived, she devoted herself 
to the exercise of piety, justice, peaee. and chanty ; she f» 
frequent in prayer, and chasiened her body by watching* aid 
fastings; she endowed eh urches and monasteries; loved and 
reverenced the servants and handmaids of Clod ; broke breiJ 
to the hungry, clothed the naked, gave shelter, food, and 
raiment to all the pilgrims who eame to her door ; and loved 
God with all her heart.' After her death the Scots elected 
for their king. Donald, brother of king Malcolm, and cupelled 
from Scotland all the English who belonged to the king* 
e.nurt, Duncan, kinjf Malcolm's son, hearing of these events, 
besought king William, in whose army he then served, W 
grant him his father's kingdom, and obtaining his request 
Nwore fealty to him. He then hastened to Scotland, with » 
host of English and Normans, and expelling his uncle Donald 
reigned in his stead. Thereupon some of the Soot- buii-V 
together and slew nearly all his men, a few only escapiag 
with him. But afterwards they restored him to the throw, 
on condition that he should no longer harbour either tag- 
• Cf. Ordericus ViUlis, *ol. ii., p. 11. 
3 Ibid, pp. 12, 13. 

a.d. 1093, 1094.] William's designs on normandy. 197 

lishraen or Normans in Scotland, and permit them to serve in 
his army. 

Nearly all the bishops of England being assembled, with 
Thomas, archbishop of York, the primate, they consecrated 
Anselm, abbot of Bee,, as archbishop [of Canterbury], on the 
day before the nones [the 4th] of December. In the same 
year, William, count d'Eu, won over by his greediness of lucre, 
and attracted by the promise of vast domains, deserted his 
natural lord, Robert, earl of Normandy, to whom he had 
sworn fealty, and coming to king William in England, trans- 
ferred his allegiance to that powerful seducer^ 

[a*d. 1094.] On the death of Herfast, who had been a 
chaplain to earl William and afterwards to king William, and 
in process of time bishop of Thetford, and the death also of 
William, his successor,. Herbert, surnamed Losing, for his 
address in flattery, from being prior of Fecamp and abbot of 
Ramsey, became by purchase bishop of Thetford; and his 
father Robert, of the same surname, became intrusive abbot 
of Winchester. But he was absolved by penitence from the 
errors of his- faults ; for going to Rome in more mature years 
he there laid down his simoniaeal staff and ring, which were 
restored to him by the indulgence of that most merciful see. 
Returning home, he transferred the seat of his bishopric to a 
town celebrated as a place of trade and general resort, called 
Norwich, and founded there a convent of monks. 

King William went to Hastings, and while there caused the 
church of Battle to be dedicated ; and then crossing over to 
Normandy had a conference with his brother, under a safe 
conduct, but came away without being reconciled to him, and 
the earl went to Rouen. The king returned to Eu, and 
establishing himself there, took soldiers into his pay from all 
quarters, and induced several of the Norman nobles to forfeit 
their allegiance to his brother, and place their castles in his 
power, some by promises, others by gifts of gold, silver, and 
lands ; and having secured their consent, he distributed his 
own troops among the castles which he already held, or those 
which were now made over to him. Meanwhile, he took the 
castle of Bures, and sent some of the earl's soldiers who were 
taken there prisoners to England, and confined the rest in 
Normandy. Thus he harassed his brother in various ways, 
and used his utmost efforts to deprive him of his inheritance. 


The carl, driven to extremity, brought his suzerain, ki 
Philip, with a French army into Normandy, who laid si 
to the castle of Argentan, anil on the very day he si 
before it, took seven hundred of the king's knights p 
with as many squires, and the whole garrison of t" 
without loss of Mood. Ho then returned to France, h 
given orders that the prisoners should be detained L 
until they paid their respective ransoms. Karl Robert »lw \ 
besieged the castle eal led Holme, until William Peverel ai 
eight hundred men who defended it surrendered to liii 
When the king was informed of this, he sent messengers to 
England with orders that twenty thousand foot soldiers should 
be levied and despatched to his aid in Normandy. They were 
mustered at Hastings, in readiness for crossing the sea, but 
I'nlph Passe-Flam bard, by the king's command, withheld the 
pay which had been allotted for their maintenance, at the 
[■ate of ten-pence for each man, and gave them orders to 
return to their homes ; the money ho remitted to the king. 
Meanwhile, all England was distressed by heavy and o 
stant taxation, and by a mortality which was very genera 
this and the following year. 

In addition to this, first the people of North Wales, »nu 
then those of West and South Wales, threw off the yoke at , 
subjection under which they hail long suffered, and rallying 
their courage struggled to obtain their in dependence. As- 
sonibling in great numbers, they razed the castles which W 
been creeled in West M ale*, ami making frequent irr 
into the counties of Chester, Shrewsbury, ami Hereford, »t 
(ire to and plundered the vilfs, and killed many of the KnsW 
and Normans. They also demolished the castle in the Islerf 
Man, and reduced the island under their power. Meauwhilr, 
the Scots perfidiously murdered their kintr, Duncan, and so 
others, at the instigation of Donald, who was agjibs 
the throne. After this, king William returned to Engtwrii 
on the fourth of the calends of January [29th December], wA 
leading an army into Wales to subdue the Welsh, lost tier* 
many men and horses. 

[A,D. 1095.] Wulfstan, the venerable bishop ... 
church of Worcester, a man eminent for the excellence of hs 
life, and devoted from his youth to divine offices, after m 
severe and holy struggles, by which he zealously $ 

ices, ifterMMJ 
isly served <W I 

A.D. 1095.] DEATH OF WULFSTAN. 199 

with great mental devotion and humility, that he might attain 
to the glory of the kingdom of heaven, departed this life in 
the night of Saturday, the eighteenth of January, about the 
middle of the seventh hour, and in the year 5299 from the 
beginning of the world, according to the undoubted reckoning 
of Holy Scripture, in the 529th year of the ninth great -cycle, 
and the 476th of the ninth cycle from the beginning of the 
world ; in the 1084th from the passion of our Lord, but the 
1066th according to Bede's computation, and the 1061st ac- 
cording to Dionysius ; in the 741st 1 from the arrival of the 
Angles in Britain ; in the 498th from the arrival of St. 
Augustine ; 3 in the 103rd from the death of St. Oswald, the 
archbishop ; 8 in the 302nd of the eleventh great paschal cycle, 
and in the 502nd of the tenth from the beginning of the 
world ; in the 4th of the second solar cycle, in the 3rd of the 
bissextile cycle, in the 13th of the second cycle of nineteen 
years, in the 10th of the second lunar cycle, in the fifth 
endecad, in the third cycle of the indiction, in the eighteenth 
lustre of his own age, and in the 3rd year of the seventh 
lustrum of his episcopate. 4 

In the very hour of his departure he wonderfully appeared 
in a vision to a friend whom he had especially loved, Robert, 
bishop of Hereford, in the town of Cricklade, and enjoined 
him to hasten to Worcester to perform his obsequies. Also, 
God suffered no man to remove from his finger the ring with 
which he had received episcopal consecration, that the holy 
man might not appear to forfeit his engagement to his people, 
to whom he had often foretold that he would never part with 
it during his life, nor even on the day of his burial. 

On the day before the nones [the 4th] of April, stars were 
seen to fall, as it were, in the heavens. Walter, bishop of 
Albano, a legate of the holy Roman church, sent by pope 
Urban, came to England before Easter, bringing the pallium 

1 It should be the 641st, a.d. 460. 
* a.d. 597. 

3 a d. 992. 

4 " The above numerous determinations of the period of Wulfstan's 
death are perhaps to be accounted for by the circumstance of his con- 
nection with the monastery to which Florenca himself belonged. Of 
some the accuracy is doubtful ; others are manifestly inaccurate. 
Wharton, in a note on the subject, says, * Multiplex in hisce numeris 
error deprehendi potest.' Angtia Sacra, ii., p. 276." — Thorpe. 

200 FLORENCE OF W01MJESTEB, [a.D. 1096. 

for which king William had sent the preceding year ; and 
according to agreement it <vns laid by him on the altar of Si. 
Saviour's at Canterbury, from whence it was taken by Ans«lni 
and humbly kissed by all present, in reverence to St. Peter. 
Robert, bishop of Hereford, a man of eminent piety, died on 
Tuesday the sixth of the calends of July [26th June]. Wult- 
stan, the before-mentioned bishop of Worcester, appeared to 
him for the second time in a vision on the thirtieth day after 
his departure from the world, and sharply reproved him for 
sloth und negligence, admonishing him to apply himself with 
the utmost vigilance to the reformation of his own lite and of 
those he governed ; and he said, that if he did this he might 
speedily obtain pardon from God for all his sins ; adding (Jut 
he would not long fill the see in which he then sat, hut if be 
would he more zealous, he should feast with him in the pre- 
sence of God. For these two were mutually united in tin- 
bonds of exceeding love to God and to each other ; and it i», 
therefore, natural to think that he who had first departed out 
of this life to God, should exhibit his concern for his best 
beloved friend whom lie had left behind in this world, toil 
should labour that they might both as soon as possible repot 
together in the presence of God. 

[Revolt of the Barons in the North.'] 

Robert de Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, and Williira 
d'Eu, with many others, attempted to deprive fcintr William 
of his kingdom and life, and to make Stephen d'Aumale, fix 1 
son of his aunt, king in his place, but without success; for 
as soon as the plot was known, the king assembled his nrmj 
from every part 'of England and be-ieged the castle of tk 
said carl Robert, which stood at the mouth of the river Tyii<\ 
for two months. During this siege he reduced a small fort, 
in which he took nearly all the earl's best soldiers and put 
them into confinement ; he then stormed the besieged caide 
itself, and committed to close custody the earl's brother, »ml 
the knights he found in it. After this he built a fort before 
Beban-byrig, that is, the Burg of queen Bebba,' 
earl had sought refuge, and calling it Mai 

' Rambornugh castle. Cf. the account given 
b, viii. c. xxiii. vol. hi., pp. 10, &c. 

A.D. 1095, 1096.] REVOLT IN THE NORTH. 201 

garrison in it, and returned to the country south of the 
Humber. After his departure the wardens of Newcastle 
promised earl Robert to give him admission into the fortress, 
if he could come by stealth. Joyfully accepting this proposal, 
he set forth one night with thirty troopers to accomplish his 
design. On discovering this, the knights who kept guard 
against the castle [of Bamborough] went in pursuit and 
despatched messengers to inform the garrison of Newcastle of 
his departure. In ignorance of these movements, Robert 
made his attempt on Sunday, but the enterprise failed be- 
cause it was anticipated. He therefore took refuge in the 
monastery of St. Oswin, king and martyr, where, on the 
sixth day of the siege, he received a severe wound in the leg 
while he was resisting the enemy, of whom many were killed 
and many wounded. Of his own men some were wounded, 
and all made prisoners ; he himself fled to the church, 
from which he was dragged forth and delivered into custody. 
Meanwhile, the Welsh demolished the castle of Montgomery, 
and killed in it some of the retainers of Hugh earl of Shrews- 
bury ; at which the king was so incensed that he issued 
orders for an expedition, and after the feast of St. Michael 
led his army into Wales, where he lost many men and horses. 
Returning thence, he ordered earl Robert to be committed 
to Bamborough castle, and his eyes put out unless his 
wife and his kinsman, Morcal/ surrendered the castle ; and, 
compelled by extreme necessity, they yielded to the summons. 
The earl was taken to Windsor and placed in close confine- 
ment, and Morcal disclosed the cause of his treason to the 

[a.d. 1096.] William, bishop of Durham, died at Windsor 
in the king's court, on Wednesday, being the calends [the 
1st] of January, but he was buried at Durham. On the 
octave of the Epiphany [13th January] a council was held at 
Salisbury, at which the king condemned William d'Eu, who 
had been vanquished in a duel, to lose his eyes and to be 
emasculated, and the earl's steward, William d'Alderi, the son 
of his aunt, and privy to his treason, to be hanged. He also 
placed in custody Eudes, count of Champagne, the father of 
the aforesaid Stephen, Philip, son of Roger, earl of Shrews- 
bury; and some others who were accomplices in the re- 


[Council of (*hra).:it, and tha Crusade.] 

Pope Urban came into France, ami bold in Lent a council 
at Clermont, 1 at which he exhorted the 'Christians 
.leiu.saleiu and subdue the Turks, Saracens, Turvopoles, »ml 
other pagans. At this exhortation, and during the irouni-iL 
Raymond,' count of St. Giles, took the cross, and numy 
others with him, and vowed that they would undertake the 
pilgrimage, for God's sake, and accomplish what the ppu 
hail recommended. This being noised abroad, the rest of tho 
people of Christendom, in Italy, Germany, France, and Eng- 
land, vied with each other in preparing to join the ex|>inliii>m. 
Their leaders were Adhemar bishop of l'uy, the bishop of 
Oatia, with many other bishops, Peter the monk, Hugh the 
Great, brother uf Philip king of France, Godfrey, 3 ihikc nf 
Lorraine, Stephen, count of Chartres, Robert, tail <>( X"r- 
mandy, Rohert, earl of Flanders, the two brothers of Wft 
Godfrey, Eustace, count of Boulogne, and Baldwin, th* 
before-named count Raymond, and llohemuiid, son of Robert 

iamson was consecrated bishop of Worcester by Anselra, 
airhbi.diop of (.'iinterbm-y, on Sunday the seventeenth 
[15th June], at London, in St. Paul's church. 

[Robert Ctirthose mortgages Normandy to his 

icutli of Julj I 

After this, Robert, earl of Normandy, proposing to join Its 
crusade to Jerusalem, sent, envoys to England, and requested 
his brother, king William, that, peace being restored between 
(hem, ho would lend him ten thousand silver marks, rei'civiiis,' 
Normandy in pledge. The king, wishing to grant his request, 
called on the great English lords to assist him with money, 
each according to his means, as speedily as possible. There- 
fore, the bishops, abbots, anil abbesses broke up the gold and 
silver ornaments of their churches ; and the carls, barons, and 

It was in tho year 10:15, and not in Lent, but in the month of 
November, that ]>.■[><.' I. ' II. held tin- <v!«lu-ated council at ClermqBt 
He arrived there on the 14ih or 15th of that moutb, opened lb 
council on the IMtli, und closed it on the 2Bth. 

1 Raymond of Tholouae. 

3 Godfrey de Bouillon. 

A.D. 1097, 1098.] EXPEDITION TO WALES. 203 

viscounts robbed their knights and villeins, and brought to 
the king a large sum of money. With this he crossed the sea 
in the month of September, made peace with his brother, 
advanced him six thousand six hundred and sixty-six pounds, 
and received from him Normandy as a security for its repay- 

[a.d. 1097.] William, king of England, returned to Eng- 
land during Lent, and after Easter [5th April] he undertook 
a second expedition into Wales, with an army of horse and 
foot, vowing that he would exterminate the whole male popu- 
lation ; but he was scarcely able to take or kill one of them, 
while he lost some of his own troops and many horses. After 
this he sent Edgar the etheling with an army to Scotland, to 
expel his uncle Donald, who had usurped the throne, and 
establish his cousin Edgar, son of king Malcolm, king in his 

The Christians took the city of Nice on Saturday the thir- 
teenth of the calends of July [1 9th June]. A star called a 
comet was visible for fifteen days from the third of the 
calends of October [29th September]. Some affirmed that 
they saw at that time in the heavens a strange and, as it were, v 
flaming sign, in the shape of a cross. Soon afterwards a 
quarrel took place between the king and Anselm, archbishop 
of Canterbury, because from the time of his being made 
archbishop he had not been suffered to hold a synod, nor to 
correct the evil practices which had grown up in all parts of 
England. He, therefore, crossed the sea, and after sojourning 
for a time in France, went to pope Urban at Rome. The 
king himself left England for Normandy about the feast of 
St. Andrew [30th November]. Baldwin, abbot of the monas- 
tery of St. Edmund, who was born in France, a man of 
eminent piety and a skilful physician, died in a good old age, 
on Tuesday the fourth of the calends of January [29th De- 
cember], and lies buried in the middle of the choir of the 
principal church. 

[a.d. 1098.] Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, died on Sun- 
day the third of the nones [the 3rd] of January. Also, 
Tliorold, abbot of Peterborough, and Robert, abbot of West- 
minster, died. In the summer, king William the younger 
brought the city of Mans and a great part of that province 
under his dominion by force of arms. 


Meanwhile, Hugh, earl of Chester, and Hugh, earl uf 
Shrewsbury, led troops into the Isle of Anglesey, and mas- 
sacred many of the Welsh whom they took in the island, and 
put out the eyes of otliera, having first cut otf their linnds 
and feet, and emasculated them. They also dragged (Ml 
his church a priest named Kenred, from whom (he Wci-li 
received counsel on their undertakings, and having emascu- 
lated him and put out one of his e\ es, they out off his tongue ; 
but on the third day, by rhe mercy of God, his •jni-.h «j« 
restored to him. At (hat time Magnus, king of Norway, sin 
of king Olaf, who was sou of king Harold Hariaagnr,' having 
added the Orkney and Meuavian islands to his dominion*, 
tailed there with a small fleet. But when he attempted to 
bring his ships to land, Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury, met him 
with a large body of men-at-arms on the strand of the**- 
shore, and, as it is reported, fell by an arrow discharged b» 
the king's own hand on the seventh day after he had treated 
the priest just mentioned with such barbarity. 

The city of Antioch was taken by tlie Christians on Wed- 
nesday the third of the nones [the 3rd] of June; where, 
after a few days, the spear with which the Saviour of the 
world was pier-cod when hanging on the cross, was discovered 
in the church of St. Peter the apostle, by a revelation 
from St. Andrew the apostle, the most merciful of saints. 
Encouraged by this discovery, the Christians marched VA 
of the city, carrying it with them, on Monday the fourth 
of the calends of July [2Sth June], and giving'battle to the 
pagans, put to flight at the poiut of the sword Ciirbarso, 
commander of the forces of the soldan of Persia, and th« 
Turks, Arabs, Saracens, Publicans, Azimates, Persians, Agn- 
lans, and many other nations ; gaining, by God's aid, a sign*! 
victory, and having slain many thousands of the enemy. 

There was an unusual light in the heavens, which shunt 
during nearly the whole of the night of the fifth of u> 
calends of Octoher [27th September]. The same year th* 
bones of the king and martyr Canute were disinterred aod 
placed in a shrine with great reverence. Iloger, duke o> 

1 Magnus III , king of Norway, was son of Harold HaruVaads. F<* 

ili'fails ill' his c\pL'tli;ii>:i-; to tin' i.-.ii<4, iiihI parikularly of that in wbi" 
Hugh earl of Shrewsbury Ml, s... <J ( W»:us Viu.lii, b. I. c rla 
tilt? notes in pp. 216, 4c. of vol. 111. in the Antiq. Lib. 

A.D. 1098, 1099.] COUNCILS AT ROME AND BABI. 205 

Apulia, having assembled a large army, besieged the city of 
Capua, which had revolted from his government. Pope 
Urban, accompanied, in obedience to his command, by Anselm, 
archbishop of Canterbury, went to the council which he had 
convened at Bari on the calends [the 1st] of October ; in 
which council many articles of the Catholic faith were treated 
of by the apostolical pope with eloquent reasoning. A ques- 
tion being also raised by the Greeks, who endeavoured to 
prove, on evangelical authority, that the Holy Spirit proceeds 
from the Father alone, Anselm so handled, discussed, and ex- 
hausted the subject, that there was no one in the assembly 
who did not admit that he was fully satisfied. 

[a.d. 1099.] Pope Urban held a great council at Rome 
in the third week of Easter £10th April], in which some 
decrees were justly repealed, and new ones made against the 
adversaries of holy church, and the pope, with the unani- 
mous agreement of the council, launched a sentence of ex- 
communication against all laymen giving ecclesiastical investi- 
tures, and all who received them at their hands, as well as 
against those who should consecrate any one for preferment 
so given. He also excommunicated all those who did homage 
to laymen for any ecclesiastical dignity ; for he said that it 
was horrible that hands which had been so highly honoured, 
above the ministrations of angels, as to create, by their touch, 
God, the Creator of all things, and offer him for the re- 
demption and salvation of the whole world before God the 
Father, should be debased so low as to be humbly linked in 
hands which night and day are polluted by immodest con- 
tacts, or defiled by rapine and the unrighteous shedding of 
blood. " Fiat, fiat" [Be it so], was the general exclama- 
tion ; and so the council ended. After this, the archbishop 
proceeded to Lyons. 

William the younger returned from Normandy to England, 
and held his court at Whitsuntide in London. He there gave 
the bishopric of Durham to Ranulph, a man whom he had made 
the instrument of his extortions throughout England. Thomas, 
archbishop of York, shortly afterwards consecrated him there. 

Jerusalem was taken by the Turks on Thursday the ides 
[the 15th] of July. The Christians fought a battle with 
Amiravis, the commander of the army and second in power 
over the whole kingdom of Babylon, the day before the ides 

206 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 109'j, 1100. 

[(.lie 12th] of August, on the same day of the week, anil, 
through Christ's mercy, obtained the victory. Paaelial, l 
venerable man, who had been ordained priest by pope Hihle- 
brand, waa elected pope by the people of Home on the iilis 
[the 13th] of August, and was consecrated on the following 
day, Sunday the nineteenth nf the calends of September [litii 
August]. On the third of tin? nones [the 3rd] of November 
the sea overflowed the shore, dean'oving towns, and drowning 
many persons, and innumerable oxen and sheep. Osmund, 
bishop of Salisbury, died on Friday the third, of the nones 
[the 3rd] of December. 

[a.d. 1100.] Pope Clement, who was also called Guihcrt. 
died. On Sunday the ides [the 15th] of July, the church 
which abbot Serlo, of pious memory, had built from tin; 
foundations at Gloucester, was consecrali'd villi great cere- 
mony by bishops Samson, of Worcester, (iumlulph, of Roches- 
ter, Gerard, of Hereford, and Hervey, of Bangor. 

[William Mufv* slaiti.] 

On Thursday, the fourth of the nonea [the 2nd] of August, 
In the eighth indietion, William the younger, kinirol' Kngliiinl. 
while hunting in the New Forest, which is called in English 
Ytene, was killed by an arrow, carelessly aimed by a French- 
man, Walter, snrnamed Tirel; 1 and being curried to Wimlii-- 
ter he waa buried in the old minster, in the church of St. 
I'eter. Nor can it be wondered that 1 , as common report stale*, 
almighty power and vengeance should have been thus dis- 
played. For in former times, that is, during the reigns of king 
Edward and other kings of England, his predeets- 
tract of land was thickly planted with churches and with 
inhabitants who were worshippers of God; hut by command 
of king William the elder the people were expelled, the 
houses half ruined, the churches pulled down, and the linii 
made an habitation for wild beasts only ; and hence, as it i< 
believed, arose this mischance. For Richard, the brother ei 
William the younger, had perished long befere in the fame 
forest, and a short time previously his cousin Richard, tin- sen 
of Robert, earl of Normandy, was also killed by an arrow by 

1 Cf. Ordericus Vitalis, b. x. c. xiv., and the 
derails of the cirrnmstaTii'r's intruding the eath of William 
-od tbc historj of Walter Tirel. 

arrow vj 

for fulWr 
am Mm, 


one of his knights, while he was hunting. A church, built 
in the old times, had stood on the spot where the king fell, 
but, as we have already said, it was destroyed in the time of 
his father. 

During the reign of this king, as we have partly mentioned 
above, many signs appeared in the sun, moon, and stars ; the 
sea often overflowed its banks, drowning men and cattle, and 
destroying many vills and houses ; in the district of Berkshire, 
blood flowed from a fountain for three weeks ; and the devil 
frequently appeared in the woods under a horrible form to 
many Normans, and discoursed largely to them respecting the 
king, and Ranulph, and some others. Nor is it to be won- 
dered at ; for in their time law was almost silent, and money 
only weighed with the judges in all causes brought before 
them. At that time some men obeyed the king's will rather 
than justice, and Ranulph, contrary to ecclesiastical law and the 
rules of his order, for he was a priest, received from the king, 
first abbeys, and then bishoprics, whose holders had recently 
died, to let to farm ; and thereout he paid the king every year a 
large sum of money. His cunning and shrewdness were such, 
and in a short time he so grew in the king's favour, that he 
appointed him his pleader and collector of taxes throughout 
the kingdom. 1 Possessed of this immense power, he mulct 
some of the wealthier sort in various parts of England of their 
goods and lands, while he incessantly harassed those who were 
in poorer circumstances with unjust taxes. Thus did he on 
both high and low in various ways, — both before he was made 
a bishop and afterwards, — and this up to the time of the king's 
death, for on the very day he died he held in his own hands 
the archbishopric of Canterbury and the bishoprics of Win- 
chester and Salisbury. William the younger reigned thirteen 
years, wanting thirty-eight days ; his youngest brother Henry 
succeeded him, and was forthwith crowned at Westminster 
by Maurice, bishop of London, on the nones [the 5th] of 
August. On the day of his consecration he gave freedom to 
the church of God, which in his brother's time was put up to 
sale and let to farm ; he discontinued the exaction of the un- 

1 All the Chronicles dw^ll on the character of this shrewd but un- 
principled lawyer. See Henry of Huntingdon, pp. 238 and 310, 
Antiq. Lib.; Ordericus Vitalis, ibid, vol. iii., p. 279 ; and William of 
Malmesbury, ibid, p. 336. 


just dues and oppressive taxes with which the kingdom of 
England was burlhened, anil firmly established peace in hia 
dominions, and ordered it to he preserved; he restored tlie 
laws of king Edward to all in common, with such amendmol 

his father had made, hut he retained in his own hands tlifl 
forests which he made and possessed. Not long afterwards 
lie committed to custody in the Tower of London, Ranulph, 
bishop of Durham, and recalled Anselm, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, from France. 

Meanwhile, Robert, earl of Flanders, and Eustace, count of 
Boulogne, came back from Jerusalem. Then Robert, earl rf 
Normandy, returned to his own country with the wife he bad 
married in Sicily. 1 In the interim, Henry, king of England, con- 
voked the great English lords ai London, and married Matilda, 
daughter of Malcolm, king of Scots, and queen Margaret; and 
she was crooned and consecrated queen by Anselm, archbishop 
of Canterbury, on the feast of St. Martin, being Sunday. 
Thomas, archbishop of York, a man of eminent piety, wliow 
memory was held in great veneration, and who was affshle 
and beloved by all, departed [his life at York, on Sunday, tin 
fourteenth of the calends of December [18th November], and 

is succeeded by Gerard, bishop of Hereford. 

[a.d. 1101.] Eanulph, bishop of Durham, made his escape 
from prison alter Christmas with great address, and crossing 
sea, went to Robert, earl of Normandy, and persuaded 
to appear in arms in England.* Many also of the nolilet 
of this country sent messengers to him and entreated him 
ipeedily to come over, promising him the crown and kingdixu 
if England. The city of Gloucester was destroyed 1 ■ y Lit-'', 
tith the principal monastery and others, on Thursday lb* 
■i,ditli of tin' ides [the (Itli] of June. 

[Expedition of Robert Curthote to England."] 
Robert, earl of Normandy, having raised a largo body of 
horsemen, archers, and foot soldiers, iissembled his ships, called 
It should be Apulia. Robert married Sibylla, dau^lilrr »' 
Geoffrey de Conversana, near Bnri, who was nephew of Robert 
Guiscar'd. See Orderic. Vital. ; vol, ili , pp 'i",fl, '.'.',:. The duchf* 
Sibvlla died much lameuted by the Noi-mans, in Lent, 1103— /W, 
p. 343. 
' Ibid, p- 281, 287. 

.d. 1101.] bobebt's expedition to England. 209 

1 the Norman tongue TJltres-port. 1 The king, receiving 
itelligence of this, ordered his boats-carles 1 to guard the sea, 
nd to watch that no one approached the coast of England 
•om Normandy ; while he himself, having collected an im- 
mense army from every part of England, encamped near 
lastings in Sussex, concluding for certain that his brother 
rould land in that quarter. The earl, however, by the advice 
f bishop Ralph, so tampered with the fidelity of some of the 
ing's boats-carles, by promises of various kinds, that throwing 
ff their allegiance, they deserted to the earl, and became his 
ilots to England. All being ready, he embarked with his 
rmy, and about the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula [1st August] 
inded at Portsmouth, and, immediately marching his army 
owards Winchester, pitched his camp on a suitable spot, 
mmediately that his arrival was known, some of the English 
obles went over to him as they had before promised, others 
emained with the king, although in heart they were faithless 
o him. The bishops, however, with the common soldiers 
nd English people, stood by him resolutely, and were ready to 
. man to be led to battle for his cause. But the wiser men on 
toth sides, agreeing in sound counsels, mediated a peace be- 
ween the brothers, on the terms that the king should pay to 
he earl yearly three thousand marks, that is two thousand 
►ounds in silver, and should freely restore their former do- 
aains in England to all who had forfeited them by their 
dherence to the earl ; and that the earl should reinstate in 
heir possessions in Normandy, without cost, all who had been 
leprived of them on the king's account. Peace being restored, 
he king disbanded his army, and part of the earl's troops 
eturned to Normandy, and part remained with him in 

Godfrey, king of Jerusalem, who was before the powerful 
luke of Lorraine, son of Eustace the Elder, count of 
Boulogne, departed this life and lies buried in the church of 
>olgotha. 8 After his death the Christians unanimously 

1 Treport. 

a Butse-carles: [Ang. Sax. butse, or bates-carles, from bat, a boat, 
ad earl, or eeorl ;] the boatmen of the Cinque-ports, and other 
tarbours in the channel. Our author subsequently uses the phrase 
or mariners generally, the boats-carles being pressed or enlisted into 
he king's naval service. 

3 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, at Jerusalem. 


210 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A..D. 1101, 1102. 

elected his brother, Baldwin, king. Robert de Belfisme, esrl 
of Shrewsbury, son of earl Roger, began to repair and sur- 
round with a broad and lofty wall (as the issue proved. t<i - 
oppose king Henry) the castle which Et.holl'eda, lady of the 
Mercians, had formerly built in the reign of her brother 
Edward the Elder, at a place called in the Suxoa tongue 
Bryege [Bridgnorth], on the west bank of the river Severn. 
He also commenced building another castle in Wales at » 
place called Caroclove. 

[Robert de Belesme's Rebellion,] 

[a.d. 1102.] The before-mentioned Robert, earl of Bel^sme, 
who was then master of the county of Ponthieu also, awl 
possessed a great number of castles in Normandy, -riimi-h 
fortified against king Henry the town of Shrewsbury ami tin- 
castle which stands in it; and also the castles of Arundel ami 
Tiekhill, supplying them with provisions, engines, and arm, 
and stationing in them knights and foot-soldiers. He aU" ■ 
hastened, by all the means in his power, the completion of thr 
walls and towers of the castles of Bryege and Caroclove, 
] i living the works carried on night and day. Moreover, in 
order to rouse hia Welsh vassals to a ready, faithful, ttA 
willing submission to his orders, he bestowed on then 
liberally lordships and lands, horses and anus, and all kind* of 
largesses. But his plans and operations were speedily OTt 
short, for his plots and designs being made manifest 
evidence, the king proclaimed him a traitor. Thereupon, 
having quickly assembled all the Welshmen arid NontifflU 
he could collect, he and his brother Amulph ravaged purt "f 
Staffordshire, and carried off into Wales many horses awl 
cattle, and some few men. The Icing, without delay, besegft] 
first his castle of Arundel, and having built forts i 
retired. He then ordered Robert, bishop of l.ii;. 
part of his troops to lay siege to Tiekhill. while he himself, uiili 
nearly the whole military force of England, sat down before 
Bridgnorth, and began to construct machines and erect ■ abMg 
fort before it. Meanwhile, by moderate bribes he easily in- 
duced the Welsh, in whom Robert placed great confidence, W 
break the oaths they had sworn to him, ami utterly desert Lin 
and turn their anus agaiust him. The town [of Shrew;' 


and all the castles having been surrendered within thirty days, 
he reduced his enemy Robert to submit, and drove him from 
England in disgrace : his brother Arnulph was shortly after- 
wards condemned to a similar fate for his treason. 1 

[A Synod held at London.] 

After this the king was in London on the Feast of St. 
Michael, at his palace of Westminster, with all the great men 
of his realm of both orders, spiritual and temporal, where he 
invested two of the clergy with bishoprics, namely, Roger, the 
chancellor, with the see of Salisbury, and Roger, his larderer, 
with that of Hereford. There, also, Anselm, the archbishop, 
held a great synod on ecclesiastical affairs, at which were 
present Gerard, archbishop of York, Maurice, bishop of Lon- 
dcto, William, bishop-elect of Winchester, Robert, bishop of 
Lincoln, Samson of Worcester, Robert of Chester, John of 
Bath, Herbert of Norwich, Ralph of Chichester, Gundulph ot 
Rochester, Hervey of Bangor, and the two newly-invested 
bishops, Roger of Salisbury, and Roger of Hereford. 
Osbern, bishop of Exeter, could not attend, being detained by 
sickness. In this synod, several abbots, both Frenchmen and 
English, were deposed, and deprived of the preferments which 
they had obtained unfairly, or in which they lived disreputably; 
namely, Guy, abbot of Pershore, Aldwin, abbot of Ramsey, 
and the abbot of Tavistock, Haimon, abbot of Cerne, and the 
abbot of Michelney, Ethelric, abbot of Middleton, Goodric of 
Peterborough, Richard of Ely, and Robert of St. Edmund's. 
Roger, the before-mentioned bishop-elect of Hereford, was 
taken ill at London and died; and Reignelm, the queen's 
chancellor, was substituted for him by a like investiture. 
Henry, king of England, gave Mary, the queen's sister, in 
marriage to Eustace, count of Boulogne. 

[The King and Archbishop's quarrel about Investitures. ~\ 

[a.d. 1103.] There was a violent dispute between king 
Henry and archbishop Anselm; the archbishop being opposed 
to the king's conferring investitures of ecclesiastical prefer- 

1 See fuller details of the revolt of Robert de Belesme, and king 
Henry's successful campaign against him, in B. xi. c. iii. of Ordericus 
Vitalis. Vol. iii. p. 331, &c. in the Antiq. Lib. 

P 2 

212 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1103, 1104. 

merits, and refusing either to consecrate or communicate with 
those to whom the king had already given churches ; because 
the apostolical pope had forbidden this to him. and all others. 
In consequence, the king commanded Gerard, the archbishop 
of York, to consecrate the bishops to whom he had given in- 
vestitures, namely, William CHH'ard, and Roger, who had been 
his chaplain, and was now preferred to the bishopric of 
Salisbury. Gerard was willing to comply with the king's 
command, but William, in deference to the canons, made light 
of both that and archbishop Gerard's consecration. Where- 
fore the king sentenced him to forfeit all lie had, and he 
was banished the realm : the others remained un consecrated. 
Shortly before this, Reignelm had surrendered the bishopric 
of Hereford to the king, believing that he had offended God 
because he had accepted the investiture of a church from tb« 
hands of a layman. 

The king held his court during Easter at V 
Anselm, the archbishop, after the many injuries and slight* 
he had endured, at the king's request set out for Rome < 
fifth of the calends of May [27th April], as it had ! 
between him and the king ; being accompanied by William, 
hi si nip- elect of Winchester, and the deposed abbots, Richard 
of Ely and Aldwin of Ramsey. 

Robert, eari of Normandy, came into England to confer 
with his brother, and before he returned released him frum 
the annual pension of three thousand silver marks, which tlw 
king was bound to pay him yearly according to their agree- 
ment. 1 Blood was seen by many persons to flow from tlif 
ground at a place called He-am studo in Berkshire. In tht 
same year, on the third of the ides [the 3rd] of August, there 
was a violent storm of wine!, which did more damn^e tu i:.. 
fruits of the earth in England than men then living had 
witnessed in former times. 

[a.d. 1104.] Two venerable abbots died, — Walter «f 
Evesham, on the thirteenth of the calends of Februuj 
[20th January], and Serlo of Gloucester, on the fourth <i 
the nones [the 4th] of March. Henry, king of England, held 
his court at Westminster during Whitsuntide, On TllMJB 
the seventh of the idea [the 7th] of June, about then" 

' According to Malmesbury, Robert resigned his pension*! lk" 
io of the queen, as the price of bis liberty. 

A.D. 1104-6.] RELICS OF ST. CUTHBERT. 213 

hour, four circles of a white colour were seen round the sun, 
one under the other, as in a painting. All who observed it 
marvelled, such appearances having been never before seen 
by any of them. William, earl of Morton, was disinherited 
of all his English domains. It would be difficult to describe 
the miseries which the land of England suffered at that time 
from the king's exactions. 

The body of St. Cuthbert, the bishop, was exposed to 
view while Ranulph was bishop, and was clearly found to be 
uncorrupted, as well as the head of St. Oswald, king and 
martyr, and the relics of St. Bede and other saints, by Ralph, 
abbot of Se'ez, 1 afterwards bishop of Rochester, and the 
monks of Durham, in the presence of earl Alexander, the 
brother of Edgar, king of Scots, and afterwards king himself. 
Having been permitted to assist on so sacred an occasion, he 
caused a shrine to be made at the cost of many gold and 
silver marks, in which the sacred body was deposited, wrapped 
in new vestments. 

[TJte King invades Normandy.'] 

[a.d. 1105.] Henry, king of England, crossed the sea, 
and on his arrival nearly all the Norman barons deserted the 
earl, their lord, whom they despised, and flocked to the king 
for the gold and silver which he brought over with him, 
putting their castles and fortified cities and towns into his 
hands. After having burnt Bayeux, with the church of 
St. Mary there, and taken Caen from his brother, he returned 
to England, finding it was not in his power at that time to 
make himself master of the whole of Normandy, and intend- 
ing to return the ensuing year and subdue the remainder, to 
the disinheritance of his brother. William, earl of Morton, in 
revenge for the loss of his English domains, did all the mis- 
chief he could to the king's vassals and possessions. 

[a.d. 1106.] Robert, earl of Normandy, came over to 

1 Ralph d* Escures, bishop of St. Martin, at S6ez, being driven out 
of Normandy by the persecutions of Robert de Belesme, took refuge 
in England, and was appointed bishop of Rochester, 11th August, 1108, 
raised to the see of Canterbury the 26th April, 1114, and died the 20th 
October, 1122. See Orderic. vital., vol. ii. p. 466, and vol. iii. p. 349. 


England to have a conference with his brother Henry, *nd 
met him at Northampton.' Then the earl begged him U 
restore what lie had taken from him in Normandy ; hut the 
king gave a flat refund to all his demands, and the earl left 
him in great Wroth and reerossed the sea. 

On Friday, in the first week of Lent, the fourteenth of the 
calends of Starch [16th February], in the evening, a strange 
star was visible between the south and west, and shone for 
twenty- five day? in rile .same form and at the same hour. It 
appeared small and dim, but the light which issued from it 
was exceedingly clear ; and flashes of light, like bright beams, 
darted into the star itself from the east and north. Many 
affirmed that they saw several strange stars at that time. Ob 
the night of Holy Thursday, shortly before daybreak, two 
moons were visible, one in the cast, the other in the west; 
and both were full, the moon being then fourteen days old, 
In this year a most execrable quarrel took place between the 
emperor of Germany and his son. 

[The Battle of Tinchehrai.'] 

Henry, king of England, crossed the sea before the month 
of August, proceeding to Normandy ; and nearly all tin* 
principal Normans submitted to him, except Robert if 
Relesme, William de Morton, and a few others, who roaiu- 
r.aiiK'd their allegiance to earl Robert. On the assumption of 
St. Mary [15th August], king Henry came to Bee, where be 
had a meeting with Aiwhn, the archbishop, and they came 
to terms of peace ami concord on all the matters on which 
they had differed. Soon afterwards, tl"' aiv|ibb>]i<ip. Iiv C 1 n ■ 
command and at rhe request of the king, returned to England. 
The king, having assembled an army, marched t 
belonging to the earl of Morton, called Tinchcbrai, and laid 
siege to it. While the king was detained before the place 
his brother Bobert fell upon him at the head of his army, on 
the eve of St. Michael, having with him Robert de Belesme 
and William, earl of Morton ; but right and victory were on 

Cf. Henry of Huntingdon, p. 242. This interview, at which 
Robert threw himself in vain at the feet, of the author of Iris mirfor- 
i, is described with simple pathos by John Brampton. 

3D. 1106, 1107.] ROBERT CURTHOSE, PRISONER. 215 

e king's side. 1 Robert, earl of Normandy, William, earl of 
[orton, and Robert d'Estoteville were taken prisoners in the 
sittle ; but Robert de Belesme escaped by flight. William 
r is pin was also captured, and many others, at the same 
me. Affairs having taken this turn, the king brought all 
[ormandy to submission and governed it according to his 
dll ; intelligence of which he communicated by letters to 
rchbishop Anselm. 

£a.d. 1107.] Edgar, king of the Scots, died on the eighth 
f the ides [the 6th] of January, and was succeeded by his 
•rother Alexander. Peace having been established in Nor- 
aandy under the king's government, and Robert, duke of 
Normandy, and William, earl of Morton, having been sent 
orward to England in custody, the king himself returned to 
is kingdom before Easter [14th April]. 

[A Council, at London respecting Investitures.] 

On the calends [the 1st] of August, a great council of all 
ihe bishops, abbots, and barons of the realm was held in the 
•oyal palace at London ; and for three days, in the absence 
>f archbishop Anselm, the subject of ecclesiastical investitures 
svas fully discussed between the king and the bishops. Some 
>f them strove to persuade him to follow the practice of his 
iather and brother, and disregard the decree of the apostolic 
see ; for pope Paschal, adhering strictly to the decision pro- 
nounced, had coincided with pope Urban on all points, and, 
ike him, had interdicted [lay] investitures, and thus the king 
was brought to agree with him on the matter. Afterwards, 
when Anselm was present, the king publicly allowed and or- 
dained that from thenceforth no person should ever be invested 
in any bishopric or abbey in England by receiving the pastoral 
staff or ring at the hands of the king or any layman ; Anselm, 
on his part, conceding that no one elected to the prelacy 
should be refused consecration to his office on account of his 
having done homage to the king for it. Gerard, archbishop 
of York, placing bis hand in that of Anselm, according to his 

1 With all the faults of Robert Curthose, it cannot be said that 
right was on Henry's side. For further details of his previous expe- 
dition into Normandy and the battle of Tinchebrai, see Henry of 
Huntingdon, p. 242, and Orderic. Vital., yoL iii. pp. 371, 375 — 381. 

216 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [\.D. 1107, 1108. 

desire, solemnly promised that he would manifest to Iiim and 
liia successors in the archbishopric the same submission and 
obedience which the bishop-elect of Hereford had promised 
to himself before his ronsceration. 

The following bishops-elect, namely, William of Winchester, 
Roger of Salisbury, Reignelm of Hereford, William of Exeter, 
and Urban of Glamorgan,' in Wales, came to Canterbury it 
the same time, and were consecrated together by archbishop 
Anselm, on Sunday, the third of the ides [the 2nd] of 
August ; the suffragan bishops of his see, namely, Gerard, 
archbishop of York, Robert. bishop of Lincoln, John of Bath. 
Herbert of Norwich, Robert of Chester, Ralph of Chichester, 
and Ranulph of Durham, all assisting in the office of consecu- 
tion. There was certainly no person then living who had 
any remembrance of the election and consecration at one 
time of so many bishops in England, at any former period 
since the reign of Edward the Elder, when archbishop Pleg- 
niund ordained seven bishops to .win churches in one day.' 
In this present year died Maurice, bishop of London, Richard, 
abbot of Ely, Rohert, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, Milt* 
Crispin, Robert Fitz-Hamon, Robert Bigod, and Richard de 
Redvers, who were all of the king's council. 

[a.d. 1108.] Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, died on tin' 
nones [the 7th] of March. Henry, king of England, in order 
to preserve the peace strictly, made a law that any man taken 
in the act of thieving or robbing should be hanged. He also 
put down base and counterfeit coin under the severest pe- 
nalties, enacting that no person detected in making false 
money should be allowed to compound for their utl'ein.i.' 
without losing their eyes and mutilation of their lower limbs. 
And since it frequently happened that the current pennies 
were so bent and broken that they were refused, he enacted 
that no penny or halfpenny. — which he also directed should 
be round,— nor even a farthing [should be taken] unless it 
were perfect. Great benefit resulted to the whole kingdom 
from this enactment; and thus the king dealt with secular 
affairs, to the relief of the sufferings of the country. Gerard, 

■ Llandaff. 

' Neither the Saxon Chronicle r;or William of Malm- (1 
this fact. Pluyuioml was archbishop of Canterbury from 3W 


archbishop of York, died, and Thomas, the cousin of his pre- 
decessor Thomas, succeeded him. 


In the year of our Lord, 1108, the following decrees were 
made concerning priests, deacons, subdeacons, and canons of 
every order, by Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, together 
with Thomas, archbishop-elect of York, and all the bishops of 
England, in the presence of the glorious king Henry, and 
with the assent of his barons : — 

"It is decreed that priests, deacons, and subdeacons, 
shall live chastely, and shall not have any women in their 
houses, except such as are of the nearest kindred, according 
to the rule of the holy council of Nice. Those priests, 
deacons, or subdeacons who, after the prohibition of the 
synod of London, have retained their wives, or taken others, 
if they choose to continue to celebrate mass, are to so put 
them away that neither the women are to come to their 
houses, nor they to the houses of the women ; they are, also, 
never to meet by appointment in any other house, nor are 
such women to reside on the lands of the church ; and if it 
be necessary for any lawful purpose to hold converse with 
them, let them meet out of doors, in the presence of two 
credible witnesses. 

" If any clerk be charged with the violation of this statute, 
on the testimony of two or three lawful witnesses, or the 
common report of his parishioners, he shall purge himself by 
the oaths of credible witnesses of his own order, in addition to 
his own ; namely, by six, if he be a priest ; by four, if he be a 
deacon, and by two, if he be a subdeacon. He who makes 
default in so clearing himself, shall be adjudged a transgressor 
of the sacred canons. 

" Those priests who, without reverence for Ood's altar and 
their own holy orders, shall choose to live with women, are to 
be excluded from the performance of divine offices, to be 
deprived of all ecclesiastical benefices, have their stations out- 
side the choir, and be declared infamous. 

" Whosoever shall wilfully *nd contumaciously retain his 
wife, and yet presume to perform mass, shall be summoned 

218 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1108, 110(1. 

to answer, and on liis neglect lo appear for eight days, shall 
be excommunicated. 

" This decree applies to all archdeacons and canons, both 
as far as regards parting with their wive?, avoiding any con- 
nection with them, and the penalties imposed if the rules he 

" All archdeacons shall swear that they will not n 
money for allowing tin; infraction ol this decree, n or suiter 
priests who, to their knowledge keep their wive.-. 
mass or appoint vicars in their stead. Deans shall do the same. 

"Every archdeacon or dean who shall refuse to take this shall be deprived of his archdeaconry or deanery. 

" Priests who shall make their election to put away their 
wives, and serve God and hia holy altars, shall suspend thi'ir 
functions for ten days, during which they shall appoint vicin 
to perform them, and sliall do such penance as their ln^io]- 
shall see fit to enjoin." 

Philip, king of France, died, and was succeeded by his son 
Lewis. 1 Henry, king of England, crossed the sea. Anselm, 
the archbishop, at the king's request, consecrated Richard 
bishop-elect of London, in his chapel at Peckham ; Williiro, 
bishop of Winchester, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, Ralph, 
bishop of Chichester, and William, bishop of Exeter, assisting 
at the ceremony, and the bishop-elect having first made the 
usual professions of obedience and submission. After IUi 
he went to Canterbury, and consecrated Ralph, abbot of 
Seez, a devout train,' to the church at Rochester, on the tfcW 
of the ides [the 11th] of August, in place of Gundulph ; Wil- 
liam, bishop of Winchester, Ralph, bishop of Chichester, and 
Richard, bishop of London, assisting him. This Richard, 
following the customs of his predecessors, made a noble ofler- 
ing the same day to the mother-church of Canterbury. 

[a.D. 1109.] Ansehu, archbishop of Canterbury, died [her* 
on Wednesday, the eleventh of the calends of Slay pill 

1 Louis-le-Groa succeeded Philip, the 3rd August, 1108. S* 
Ordericus Vital™, vol. iii. pp. 3;">i> ami 424. Antiq. LA., and the thir- 
ncter of these printes given liv Henry <if Huntingdon, in liis "Lettfr 
U. Walter," tHd., p. 313. 

' See the note in p. 213. Ordericua VitftUs calls tin 
was his neighbour in Normandy, " a cheerful, facetious, and anuaWe 

AJ). 1109-11.] DEATH OP ANSELM. 219 

April], and was buried with great honours on the following 
day, being Holy Thursday. Henry, king of England, re- 
turned to England about the Rogation days, and held his 
court during Whitsuntide [13th June] at Westmister. 
Thomas, archbishop-elect of York, was consecrated at London 
on the 5th of the calends of July [27th June] by Richard, 
bishop of London, and afterwards received at York, on 
Sunday, the calends [the 1st] of August, the pallium sent 
him by cardinal Ulric. The same day he consecrated Turgot, 
prior of Durham, to the bishopric of St. Andrew's, in Scot- . 
land, which is called Cenrimunt. In the same year the 
king converted the abbey of Ely into an episcopal see, and 
appointed Hervey, bishop of Ely, to govern that church. A U 
comet was seen about the milky way in the month of De-)\ 
cember, its tail extending towards the northern quarter of the 

[a.d. 1110.] Henry, king of England, gave his daughter 
Matilda in marriage to Henry, king [emperor] of Germany. 
The same year many extraordinary things were witnessed 
throughout England. At Shrewsbury there was a great 
earthquake. At Nottingham the river Trent was dried up for 
the length of a mile, from daybreak to the third hour, so that 
men walked dry-shod in its channel. A comet made its 
appearance on the sixth of the ides [the 8thJ of June and 
continued visible for three weeks. 

[a.d. 1111.] Henry, king of Germany, came to Rome, and 
laying hands on pope Paschal, put him in confinement ; but 
afterwards made peace with him at the bridge on the Via 
Salaria, and they celebrated the feast of Easter on the Field 
[of Mars], 

king's OATH. 

" I, Henry, will set free, on Thursday or Friday next, the 
lord pope and the bishops and cardinals; and to all the 
prisoners and hostages who have been taken for him or with 
him I will give a safe conduct within the walls of the 
Transteverine cfty. I will never again take, or permit to be 
taken, those who remain in allegiance to the lord the pope 
Paschal; and for myself and mine, I will keep peace and quiet 


with tlie Roman people, both of the Transtcvorine city and of 
that within the island, as concerns their persona aud goods, 
provided they observe peace towards me. I will faithfully 
succour our lord pope Paschal in main tain ing his right to the 
papacy in peaee and security. I will restore the patrimony 
and possessions of the Roman church, which I have taken 
away, and I will faithfully aid her in recovering all that she 
ought to possess, as my predecessors have done. J will obey 
our lord pope Paschal, saving the rights of my crown and 
empire, in the same manner that catholic emperors have 
obeyed catholic popes of Rome. All those things I will 
observe faithfully, without fraud or covin. 

" Those are the jurors on the part of the king : — Frederick, 
archbishop of Cologne, Uebliard, bishop of Trent, Burchard, 
bishop of Munster, Bruno, bishop of Spires, Albert, chancellor, 
count Herman, Frederick, count palatine, count Bereoger, 
count Frederick, marquis Boniface, Albert, count de Blaudni, 
count Frederick, 1 count (.lodtVev, marquis Warnerio." 

" Our lord pope Paschal, the one hundred and fifty-siith 
pope, agrees to grant to king Henry aud his kingdom, Mid 
will ratify and confirm it, under pain of excommunication, hy 
his apostolical privilege, that when a bishop or abbot is freely 
elected, without simony, and with die royal licence, it shall be 
lawful for my lord the king to invest him with the ring Mid 
staff. And the bishop or abbot so invested by the king saw! 
freely receive consecration from the bishop to whom the right 
pertains. But if any person be elected by the clergy snd 
people, unless he also receives investiture from the king, he 
shall not be consecrated ; and archbishops and bishops shall 
be allowed to consecrate those (only) who have received in- 
vestiture from the king. In respeet of tiiese things, the lord 
the pope Paschal shall not disquiet king Henry, Ins kingdi"" 
and empire." 

rnis ib the nun o» tub fart of the roe*. 

" OCR lord pope Paschal shall not molest my lord kiif 

1 We Follow the text of the E. H. Society in inserting two coin" 

Frederick in this list, besides the count palatine. In the copJ</<l* 

ducument given hy William of MuUiiesbury we Ead only <f 


Henry, nor his empire and kingdom, concerning the investiture 
of bishoprics and abbeys, nor for any injuries done to himself 
and his people, nor shall he do any evil to him or any other 
person on that account. Especially, he shall never pronounce 
any sentence of excommunication against the person of king 
Henry, nor shall the lord pope retain the power of refusing to 
crown him, according to the form in the ordinal. And he 
shall aid him to the best of his power, by the authority of his 
office, to maintain himself in his kingdom and empire. All 
this the lord pope will perform without fraud or covin." 

These are the names of the bishops and cardinals, who, by 
the command of our lord pope Paschal, have ratified by their 
oaths the bull of privileges and the alliance made with the 
lord emperor Henry : Peter, bishop of Porto, Censius, bishop 
of Sabinum, Robert, cardinal of St. Eusebius, Boniface, 
cardinal of St. Mark, Anastasius, cardinal of St. Clement, 
Gregory, cardinal of SS. Peter and Paul, the apostles ; also, 
Gregory, cardinal of St. Chrysogonus, John, cardinal of St. 
Potentiana, Risus, cardinal of St. Lawrence, Rainier, cardinal 
of SS. Marcellinus and Peter, Vitalis, cardinal of St Bal- 
bina, Duuzo, cardinal of St. Martin, Theobald, cardinal of SS. 
John and Paul, John, deacon of St. Mary-in-Schol& Greed. 1 


" Paschal, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his 
most beloved son in Christ, Henry, king of the Germans, and, 
by the grace of God, emperor of the Romans, health and the 
apostolical benediction. 

" Divine Providence has so ordered that there is a singular 
union between your kingdom and the holy Roman church. 
Your predecessors, by virtue of their superior worth and 
prudence, obtained the Roman crown and imperial dignity ; to 
which, dearest son Henry, the Divine Majesty has advanced 
you by the ministry of our priestly office. The prerogatives, 
therefore, of that dignity, which my predecessors have granted 
to the catholic emperors, your predecessors, and have con- 

1 This church is so called from a tradition that St. Augustine 
taught rhetoric there before his conversion. William of Malmesbury 
adds to this list the names of " Leo, dean of St. Vitalis, and Albo, dean 
of SS. Rogius and Bacchius," and for cardinal of St. Martin, reads 
cardinal of St. Mark. 


firmed by bulls of privileges, we also grant to you, beloved, 
and confirm by this present instrument ; to wit, that it shall be 
lawful for you to coufer investitures, by stall' and ring, on the 
bishops and abbots of your realm, freely eleeted without com- 
pulsion or simony ; and that after their investitures they nay 
receive canonical consecration from the bishop to whom it | 
appertains. If any one, however, be eleeted by the peojft 
and clergy, but without your assent, unless he receives in- 
vestiture from you, let him not be consecrated. Let arch- 
bishops anil bishnps have licence from you to give canonical 
c (msec rat ion to bishops and abbots who have received your 
investiture. For your predecessors have so amply endowed 
the churches of your realm from their royal domains, thai il 
is very expedient that the possessions of the bishops and 
abbots should contribute to the defence of the kingdom, ivii'l 
that the popular tumults which often occur in elections should 
be put down by the royal power. Wherefore, it is your dun, 
in the exercise of your prudence and authority, that, by the 
help of God, the pre-eminence of the [toman church, and to 
welfare of all, be guarded by your beneficial acts and services. 
If any person, ecclesiastical or secitlav, shall ra-hlv attempt to 
pervert the sense of this our grant, let him boexeoiii; 
unless he repent ; and, moreover, incur the peril of losins his 
office and dignity ; and may the Divine mercy protect 
those who observe it, and grant you a happy reign, both in 
your person and in your power, to his honour and glory." 

With these conventions and oaths, peace was concluded 
between the lord pope and the king, during the feast of 
Easter. Then the kinir made bis entrance into Rome en the 
ides [the 13th] of April, and the pope, having celebrate' 
mass in the church of St. Peter, consecrated him emperor, 1 
gave liim and his followers absolution, and pardoned them fw 
all the injuries he had received at their hands. 

[il Colony of Flemings settled in South Walet.'] 

Henry, king of England, removed into Wales all to 

Flemings who were living in North umbria, with their chattel.-, 

1 William if Mai me -bury si Mrs. thai, the pope ami emperor Inei o" 
Sunday, the 4th before the ides of April, and giTes detail* rf [ 1"' 
which followed. 


and made them settle in the district called Rhos. 1 The king 
also commanded that the new monastery, which stood within 
the walls of Winchester, should, under the direction of 
William, bishop of Winchester, be built without the walls ; and 
soon afterwards crossed the sea. In this year there was a 
very severe winter, a grievous famine, a great mortality, a 
murrain among animals, both wild and domestic, and vast 
numbers of birds also perished, 



[a.d. 1112.] In the thirteenth year of the pontificate of 
pope Paschal II., the fifth indiction, in the month of March, 
the fifteenth of the calends of April [18th March], the 
Lateran Council was held at Home, in the basilica of Constan- 
tine. In this council the pope, having taken his seat, with 
the archbishops, bishops, and cardinals, and a mixed multitude 
of the clergy and laity, on the last day of the assembly, he 
made a profession of the catholic faith in the presence of all, 
in order that none might doubt of his belief, saying: — 
" I embrace all Holy Scripture, namely, the Old and New 
Testament, the law written by Moses and the holy prophets. 
I embrace the four gospels, the seven canonical epistles, the 
epistles of the glorious doctor, St. Paul the apostle, the holy 
apostolic canons, the four general councils, like the four 
gospels, namely the councils of Nice, Ephesus, Constantinople, 
and Chalcedon ; the council of Antioch, and the decrees of 
the holy fathers, popes of Rome, especially the decrees of the 
lord pope Gregory VII., and of pope Urban of , blessed 

1 Henry I., as well as his father, the Conqueror, out of respect to 
queen Matilda, daughter of Baldwin, earl of Flanders, gave an asylum 
to a great number of Flemings, compelled by inundations to seek new 
habitations. They were first settled in the north of England, but 
afterwards removed into a district of Pembrokeshire, then and still 
called Roos. The colony consisted almost entirely of persons of the 
lower class, soldiers, artificers, and manufacturers; and the country they 
occupied seems to have been the cradle of the woollen manufactory still 
carried on in the neighbouring districts, in a most primitive fashion, 
the numerous streams affording sites for fulling-mills The settlers 
were probably accompanied by English, or had acquired that language, 
which from that period has exclusively prevailed in that part of South 
Wales; the barrier line between the Welshry and Englishry being still 
preserved, a brook or a footpath often separating the languages. 

224 FLOREKCE OF W0I1CESTEK. [a.D. 1113. 

memory. What they approved, I approve; what they h<ii!, 
I hold; what they con fir Died, I confirm; what, tln.-y ri.n- 
demned, I condemn; what they rejected, I reject; whatthej 
interdicted, I interdict; what they prohibited, 1 prohibit, in 
all and through all : and in this faith 1 will always persevere." 

When he had finished, Gerard, bishop of Angoulenie, legate 
n Aquitaine, rose in the name of all, and by the common eon> 
sent of the lord pope Paschal and the whole council, read t!i» 
in strum en t ; — 

'All we assembled in this holy council, with the lord pope, 
do condemn, with canonical censures by our ecclesiastical 
authority and the sentence of the Holy Ghost, that act of 
privilege which is no privilege, but ought rather to be 
called a breach of privilege, 1 that act, namely, which wa» 
extorted by the violence of king Henry from our lord pop 
Paschal for the liberation of the prisoners and of the ehurcli; 
and we adjudge it to lie null and void, and altogether quasi 
it, and utterly repudiate it as possessing uo authority or force; 
and it is condemned for this that it contains a provision that 

e canonically elected by tlie clergy and people may not 1* 
consecrated unless he shall have first received investiture from 
the king; which is in opposition to the Holy Spirit and th 
canonical institutions," 

When the reading of this instrument was finished, it ww 
approved by the whole council with the acclamation, "Amen. 
Amen! Fiat, fiat!" [Be it so]. The archbishops who were 
present with their suffragans were these : — John, patriarch «f 
Venice, Semies of Capua, Latidulph of Benevento ; and tho* 
of Amalli, Reggio. Otranlo, Brindisi, Capua, and Gyrontiua; 
of the Greeks, there were and the archbishop of S*fl 
Severmo ; the bishops present were, Censius of Savona, Peter 
of Porto, Leo of Ostia, Cono of Pr;eneste, Gerard of 
Angoulenie, Walo of Lyons, legate for the arehbishops of 
Bourges and Vienne, Jtoger of Volterra, Geofi'rey of SienlU, 
Roland of Populonia [Pisa], Gregory of Terracina, Williaa 
of Troga [in Naples], Gibin of Syracuse, legate for the whol* 
of Sicily; and nearly one hundred other bishops. Bishop* 
Riguin and John of Tusculum [1'rascati], although they were 
at Rome at the time, were not present at the council ; but 
" Privilejjium aiod quod noa est privilegium, sed »ere debet ifei 

AJ>. 1112 — 14.] WORCESTER BURNT. 225 

having afterwards read the condemnation of the act of privi- 
lege, they accepted and approved it. 

Samson, the twenty-fifth bishop of Worcester, died on 
Sunday, the third of the nones [the 9th] of May. Henry, 
king of England, placed Robert de Belesme in confinement, at 
Carisbrook, in the month of October. 

[a.d. 1113.] The city of Worcester, with the cathedral 
church, and all the other churches, and the castle, was de- 
stroyed by fire on Thursday, the thirteenth of the calends of 
July [19th June]. One of the monks, who had rendered 
great services to the monastery, with two of his servants, and 
fifteen citizens, perished in the flames. Henry, king of Eng- 
land, returned to England in the month of July, and com- 
mitted Robert de Belesme, who had been brought over from 
Normandy, to the closest confinement at Wareham. Two 
high-born monks of the monastery of St. Mary, in Worcester, 
men of exalted worth, Thomas, the lord prior, and Coleman, 
both departed this life on Saturday, the fourth of the nones 
[the 4th] of October. 

Together summoned from this mortal state 
To realms above, they met a common fate : 
There, with the saints, in never ending joy, 
God give them rest, and peace without alloy ! 

Theowulf, the king's chaplain, was appointed bishop of 
Worcester on Sunday, the fifth of the calends of January 
[28th December], at Windsor. 

[a.d. 1114.] Matilda, daughter of Henry, king of Eng- 
land, was married to Henry, emperor of the Romans, and 
crowned as empress at Mentz, on the eighth of the ides [the 
6th] of January. Thomas, archbishop of York, died on 
Tuesday, the sixth of the calends of March [24th February], 
Ralph, bishop of Rochester, was chosen archbishop of Canter- 
bury at Windsor, on Sunday, the sixth of the calends of May 
[26th April]. The city of Chichester, with the principal 
monastery, was burnt, through negligence, on the 3rd of the 
nones [the 5th] of May. Thurstan, a chaplain of the king's, 
was preferred at Winchester to the archbishopric of York, on 
the feast of the Assumption of St. Mary [15th August]. 
Arnulph, abbot of Peterborough, was elected bishop of Ro- 
chester. Henry, king of England, after undertake an 

226 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.D. 1] 14, 1115. 

expedition into Wales, crossed the sea before the feast of St. 
Michael. The river Modwav became so shallow, for manr 
miles, on the sixth of the ides [the 10th] of October, that 
the smallest vessels got aground in it for want of water. Tlie 
Thames was subject to the same failure on that day, for 
between the bridge and the Royal Tower, even under Che 
bridge, the water in the river was so low, that not only 
horses, but even crowds of men ami hoys forded it, the water 
scarcely reaching to their knees. The water was thus shallow 
from the middle of the preceding night until it was quite 
dark on the night following. We have heard from trust- 
worthy reports that the waters receded in like manner on the 
same day at Yarmouth, and other places in England. 1 

[a.d. 1115.] This year, the weather was so severe that 
nearly all the; Itrid ;.'■.'* in England were carried away bribe 
ice. Henry, the emperor, having besieged Cologne for » 
long time, and lost many of his troops in a pitched battle, 
made a sworn peace in the city of Xuys. 2 Ralph, arclihislnip 
of Canterbury, received the pallium at the hands of Ansetm, 1 
legate of the church of Rome, on Sunday, the fifth of the 
calends of July [27th June] at Canterbury, where nearly all 
the bishops of England were assembled. On the same <Uy 
Theowulf, bishop of Worcester, was consecrated with great 
ceremony. Wilfrid, bishop of St. David's, in Wales, died; 
up to his time, the bishops had all been Welshmen. 

On the octave of the apostles SS. Peter and Paul, [6tb 
July], a great council was held at ChfUons by Conon, cardinal 
of the Roman church, at which he excommunicated tli* 
bishops who were not present at the council ; he degraded 
some abbots, and deprived many of their staffs, and deposed 
them from their dignities, interdicting them from ecclesiastieid 

Henry, king of England, returned to England in tbtt 
middle of the month of July. Bernard, the queen's cliW- 
cellor, was chosen bishop of St. David's, in Wales, on Satur- 

1 Ordericus describes the same phenomenon as happening during 
Lent of the year lllfl in the river Seine, and ascribes it to the ulka 
of a strong wind ; but it would rather seem on both occasion! to *"' p 
been the effect of some subterranean convulsion. See the note » 
vol. in., p. 475, of Ordericus, Bohn'i Antiq. Lib. 

' Near Cologne. 

3 He was the nephew of archbishop Anselm. 

A.D. 1115, 1116.] HOMAGE TO PRINCE WILLIAM. 227 

day, the fourteenth of the calends of October [18th Septem- 
ber], and the same day was advanced to the priesthood, at 
Southwark, by William, bishop of Winchester ; and on the 
day following,, at Westminster, was consecrated bishop by 
Ralph the archbishop. Reignelm, bishop of Hereford, died 
on the sixth of the calends of November [27th October], and 
Geoffrey, the king's chaplain, was chosen in his stead. 
Arnulph was ordained to the see of Rochester, and Geoffrey 
to the see of Hereford, on the feast of St. Stephen [26th 
December], at Canterbury, by Ralph, the archbishop. 

[a.d. 1116.] Griffyth,. son of Rhys, 1 made a plundering 
expedition, and burnt some castles in Wales, because king 
Henry would not give him a portion of his father's territories. 
The witan of all the nobles and barons of England was held 
at Salisbury, on the fourteenth of the calends of April [19th 
March], and they did homage and swore fealty in the pre- 
sence of king Henry to his- son William. 

[Quarrel between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York.'] 

The controversy which had been carried on for a whole 
year between Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, and Thurstan, 
archbishop-elect of York, was brought before the court. The 
archbishop-elect, when required by the primate to make due 
submission to the church of Canterbury, and receive his bene- 
diction according to the canons, replied that he was ready 
to receive consecration, but nothing should induce him to 
make the profession which was demanded. King Henry, 
finding that Thurstan persisted in his resolution, openly de- 
clared that he should either follow the usages of his prede- 
cessors, both in making the profession and in other things 
pertaining by ancient right to the church of Canterbury, or 
lose the archbishopric of York and consecration altogether. 
On hearing this, he was so moved by the hasty impulses of 
his temper, that he gave up the archbishopric, promising the 
king and the archbishop that he would never claim it as long 
as he lived, and that he would assert no pretensions to it, 

1 Son of Rhys-ap-Tewdwr, the last king of South Wales, and brother 
of Nesta, a concubine of Henry I., by whom he had Robert, earl of 
Gloucester. See Warrington's Hist, of Wales, p. 280. 


228 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1116,1117. 

whoever might lie appointed in his stead. Owen, kins; of 
Wales, was slain,' and Henry, king of England, crossed tlw 
sea, Tnurstan, archbishop-elect of York, accompanying him, 
in tlie hope of recovering the investiture of his archbishopric, 
aud obtaining consecration from the primate by the kitic'» 
command, withont being compelled to make the required 
profession. About the month of August, Anselm, retumiie 
from Rome with the pallium for the archbishop of Cnnterburt. 
joined king Henry in Normandy. He was also the bearer «f 
letters from the pope, appointing him his legate for ecclesi»s- 
tio:il MlUirs in England : which he announced in a brief to tin' 
English nation. In consequence, at the suggestion of the 
queen and her council of nobles in England, Ralph, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, crossed the sea after the feast of tk 
Nativity of St. Mary, to meet the king, whom he found 
resitting at Rouen ; and having minutely consulted with him 
on the business on which he was come, by his advice he 
pursued his journey to Rome. 

[a.d. 1117.] By king Henry's command a new building 
was commenced [at the abbey of ] Cirencester. There wu» 
great earthquake in Lombard)', which (according to the 
accounts of well-informed persons) lasted forty days, uni 
laid in ruins a vast number of houses ; and, what is remark- 
able, a large villa was suddenly removed from its original 
site, and may now be seen by all the world standing en » 
very distant spot. At Milan, while some men of patriow 
rank were holding a sitting in a tower on state affairs, a voii* 
from without was heard suddenly by all assembled, eaffinst 
one of them by name to come forth instantly. Cpon lii> 
lingering, a phantom appeared before them, and by earnest 
intreaties induced the person named to quit the building. 
As soon as lie was gone out, the tower suddenly felL Mi'l 
buried all who were in it under its ruins. Robert, bishop of 
Stafford,' and Gilbert, abbot of Westminster, died on lb* 
eighth of the ides [the 6th] of December. 

1 Owen-ap-CadVgan, a prJiH'.o of Po»is, n-lio hod eaponted "» 
cause of kins; Hi-iirv ai;-:iiu*t liriffyth-np-Ithya. Warrington's Hialnrj 
of Wales, pp 281—289. * Coventry. 





[a.d. 1118.] Pope Paschal, of blessed memory, died on 
the fourteenth of the calends of February [19th January], 
and one John, a native of Gaieta, succeeded him, and changed 
his name to Gelasius. He was bred a monk from his youth 
in the monastery of Monto Cassino, and in his riper years had 
filled the office of chancellor, in the service of the venerable 
and apostolic men, popes Desiderius, Urban, and Paschal, 
with great assiduity. Meanwhile, the king of Germany, who 
was also emperor of the Romans, hearing of the pope's 
decease, hurried to Borne, and made the bishop of Braga 1 
pope, although he had been excommunicated the preceding 
year at Benevento, by Pope Paschal ; his name was changed 
from Maurice to Gregory. 

Matilda, queen of England, died at Westminster on the 
calends [the 1st] of May, and was interred with due cere- 
mony in that monastery. Many of the Normans broke the 
fealty they had sworn to king Henry, and regardless of the 
rights of their natural lord, transferred their homage to 
Lewis, king of France, and his great lords, although they 
were enemies. The before-mentioned pope, Gelasius, came 
by sea to Burgundy, and his arrival was immediately notified 
to all parts of France. 

[Death of the Author of the Chronicle.'] 

Dom Florence of Worcester, a monk of that monas- 
tery, died on the nones [the 7th] of July. His acute 

3 Braga, in Portugal. 


230 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1118, 1119. 

observation, and laborious anil diligent .studios, have rendered 
this Chronicle of Chronicles pre-eminent above all others. 

His spirit to the skies, to eaMli Tii-5 tiudy given. 

Fur ever may tie reign with God's blest saints in heavfin! 

[Death by a Thunderstorm in Herefordshire.} 
After the dedication of the church of Momerfield, by 
Geoffrey, bishop of Hereford, all who had attended the con- 
secration turned their steps homeward ; but although the 
atmosphere had been remarkably calm up to that time, n 
violent storm of thunder and lightning suddenly arose, tnd 
some of them, overtaken by it on the road, and uot being 
able to retreat from the spot they had reached, halted theru, 
They were five in number, three men and two women; 
one of the latter was killed by a .stroke of lightning, and Ik 
other, being scorched by the flash from the navel to the joIw 
of the feet, perished miserably, the men only narrowly ■■-- 
caping with their lives. Their five horses were also struct 
with the lightning, and killed. 

[a.D. 1119.] Pope Gelasius died, and was buried at 
Cluni; he was succeeded by Guy, bishop of Vienne, wlw 
changed his name to Calixtus. Geoffrey, bishop of Hereford, 
died on the third of the nones [the 3rd] of February, ind 
Herbert on the eleventh of the calends of August [22nd July]. 
[Wiw* between Henry and Lewis.'] 
War having broke out between Henry, king of Englinil, 
and Lewis, king of France,' with the count of Aiijou and tlw 
count of Flanders, king Henry seized an opportunity of inaking 
a separate peace with the count of Anjou, receiving kis 
daughter in marriage with his son William, whom he had 
already declared heir of all his kingdom. The count of Anjou 
went to Jerusalem. After this, king Henry, with the concur- 
rence of his nobles, made peace with the king of France, on 
which occasion his son William was invested with Normandy, V> 
be held of the king of France. The king also made peace iriili 

' Our author treats very summarily of the wars between the king) 
Henry and Lewis, whl.rli ended in the decisive battle of Brfmull W 
Noyon, fought on the 20th August, IT IS). Ordericus gives considers!)!'' 
details ol' these hostilities in the early chapters of his twelfth bunt 
(vol. iii , mi. 446-492, of the edition in tin.- Antiq. Lib.). Sm*1m 
Heary of Huntingdon's History, itid, pp. 247, 248. 

A.D. 1119, 1120.] PEACE RESTORED. 231 

his nobles who had unjustly and treasonably revolted against 
him, and also with the count of Flanders. An earthquake 
was felt in several parts of England on Sunday, the fourth 
of the calends of October [28th September], about the third 
hour of the day. 

[A Council held at Rheims.] 

Pope Calixtus held a general council at Rheims, on Sunday, 
the thirteenth of the calends of November [20th October], at 
which there was a great concourse of archbishops, bishops, 
abbots, and lords of various provinces, and immense multitudes 
of the clergy and people. The English bishops who were at 
that time at the court of Henry in Normandy, namely, Wil- 
liam of Exeter, Ralph of Durham, Bernard of St. David's, 
and Urban of Glamorgan [Landaff], and also the bishops and 
abbots of Normandy, were sent by the king himself to the 
council. Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, was prevented 
from being present by sickness. Thurstan, archbishop-elect of 
York, having requested the king's license for attending it, 
obtained it with some difficulty, upon pledging his word that 
he would on no account accept consecration from the pope. 
Bound by this pledge, he pursued his journey, and presented 
himself to the pope ; but forthwith, regardless of his engage- 
ment, he gained over the Romans by bribes to espouse his 
cause, and through them prevailed on the pope to consecrate 
him bishop with his own hands. He was thus ordained to the 
see of York, and by the pope's command many of the bishops 
from France assisted at the ceremony. The English bishops 
had not yet come to the council ; but when they learnt what 
had been done, they informed the king, who being very 
indignant, forbade Thurstan and his followers from returning 
to England or Normandy, or any place in his dominions. 

[a.d. 1120.] Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, returned 
to England on Sunday the second of the nones [the 4th] of 
January ; and on Sunday the second of the nones [the 4th] of 
April, at Westminster, he consecrated to the bishopric of Bangor 
a venerable clerk named David, who was chosen by king Grif- 
fyth and the clergy and people of Wales. At this consecration 
he was assisted by Richard, bishop of London, Robert, bishop 
of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, and Urban of Glamorgan. 

232 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1120, 1 121, 

[Shipwreck of king Henri/' * children.'] 

Henry, king of England, having successfully accomplish^] 
all hiB designs, returned from Normandy to England. His 
son William, hastening to follow hirn, embarked in company 
with a great number of nobles, knights, women, and bow. 
Haying left the harbour and put out to sea, encouraged U 
the extraordinary calmness of the weather, shortly after- 
wards the ship in which they were sailing struck on a ruck 
and was wrecked, and all on board were swallowed up by the 
waves, except one churl, who, as it is reported, was nut 
worthy of being named, but by the wonderfid mercy of God, 
escaped alive. Of those who perished, those of highest rank 
were, William, the king's son, Richard, earl of Chester, OlbH 
Ins brothei',Williauiliifri.d,CiL'Oll'roy Kiddid, Walter il'Kvertus, 
Geoffrey, archdeacon of Hereford, the king's daughter, [lit 
countess of Perche, the king's niece, the countess of Chester, 
and many more who are omitted for brevity's sake. This 
disaster horrified and distressed the mintl of the king, who 
reached England after a sale voyage, and of all who heard of 
it, and struck them with awe at the mysterious decrees of < 
just God. 1 

[Henry I. -marries Alice of Louvaine.] 

[a.D. 1121.] Henry, king of England, having been 1 
widower for some time, that he might not in future lead • 
dissolute life, by the advice of' Ralph, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and the barons of his realm, who assembled at London 
by fiis command on the feast of our Lord's Epiphany, resolved 
to marry Alice, daughter of Godfrey, duke of Lorraine,* i 
young maiden of great beauty und modesty. Envoys beii| 

' Ordericus Vitalis, in his twelfth hook, c. xxv„ gives a puticito 
account of the shipwreck of the Blanche Net'; which is also nwn- 
lioned, with more or less detail, by Huntingdon, Malmeabury, »wl 
oilier chroniclers. 

s Dvcit Lotharinyw (or Lorraine), the reading in the text of iH 
the printed edit ions of Florence, [tit a mistake into which sei«r»l 
df [.hi: En^lMi eh reni tiers have fallen, but Henry of Huntingdon W^ 
Roger of Wendover, as well as Ordericus Vitalis and William of 
.Tumi !'(,'(•>, describe Adelaide, or Alice, the second wife of Heiirjl," 
daughter of Godfrey, duke of Louvaine. 


sent over, they brought the future queen with signal honours 
from parts beyond the sea to Henry's court. 

Meanwhile, two clerks were chosen to fill sees which had 
been vacant for some time ; namely, Richard, who was keeper 
of the king's seal under the chancellor, and Robert, who had 
filled the office of steward of the meat and drink in the king's 
household with great industry. The first of these was pre- 
ferred to the see of Hereford, the latter to the see of Chester. 
Herbert, also, a monk of Westminster, was made abbot of that 
monastery. Richard, chosen bishop of Hereford on Friday 
the seventh of the ides [the 7th] of January, was consecrated 
at Lambeth on Sunday the seventeenth of the calends of 
February [17th January] by Ralph, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, with the assistance of Richard, bishop of London, and 
the bishops, Robert of Lincoln, Arnulph of Rochester, Urban 
of Glamorgan, and Bernard of St. David's. 

On the fourth of the calends of February [30th January] 
the maiden already mentioned as selected for queen was 
married to the king by William, bishop of Winchester, at the 
command of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury ; and on the 
following day, the third of the calends of February [30th 
January], she was consecrated and crowned as queen by the 
archbishop in person. After this, the archbishop, having 
accompanied the king to Abingdon, consecrated on Sunday 
the third of the ides [the 13th] of March, Robert, before 
named, as bishop of Chester, there being present and assisting 
at this sacrament William, bishop of Winchester, William, 
bishop of Exeter, and the Welsh bishops, Urban and Bernard. 
After a few days, one named Everard, attached to the king's 
chapel, was elected bishop of Norwich, and consecrated at 
Canterbury by archbishop Ralph on the second of the ides 
[the 12th] of June ; Arnulph, bishop of Rochester, Richard, 
bishop of Hereford, and Robert, bishop of Coventry, having 
met for the purpose. 

Pope CaHxtus, assembling forces from all quarters, cap- 
tured Maurice, surnamed Bourdin, already mentioned, who 
had been intruded by the emperor and his adherents into the 
papal see by the name of Gregory, and thrust him in disgrace, 
stripped of all he possessed, into a monastery ; he having been 
a monk before. King Henry led an army against the Welsh, 
and, taking hostages from them, reduced the whole of Wales 

234 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [i.D. 1121 — 3. 

under his dominion. A certain clerk, whose name was 
Gregory, an Irishman by birth, having been chosen by tlie 
king of Ireland, with the clcr^-v anil people, to fill the see of the 
city of Dublin, came over to England that he might be 
ordained, according to former custom, by the archbishop of 
Canterbury, the primate of England ; whereupon, by the 
archbishop's cis in i hi and, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, conferred 
on hiin the orders ot' priest ami deacon at Ira castle of 
Devizes on Saturday the eleventh of the calends of October 
[21st September]. He was ordained bishop on Sunday r!.' 1 
sixth of the nones [the 2nd] of October at Lambeth by Kidph, 
archbishop of Canterbury ; the following bishops, Richard of 
London, Roger of Salisbury, Rohort of Lincoln, Everanl "I 
Norwich, and David of Umigor assisting at the c onset' rai ion. 
The mother church at Tewkesbury "as consecrated iviih 
great ceremony by Theowulf, bishop of Worcester, Richard 
bishop of Hereford, Urban, bishop of (ilaiuorgan, and ths 
be fori .'-named ("Jrogory, bishop of Durham, on Monday [In 1 
ninth of the calends of November [24th October]. 

[a,d. 1122]. The city of Gloucester, with the principal 
monastery, was again destroyed by fire on Wednesday [lu- 
fourth of the ides [the 4th] of March, in the twenty-se<"i>l 
year of king Henry's reign. It was burnt before in the first 
year of Ills reign, on Thursday the eleventh of the caleudaof 
June [22nd May]. Ralph, the twenty-fifth archbishop of 
Canterbury, departed this life at Canterbury on Thursday ik 
fourteenth of the calends of November [l'Jtlt October] . J ljIiil. 
bishop of Bath, died on the fourth of the calends of January 
[2Uth December] : during bis lifetime he had bought the 
whole city of Bath from king Henry for five hundred pound*. 

[a.d. 1123.] Robert, the eighteenth bishop of Lincoln, 
while- riding on horseback and conversing with king Henry a' 
Woodstock in the month of January, fell to the ground, and 
losing the use of his speech, was carried to his lodgings, mid 
shortly afterwards expired. 1 Ralph, also, the king's chan- 
cellor, came to a wretched end. 3 William, a canon w 

1 For the circumstances attending the deatb of Robert B1oet,tUN 
of Lincoln, see ihe Saxon ChruiiR-li' ; also, Henry of Huntingd'Si'i 
History, p.->7A), and liis '• Letter to Walter,'' jj. \Wi. Btthk't A»tiq. !#• 

* The tragic end of this unscrupulous lawyer is related by HuB" 5 "- 
don. Ibid, p. 250. 


St. Osythe, at Chiche, 1 was named to the archbishopric of 
Canterbury at Gloucester, where the king held his court at 
the feast of the Purification of St. Mary ; and he was conse- 
crated at Canterbury by William, bishop of Winchester, 
assisted by many other bishops, on the fourteenth of the 
calends of March [16th February]. With his approval, the 
bishopric of Lincoln was given to Alexander, archdeacon of 
Salisbury. Afterwards, archbishop William, m company 
with Thurstan, archbishop of York, Bernard, bishop of 
St. David's, 8 Sigefred, abbot of Glastonbury, and Anselm, 
abbot of St. Edmund's, went to Borne to receive the pallium. 
Alexander, king of Scots, died on the seventh of the calends 
of May [25th April], Henry, king of England, went over 
sea after the feast of Whitsuntide [3rd June}. William, 
archbishop of Canterbury, having received the pallium from 
pope Calixtus, and Thurstan, archbishop of York, with their 
companions, on their return from Rome, paid a visit to the 
king, who was still in Normandy : after a short stay, arch- 
bishop William came back to England, and, on the eleventh 
of the calends of August [22nd July], at Canterbury, conse- 
crated Alexander as bishop of Lincoln ; and, on the seventh 
of the calends of September [26th August], in the church of 
St. Paul the Apostle, at London, consecrated Godfrey, the 
queen's chancellor, to the bishopric of Bath. Theowulf, the 
twenty-sixth bishop of Worcester, died on Saturday the 
thirteenth of the calends of November [20th October] at his 
vill of Hampton. 3 Robert, abbot of Tewkesbury, departed 
this life on the sixth of the ides [the 8th] of December. 
Alexander, king of Scots, was succeeded by David his 

[a.d. 1124.] Arnulph, the twenty-third bishop of Ro- 
chester, died in the month of March. Waleran, earl de 
Mellent, was taken prisoner in Passion-week, with many 

1 St. Osythe, in Essex, a priory rebuilt in 1118 for canons of the 
Augustine order, of which there are considerable remains. 

2 Henry of Huntingdon includes Alexander, the new bishop of Lin- 
coln, among the archbishop's companions to Rome, and it is probable 
that the historian attended his patron. See his character of bishop 
Alexander, p. 253, of his history in the Antiq. Lib. 

3 Hampton-upon-Avon, or Bishop's Hampton, now called Hampton 
Lucy, near Stratford; an ancient possession of the bishops of 


236 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 112.1. 

others, by king Henry's troops in Normandy, and committed 
itody in the T owit of liouen. Geoffrey, abbot of 
the New Minster at Winchester, died. The reverend prior 
of the church of Worcester, Nicholas hy name, died 00 
Wednesday the eighth of the calends of July [24th June]. 

God, of his merey, grant him bliss in hearen! 

William, archbishop of Canterbury, crossed the sea by the 
king's command. Pope Calixtus died, and was succeeded by 
Honorius, bishop of Ostia. 

[4.D. 1125.] Coiners in England, taken with counterfeit 
money, suffered the penalty of the king's cruel law by having 
their right iiands struck off and their lower limbs mutilated. 
Afterwards, by a change in the coinage, all articles became 
very dear, and, in consequence, a great scarcity ensued, and 
numbers died of famine. 1 

Simon, the ipieeii's chancellor, and Sigefred, abbot of 
Glastonbury, both men of distinguished worth and piety, were 
chosen bishops while they were in Normandy ; Simon bciujf 
appointed to the see of Worcester, and Sigefred to the see "' 
Chichester. Hugh, a man of great prudence, archdeacon 
successively to Samson and Theowulf, bishops o\ 
died on the twelfth of the calends of April [21st March]. 
After Easter [29th March], the bishops-elect, Simun and 
Sigefred, with the archbishops William and Thurshni. ;iml » 
cardinal of Borne named John, came to England, and Sigefred 
was consecrated its bishop of Chichester at Lambeth by arch- 
bishop William on the second of the ides [the 12th] of April : 
there being present at this consecration the Boruan carding 
Thurstan, archbishop of York, Everard, bishop of Norwich, 
llicliard of Hereford, Bernard of St. David's, David of Bangor, 
Urban of Glamorgan, and John, bishop-elect of linclicswr. 
Simon, the bishop-elect of Worcester, was conducted inW 
Worcester by the clergy anil people in joyful pi- 
the eighth of the ides [the 8th] of May, 1 being the day of out 
Lord's Aicension; and, on the tenth of tiie calends of Jun* 
[23rd May], lie was ordained priest at Canterbury by Willi*!" 
the archbishop. The emperor Henry died, and was btflW 

1 Henry of Huntingdon tells us that a horse-load uf com (wbeit <* 
"*) was Bold for six shillings. 
ft fell [tut year on the 7th May. 


at Spires, where his grandfather was also interred. Lothaire, 
the ninety-eighth emperor of the Romans, reigned thirteen 

Simon, the bishop-elect of Worcester, went to Canterbury 
in company with Godfrey, bishop of Bath, and, having been 
ordained priest by the archbishop on Saturday in Whitsun- 
week [23rd May], 1 was on the following day consecrated with 
great pomp bishop of the holy mother church of Worcester ; 
John, archdeacon of Canterbury, receiving consecration as 
bishop of Rochester at the same time. Richard, bishop of 
Hereford, David of Bangor, Godfrey of Bath, and Sigefred 
of Chichester assisted at the consecration. When Simon 
arrived at Worcester, his episcopal see, he was again met by 
great crowds of people, conducted by whom in procession 
with great pomp he was enthroned, and a " Te Deum" chanted. 
On the same day, that is to say on the ninth of the calends 
of June [24th May], Benedict, a loving and faithful servant 
of God in all his household, was, by Simon, the new bishop, 
consecrated as the new abbot of the convent of Worcester : 
he was, the year before, from having been prior, elected 
abbot of Tewkesbury, where he had been brought up under 
the monastic rule from boyhood, and in course of time was 
admitted in peace and love to be one of the monks of 
Worcester by licence from Wulfstan, the lord bishop, at whose 
hands he had received all the ecclesiastical orders. There 
were present at the consecration of this abbot the bishops who 
had received bishop Simon in procession, namely, Richard 
of Hereford, Godfrey of Bath, and David of Bangor, together 
with Benedict's fellow abbots of the diocese of Worcester, 
Guy of Pershore, William of Gloucester, and Godfrey of 
Winchcombe; the lord Walchere, the prior of Malvern, repre- 
sented his abbot, who lay sick, and Dominic, prior of Evesham, 
was also present : these were men to whom the words of the 
Psalmist may be applied, " He sendeth the springs into the 
rivers which run among the hills, ,,, and such was the company 
which met the bishop in procession. 8 

1 A repetition of a former entry. 2 Psalm civ.10 . 

8 In the text of all the editions, the quotation from the Vulgate, 
which is so beautifully applied to the fertilising influences of religious 
institutions in a district celebrated for its waters and hills, is carried 
on by the use of inverted commas to the end of the paragraph. It is 
needless to say, that the latter clause is not found in the Vulgate. ' 

HCB OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1125. 

[A. synod held at London.'] 

A synod was held at London, in the church of the blessed 
prince of the apostles at West rninster, on the ninth of Sep- 
tember, that is, on the fifth of the ides of that mouth, in 
which, iiftcr the discussion of Various matters, the following 
canons, seventeen in number, were published with unanimous 
consent. John, of Crema, 1 a cardinal priest of the holy and 
apostolic church, with the litl<? of St.. Chrysoiromis, ami legale 
in tins;] and of the lord pope Honoring presided at this syniMJ; 
and it was attended by William, archbishop of Canterbnry, 
and Thurstan, archbishop of York, and the bishops of differ- : 
ent dioceses, to the number of twenty ; with about forty 
abhots, and a great concourse of the clergy and people. These 
are the canons: — 

The first canon. Following in the step9 of the Imlv 
fathers, we forbid, by apostolic authority, any ecclesiastical 
ordination being conferred for money. 

II. We also prohibit the exaction of any fee for chrism, far 
oil, for baptism, for penance, for the visitation or unciicii "f 
the sick, for the communion of the body of Christ, or for 

III. Moreover, we ordain and decree, by apostolio roth* 1 
rty, that at the consecration of bishops, or the benediction w 
abbots, or the dedication of churches, no cope, or tippet, ot 
maniple, or ewer, or any other thing shall be exacted by vio- 
lence, but they are to be voluntary offerings. 

IV. No abbot or prior, monk or clerk, shall aeeept »)' 
ehurch, tythe, or ecclesiastical benefice, by the gift of a l»j- 
inan, without the authority and consent of Ids own bishop. 
If he shall so presume, the gift shad be void, and he shall M 
subject to canonical censure. 

V. Moreover, we decree that no person shall claim the 
patronage of a church or prebend by right of inheritance, or 
bequeath to a successor any ecclesiastical bench n ■ : 

he shall presume to do, we declare that it shall have no effort, 
saying, with the Psalmist, " O my God, make them like unto 

1 See Henry of Huntingdon, p. 252, Antiq. Lib., for a scanJitmB 
anil well-known story of this cardinal. r "— 
town in the Bolognese. 


i wheel ; " while they said, " Let us take to ourselves the 
louses of God in possession." 1 

VI. Furthermore, we decree that clerks holding churches 
Dr ecclesiastical benefices, who avoid being ordained in order 
bo live with greater freedom, and continue to treat holy orders 
with contempt, after being invited thereto by the bishop, 
shall be deprived of their churches and benefices. 

VII. No one but a priest shall be promoted to the office of 
dean or prior ; no one but a deacon to an archdeaconry. 

VIII. No person shall be ordained priest without a regular 
title. Whoever is ordained independently shall forfeit the 
degree he has obtained. 

IX. No abbot, or clerk, or layman shall presume to eject 
any person ecclesiastically ordained to a church, without the 
sentence of his own bishop. Whoever presumes to do other- 
wise shall be subject to excommunication. 

X. No bishop shall presume to ordain or judge a person 
belonging to another diocese, for every one stands or falls to 
his own master ; nor shall any one be bound by a sentence 
which is not pronounced by his own judge. 

XI. No one shall presume to receive into communion one 
who has been excommunicated by another. If he shall have 
done this knowingly he himself shall be deprived of Christian 

XII. We also ordain that two archdeaconries or dignities 
of another class shall not be held by one person. 

XIII. We prohibit, by apostolic authority, priests, deacons, 
sub-deacons, and canons from living with wives, concubines, 
and women generally, except a mother, a sister, an aunt, or 
other females free from all suspicion. Whoever violates 
this canon shall, on confession or conviction, suffer the loss of 
his order. 

XIV. We utterly prohibit usury and filthy lucre to clerks 
of every degree. Whoever shall have pleaded guilty to such 
a charge, or been convicted of it, is to be degraded from the 
rank he holds. 

XV. We decree that sorcerers, fortune-tellers, and those 
who deal in divination of any kind, shall be excommunicated, 
and we brand them with perpetual infamy. 

XVI. We prohibit marriages being contracted between 

1 Ps.lxxxiii. 12, 13. 

* Ic will bc'umlrwtood that this wu not the ceremony of 
tion; the kings of England wore their crowns, when ihey kept 
■t the three great church festivals.. 


persona connected by blood or affinity, as far as the 

generation. If any persons thus connected have married, lei 
them be separated. 

XVII. We forbid men's being allowed to allege constii- 
guinity against their own wives, and the witnesses they bring 
forward are not to be admitted ; but Jet the authority of lie 
fathers be maintained. 

"Are you content?" "Be it s 
"Be it ao." — "Are yon content?" 

The same cardinal, after quitting England, went to Nor- 
mandy, and at length returned to Rome. William, the 
archbishop, also considering that the church of England lad 
received grievous offence in the humiliation of the see of 
Canterbury, crossed the channel himself on his way to Rome,to 
procure the best support he could in the disordered state of 
affairs, and prevent their growing worse. He therefore 
proceeded to Rome, and was received with honour by po|w 
Honorins, who had succeeded Caliitus, atid who made tlie 
archbishop his vicar-general in England and Scotland, lod 
appointed him legate of the apostolic see. 

[a.d. 1126.] King Henry returned to England at Christ- 
mas, and held his court at Windsor ( 'astle with great mag- 
nificence, having summoned all the nobles of the realm w 
attend him there. On this occasion, when the bishop of 
York, claiming equality with the archbishop of Canterbury, 
offered to place the crown on the king's head, 1 as his pre- 
decessors had done, his claim was rejected by the decision of 
all who were present, and it was Unanimously agreed that 
nothing pertaining to the royal crown belonged to him. 
Moreover, the bearer of the cross which he caused to b« 
borne before him into the king's chapel, was thrust out of th* 
chapel, with the cross he carried; for, by the judgment of 
the bishops anil some learned men skilled in ecclesiastical l»*i 
it was established and settled that it was not lawful for J 
metropolitan to have hia cross carried before him out of lu> 
own province. 

The question seems to have heen put thrice, in the form <til' 

JU©. 1126, 1127.] REIGN OP HENRY II. 241 

[Fealty sworn to the empress Matilda,] 

As soon as the feast days [of Christmas] were over, the 
king went to London, attended by all the men of rank in the 
realm who had flocked to his court, and there, by the king's 
command, William, the archbishop and legate of the see of Rome, 
and all the other bishops of England, and the nobles of the land, 
swore fealty to the king's daughter ; engaging to defend her 
right to the crown of England, if she should survive her 
father, against all opposers, unless he should yet before his 
death beget a son in lawful wedlock, to become his successor. 
On the death of the emperor Henry, who had lived in mar- 
riage with her many years, without leaving children, she had 
returned to her father's court, where she was surrounded with 
all the honours becoming her station. The king, therefore, 
having lost his son William in the manner already described, 
and there being as yet no other direct heir to the kingdom, 
for that reason made over the right to the crown to his 
daughter, under the provisoe just mentioned. 

[The custody of Rochester castle granted to the archbishops of 


The king, also, by the advice of his barons, granted to the 
church of Canterbury, and to William the archbishop, and to 
all his successors, the custody and constableship of the castle 
of Rochester, to hold for ever ; with liberty to make in the 
same castle a fort or tower, as they pleased, and have and 
guard it for ever; and that the garrison stationed in the 
castle should have free ingress and egress on their own occa- 
sions, and should be security to the archbishop for it. Robert, 
surnamed Pecceth, bishop of Coventry, departed this life, and 
lies buried at Coventry. Hugh, abbot of St. Augustine's 
[at Canterbury], died. 

[A synod held at Westminster^ 

[a.d. 1127.] William, archbishop of Canterbury, con- 
vened a general synod of all the bishops and abbots, and some 
men of religion from all parts of England, at the monas- 
tery of St. Peter, situated in the western part of London. 
At this synod he himself presided as archbishop of Canter- 
bury and legate of the apostolic see ; assisted by William, 



bishop of Winchester, Roger of Salisbury, William of Exeter, 
Hcrvey of Ely, Alexander of Lincoln, Everanl of Norwieli, 
Sigefric) of Chichester, Richard of Hereford, Geoti'rey of 
Bath, John of Rochester, Bernard of St, David's in Wales, 
Urban of Glamorgan or Llandaff, and David of Bangor. 
Richard, bishop of London, arid Robert, bishop of Chester, 1 
■were then dead, and no successors had yet been appointed to 
their sees. But Thurstan, archbishop of York, sent messen- 
gers with letters assigning reasonable cause for his non-ap- 
pearance at the convocation. Ralph, bishop of Durhim, 
fell sick on the road, and was not able to complete the journey, 
as the prior of his church and the clerks whom he sent for- 
ward solemnly attested. Simon, bishop of Worcester, hull 
gone to visit his relations beyond seas, and was not yet 
returned. Great multitudes, also, of the clergy and 
laity, both rich and poor, flocked together, and there was t 
numerous and important meeting. The council sat for three 
days, namely, the third of the ides [the 13th] of May, the 
following day. and the (bird day ai'imvards, being the seven- 
teen tli of the calends of June [10th May]. There were some 
proceedings with respect to secular affairs ; some were deter- 
mined, some adjourned, and some withdrawn from the hearing 
of the judges, on account of the disorderly conduct of tie 
immense crowd. But the decrees and statutes made in this synod 
by common consent of the bishops we have thought it desinble 
to record in this work, as they were there publicly declared 
and accepted. They are these ; — 

I. We wholly prohibit, by the authority of St. Peter, prince 
of the apostles, and our own, the buying and selling of sbv 
i-fclesiasti[.':il benelices, or any occle.-iiistieal dignities whatever, 
Whoever shall be convicted of having violated this decree, if 
he be a clerk, or even a regular canon, or a monk, let him be 
degraded from his order ; if a layman, let him be held out- 
lawed and excommunicated, and be deprived of his patronage 
of the church or benefice. 

II. We totally interdict, by the authority of the apostolic 
see, the ordination or promotion of any person in the church 
of God, for the sake of lucre. 

1 The bishopric of Lichfield won removed to Chester in 1076, but 
aj;oin restored to its former i-eat The present bishopric of *""" 

is one of the new tees foTiiuk'tJ ;it'.i- the Information. 

A.D. 1127.] DECREES OF A SYNOD. 243 

ILL. We condemn certain payments of money exacted for 
the admission of canons, monks, and nuns. 

IV. No one shall be appointed a dean but a priest, and no 
)ne but a deacon, archdeacon. If any one in minor orders be 
lamed to these dignities he shall be enjoined by the bishop to 
ake the orders required. But if he disobey the bishop's 
q on it ion to take such orders, he shall lose his appointment to 
he dignity. 

"V. We utterly interdict all illicit intercourse with women, 
s well by priests, deacons, and sub-deacons, as by all canons. 
f, however, they will retain their concubines (which God 
orbid), or their wives, they are to be deprived of their 
eclesiastical orders, their dignity, and benefice. If there be 
iny such among parish priests, we expel them from the 
ihancel, and declare them infamous. Moreover, we command, 
>y the authority of God and our own, all archdeacons and 
>fficials, whose duty it is, to use the utmost care and diligence 
n eradicating this deadly evil from the church of God. If 
:hey be found negligent in this, or (which God forbid) con- 
senting thereto, they are for the first and second offence to be 
luly corrected by the bishops, and for the third to be punished 
more severely, according to the canons. 

VI. The concubines of priests and canons shall be expelled 
from the parish, unless they shall have contracted a lawful 
marriage there. If they are found afterwards offending, they 
shall be arrested by the officers of the church, in whatever 
lordship they may be ; and we command, under pain of ex- 
communication, that they be not sheltered by any jurisdiction, 
either inferior or superior, but truly delivered up to the officer 
of the church, to be subjected to ecclesiastical discipline, or 
reduced to bondage, according to the sentence of the bishop. 

VII. We prohibit, under pain of excommunication, any arch- 
deacon from holding several archdeaconries in different dioceses; 
let him retain that only to which he was first appointed. 

VIII. Bishops are to prohibit all priests, abbots, monks, 
and priors, subject to their jurisdiction, from holding farms. 

IX. We command that tithes be honestly paid, for they are 
the sovereign right of the most high God. 

X. We forbid, by canonical authority, any person from 
giving or receiving churches or tithes, or other ecclesiastical 
benefices, without the consent and authority of the bishop. 


244 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER, [a.D. 1127, 1128. 

XI. No abbess or nun is to use garments of richer material 
than lamb's-wool or cat-skiu. 

King Henry, who remained at London during these pro- 
ceedings, being informed of the acts of the council, assented 
to them, and ratified and continued by hi* royal authority the 
decrees of the synod held at Westminster by William, tircli- 
bishop of Canterbury and legate of the holy Roman church. 
One Hugh, of the diocese of Rochester, being appointed 
abbot, was advanced, with deserved honour, to [he dignity for 
whieli he wis designated, that of abbot of St. Augustine's, hi 
William, archbishop of Canterbury, on Sunday, the second of 
the ides [the 12th] of June, at Chichester. Richard, bishop 
of Hereford, died at his vill, called Dydelehyrig, 1 on Monday 
the eighteenth of the calends of September [loth August]; 
his body was carried to Hereford, and buried in the church 
there, with the bishops his predecessors. Henry, king of 
England, went over sea. 

[a.d. 1128.] Thurstan, the archbishop, consecrated at 
York, Robert, who had been intruded by Alexander, king 
of Scots, on the petition of David, his brother and sUOOeSWe, 
iuto the see of St. Andrew's. The archbishop had called 
in Ralph, bishop of Durham, and one Ralph, formerly 
ordained bishop of the Orkney islands, to he his coadjutors in 
the ceremony. This Ralph having been ordained without the 
election or consent of the lord of the land, or of the clergy 
and people, was rejected by all of them, and acknowledged a> 
bishop by no one. Being bishop of no city, he attached him- 
self sometimes to the archbishop of York, sometimes to the 
bishop of Durham ; he was supported by them, and em- 
ployed by both as coadjutor in the performance of tlicir 
episcopal function*.* Robert, being consecrated by these 
bishops, was not permitted by the Scots, as it is reported, to 

1 Ledbury, Herefordshire. 

3 This accounts fur this Ralph's being called "bishop of Durham," 
by Henry of Huntingdon aud Roger of Wendover, who seem to W e 
lost sight of lii- cii'i^iiin] and proper designation. The ubiquitou' 
bishop for jus ;i ills! iii^iiislu'i! li-ur-r in tin: jjronp sketched lij the forum 
author before the battle of the Standard, *.i. 1138, in which we if" 
informed he was commissioned by the archbishop of York tosutipljhia 
place. Henry of Huntingdon represents hi in as standing on a hilloi't. 
mirl ii. Idressini; ih<> m-iuy iVfure the l.ji lie in a florid discourse, wWu* 
the historian has preserved. See pp. 207—289, in the dnlig. 

■I.D. 1128.] BISHOPS AND ABBOTS. 245 

nake any profession of submission or obedience to the church 
if York or its bishop, although he was a canon of that 

A man of worth and advanced years, who was a canon of 
le church of Lyons, was elected bishop of London ; for 
Jcbard, bishop of that city, was dead, and tins person, 
mned Gilbert, and surnamed The Universal, 1 was appointed 
[ bis stead hy king Henry and archbishop William, with the 
isent of the clergy and people. He was eon^eruted by the 
-clibialiop himself, in the mother church of Canterbury, on 
uuday, the eleventh of the calends of February [22nd 
unitary], Sigefrid, bishop of Chichester, and John, bishop 
f Rochester, assisted and took part in the ceremony, in the 
resence of the abbots, and other great and noble persons, 
isembled at Canterbury on the occasion ; his profession having 
een first made iu the same way his predecessors had done, by 
inch he promised canonical submission and obedience in all 
anga to the archbishop and his successors. 

Urban, bishop of Glamorgan or Llandaff, considering that 
a had not been justly <l>-al t with in lvjrard to certain questions 
itli Bernard, bishop of St. David's, which lie had litigated 
l the council of the preceding year, crossed the sea, after the 
;ast of the Purification of St. Mary [2nd February], and 
roceeding to Rome, laid the cause of his journey, supported 
y clear attestations from his own diocese, before the apos- 
jiical pope. The pope lent a favourable ear to his preh- 
ensions and statements, and addressed letters to king Henry 
nd archbishop William, and the other bishops of England, 
njoining them by his apostolical authority to suffer no oppo- 
ition from any one to Urban's just demands. 

The venerable Godfrey, abbot of Shrewsbury, died on 
Wednesday, the fourth of the calends of April [24th March], 
leoffrey, prior of Canterbury, was, at the request of David, , 
ing of Scots, and with the permission of William the areh- 
i shop, elected abbot of a place in Scotland called Dunfermline, 
nd ordained by Robert, bishop of St. Andrew's, Urban, 
ishop of Llandaff, returned to England, after a successful 

1 Gilbert the Universal, so called from his extensive learning. See 
is character shortly drawn in Henry of Huntingdon's caustic style. 
Letter to Walter," p. 310 of Us works in the Antiq. Lib. 

246 Florence op Worcester, [a.d. 1 129, 1130. 

journey ; and, by the king's command, the apostolical mui- 
dates respecting him were carried into effect. 

One of the monks of the church of Shrewsbury, nanwl 
Herbert, having been elected abbot, and consecrated by ardi- 
bishop William at Lowes, assumed the government of t].» 
monastery at Shrewsbury an such abbot. Hugh, abbot nf 
Chortsey, died. William, count of Flanders, surnamed Tin' 
Sad, falling into an ambush, was wounded by his ene- 
mies, and, his sufferings increasing, died, amidst universal 
lamentations, on the sixth o-i' the calends of August [27:li 
July], and was buried at St. Benin. Ralph, bishop (1 
Durham, died on the nones [the 5th] of September ; and 
Geoffrey, archbishop of Rouen, departed this life on the 
fourth of the calends uf December | 28th November], 

[a.d. 1129.] William, bishop of Winchester, died on the 
eighth of the ealends of February [25th January], and was 
buried at Winchester. In the month of July, Henry, king of 
England, returned from Normandy to England. His nephew, 
Henry, abbot of Glastonbury, elected to the see of Win ton in 
the month of October, was consecrated bishop by W ilii»» t 
archbishop of Canterbury, on Sunday, the fifteenth of the 
calends of December [17th November]. Roger, archdeacon 
of Buckingham, and nephew of Geoflrey de Clinton, having 
been elected to the see of Chester, was ordained priest on tin.' 
twelfth of the calends of January [21st December], and the 
next day was consecrated bishop at Canterbury by the ardi- 
bishop. He was afterwards enthroned, by the arohbubejft 
mandate, in the episcopal chair at Coventry, 1 by Siiimii, bi.-h'f 
of Worcester, on Monday, the sixth of the calends of February 
[27th .January]. 

[a.d. 1130.] Hugh, abbot of Reading, was elected arch- 
bishop of Rouen. Christ church, at Canterbury, v. , 
with great pomp, by William, itrchhishop of that city, on ihfl 
fourth of the nones [the 4th] of May. The following 
bishops were present at the consecration : — John, bkhop *f 
Rochester, Gilbert of London, Henry of Winchester. 
Simon of Worcester, Alexander of Lincoln, I'oger ul 
Salisbury, Godfrey of Bath, Everard of Norwich, SigviVi'l 
of Chichester, Bernard of St. David's; with Owen, bjsoOO 
of Evreux, and John, bishop of Si'ez, from beyond sea. Outhc 
1 See note before, p. 242. 

A.D. 1130-32.] BISHOPS AND ABBOT8. 247 

fourth day afterwards — that is, on the nones [the 7t!i] of 
May — the city of Rochester was destroyed by iire, while the 
ting was there ; and on the day following', living tiie feast of 
mr Lord's Ascension, the new church of St. Andrew was 
Kmsecrated by William the archbishop, some of the bofore- 
nentioned tnawpfl utiiting bin in the service. [Ansgcr], the 
ixoellent prior of Lewes, was elected at Winchester abbot of 
[leading, and afterwards ordained ; also Ingulph, prior of 
Winchester, having beea elected at Woodstock abbot of 
Abingdon, was ordained by Roger, hishop of Salisbury. 
William, abbot of Gloucester, having voluntarily resigned his 
pastoral charge by reason of age, chose, with the consent of 
the brethren, a pious monk, of the same house, named Walter, 
who was ordained nbl.ot Ivy Simon, bishop of Worcester, on 
Sunday, the nones [the 3rd] of August. Serlo, also, a canon 
of Salisbury, was ordained ablxtt by the same bishop, at 
Bloekley, an episcopal vill, and appointed to govern the abbey 
of Cirencester. Hubert, prior of the church of Llanthony, 
being elected to the see of Hereford, was couseerated at 
Oxford, by William, archbUhop of Canterbury. Henry, king 
of England, went over the sea. 

[a.d. 1131.] Reginald, the reverend abbot of Ramsey, 
died on the thirteenth of the calends of June [20th May]. 
William, the venerable abbot of Gloucester, and Hervey, 
who had been bishop of Bangor, and was afterwards the first 
bishop of Ely, died on the third of the calends of September 
[30th August], the ninth iudiction. . 

[a.d._ 1132.] A comet was seen on the eighth of the ides > 
of October [8th October], and remained visible for nearly five 
days. The greater part of the dty of London, with the 
principal church of St. Paul the apostle, was destroyed by fire, 
in Whitsun week— that is, on the second of the ides [the 
14th] of May. In the thirty-third year of the reign of Henry, 
king of England, on Wednesday, the same d^y in the course 
of the year on which his brother and predecessor, king William 
Bufus, was slain, and on which king Henry himself assumed 
the government at the commencement of his reign, it is stated 
that the following appearance occurred. While the king, 
having gone to the coast for the purpose of crossing the sea, 
delayed his departure, although the wind was often fair for 
the voyage, at last, on the day mentioned, he went down to 


shore about noon to take Iiis passage, surrounded by his 
guards, as is the custom of kings, Then suddenly a cloud 

i seen in the air, which wu visible throughout England, 
though not of the came size ; for in some places tlie day only 
appeared gloomy, while in others the darkness was such that 

i required the light of candles for whatever they had to 
The king and his attendants, and many others, walked 
about in great wonder ; and, raising their eyes to the heavens, 
observed that the sun had the appearance of shining like > 

v moon, Eut it did not long preserve the same shape; for 
sometimes it was broader, sometimes narrower, sometimes 
more curved, sometimes more upright, now steady as usual, 
and then tnoviusr, and quivering anil liquid like quicksilver, 
Some say that the sun was eclipsed.' If this be true, the saa 
s then in the head of the dragon, and the moon in its tail, 
the sun in the tail, and the moon in the head, in the fiftli 
sign, and the seventeenth degree of that sign. The moon 
s then in her twenty-seventh day. On the same day, and 
at the same hour, many stars appeared. 

Moreover, on the same day, when the ships were anchored 
on the shore, ready for I.Ik; kind's voyage, the sea being very 
calm and little wind stirring, the great anchors of one of the 
ships were suddenly wrenched from their hold in the ground, 
as though by some violent shock, and the ship getting under 
weigh, to the surprise of numbers who strove in vain to stop 
her, set in motion the ship next to her, and thus eight ships 
fell foul of each other by some unknown force, so that they 
all received damage. It was also generally reported that on 
the same day and about the same hour, many churches in the 
province of York were seen sweating, as it were, great drops. 
All these occurrences tnok place, as it is said, on Wednesday, 
the fourth of the nones [the 2nd] of August. And on 
Friday, in the same week, the second of the nones of tn» 

ie month [4th August}, at daybreak, there was a greal 
earthquake in many parts of England. There were some 
also who said that in the week following, on Monday, the 

1 Cf. William of MalmcsWy's account of this eclipse, to which, 
however, he has not assigned the e<a.ct date, though he tells to lh« 
pas an eye-witness. He-mentions, also, ail earthquake ; a shotkof 
;h, probably, caused the coovulsioD which dashed the a 1 '- L 
li„rbour against each other. 

.D. 1133-5.] DEATH OF HENRI II. 249 

iith of tlie idea of the same month [8th August], when the 
ioon was three days old, they saw her first as alio goiiendly 
ppearcd at that ago, and titer ■ abort BpOtt Of time, in the 
vening of the same day, they observed her full, like a round 
ad very bright shield. Many also reported that on the same 
ight they saw two moons, distant about a spear's length from 
ieh otiier. 
[a,d. 1133.] Notwithstanding, king Henry crossed the 
■i, leaving England for Xnru'iaudy, never to return alive and 
« England again. In the month of November the city of 
Worcester was exposed to the ravages of fire, a frequent 

[a.d. 1134.] Bohert, brother of king Ilenry, and formerly 
irl of Normandy, who was taken prisoner of war hy the 
iDg when in Normandy, at the castle of Tinohelirai, and had 
ten long confined ia England, died at Cardiff, and, being 
irried to Gloucester, was buried with great honours in the 
ivement of the church before the altar. Godfrey, bishop of 
ath, died on the seventeenth of the calends of September 
16th August]; after some interval he was succeeded by a 
ionk named Uoliort, a Fleming by descent, but born in Eng- 
nd. Thus Robert, from a monk became a bishop, such being 
le pleasure of Henry, bishop of Winchester, who is -now, but 
'as not at that time, legate of the Roman church. 1 

[a.d. 1135.] Henry, king of England, died on the fourth 
f the nones [the 20th] of December, in the sixty-ninth year 
f his age, after a reign of thirty-five years and four months ; 
ad Stephen, his sister's son, being elected to the kingdom of 
Ingland, was consecrated king, by William, archbishop of 
ianterbury, on the thirteenth of the calends of January 
20th December], at London, where he held his court, at 
iliristmas, surrounded by the nobles of England, with great 
curtesy and royal pomp. The holy festival being ended, the 
jrpse of king Henry, lately deceased, was brought from 
iormandy to England,* and the king went to meet it, 

1 From this passage, as we have remarked elsewhere, tlie continuator 
'. Florence appears to have been a. cotemporary with Henry de Blois, 
I least, when he was in the zenith of his power. 

1 Henry I. died at the castle of Lions, near Rouen. Ordericus 
italia, in his thirteenth book, and William of Malmesbury, in the 
rst book of his " Modern History," give an account of his obsequies, 


attended by a large body of nobles, and for the love lie bore 
his uncle, he supported the bier on his royal shoulders, 
assisted by his barons, and thus brought the corpse lo 
Reading. Masses were sung, many rich ollerhigs made, tint 
distributed to multitudes of the poor, and the obsequies 
having been duly solemnised, and his effigy exposed to view 
on a hearse, the royal corpse was deposited, with the highest 
honours, in a tomb constructed, according to custom, before 

the altar in the principal church, dedicated to the 

and glorious Virgin Mary, which Ling Henry himself, for the 
good of his soul, had endowed with lands, woods, meadows, 
and pastures, and enriched with many ornaments. 

After his interment, Stephen being on the throne, and, in- 
deed, long before, the bonds of peace were broken asunder, 
and the greatest discord prevailed in all parts of Normandy anJ 
England. Man rose up against man— -discord was rife in the 
land, wasting the substance of both high and low, and pene- 
trating on all sides within strong and lofty walls. Evorv w 
spoiled his neighbour's goods. The powerful -,■ 
weak by violence, and obtain exemption from inquiry by the 
terror of their threats. Death is the lot of him who resisU. 
The wealthy nobles of the land, rolling in affluence, can- Little 
to what iniquities the wretched suH'erers are exposed : all their 
coucern is for themselves and their own adherents; they ilore 
their castles and fortified towns with all things nee 
garrison them with armed bauds, fearing a revolution which 
should alter the succession to the crown, and not reflecting on 
the dispensation.-, of the providence of God, "whose ways are 
past finding out." While all should be hushed in peace in the 
presence of royalty, as before a roaring lion, there is no end 
of devastations and ravages in numberless places, and 
especially in Wales. From this any one may perceive with 
how little prudence and firmness, with what injustice rutin': 
than justice, England, which ought to be ruled far otherwise, 

soaie disgusting details 
ruda process by which 
Hist., p. 262. 

LD, 1136.] KING STEPHEN. 251 

h now governed. In the prevailing lust of money, and an 
inordinate ambition for preferment of every lurid, moderation, 
[lie mother of virtue*, is scarcely to be found. 

Stephen, kin.:.' of England, inarched into Devonshire with 
a large force of horse and foot, and besieged, for a long time 
the castle of Exeter, 1 which Baldwin, sur named de Redvers, 
had fortified in defiance of the royal authority. But at length, 
(he garrison being short of provisions, terras were made, and 
Baldwin, with his wife and children, were expelled from Eng- 
land, his lands being forfeited. Ansger, the vendible abbot 
uf Heading, died on the sixth of the calends of February 
[27th January], and Godfrey, bishop of Bath, on the seven- 
teenth of the calends of September [16th August]. 

[a.d. 1 136.] Speedily alter the death of king Henry on the 
fourth of the nones (the 1'nd) of December a severe battle was 
fought in G-ow'cr, a between the Normans and the Welsh, on 
Ihe calends [the 1st] of January, in which five hundred and 
sixteen of the two armies perished. Their bodies were 
horribly dragged about the fields and devoured by the wolves. 
Afterwards the Welsh made a desperate inroad, attended with 
the destruction, far and wide, of churches, vills, corn, and cattle, 
the burning of castles and other for rifled places, and the 
slaughter, dispersion, and sale into captivity in foreign lands 
>f countless numbers, both of the rich and poor. Among 
these, the noble and amiable Richard, son of Gilbert, 3 falling 
into an ambush, was slain by the Welsh, on the seventeenth of 
:he calends of May [15th April] ; and his body being carried 
« Gloucester, was honourably buried in the chapter-house of 
:he brethren. Another bloody battle was afterwards fought 
it Cardigan, in the second week of the month of October, in 
;his same year, in which the slaughter was ao great that, with- 
Hit reckoning the men who were carried off into captivity, 
;here remained ten thousand women, whose husbands, with 
mmberlcss children, were either drowned, or burnt, or put to 

it of the siege in the " Geata Stephan 
istory in the Antiq. Lib., pp. 3?" "'" 
s, nearly corresponding with tl 

lountj of Glamorgan. Neither Huntingdon nor Malmesbur 

his expedition; but the anonymous author of the " Gesta Stephani" 

leseribts it in some detail lb. pp. 329 — 332. 

3 Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, to whom the territory of Car- 

ligan had been given by king Henry, was murdered by Jotwerth. 


the sword. When the bridge over the river Tivy was broken 
down it was a wretched spectacle to see crowds passing to and 
fro across a bridge formed by the horrible mass of human 
corpses and horses drowned in the river. 

William, archbishop of Canterbury, died at one of bis vills, 1 
on the twelfth of the calends of December [20th November], 
in the fifteenth year of his patriarchate, and was ^buried at 
Canterbury. Guy, abbot of Pershore, a man of great 
prudence, died on the nones [the 5th] of August. Benedict, 
abbot of Tewksbury, a man of devoted piety and strict con- 
tinence, died on the ides [the 15th] of March. 

Removed from this world's strife, 
God give them endless life ! 

[a.d. 1137.] In the month of March, before Easter, which 

fell on the fourth of the ides [the 10th] of April, •Stephen, 

king of England, went over sea, and spent some time in 

foreign parts. GrifFyth-ap-Rhys, king of Wales, perished 

through the artifices of his wife. 8 The Welsh, having suffered 

much in the defence of their native land, not only from the 

powerful Normans, but also from the Flemings, after numbers 

had fallen on both sides, at last subdued the Flemings, and did 

not cease to commit devastations on all sides ; plundering and 

burning the vills and castles, and putting to death all who 

made any resistance, and the helpless as well as the armed. 

Among the rest, a knight, they say, of great bravery, whose 

name was Pagan us, feD, pierced through the head by a lance 

while engaged in capturing and slaying some plundering 

Welshmen : his body was carried to Gloucester, and buried in 

the monk's chapter house. The city of York was destroyed 

by fire, with the principal monastery, on Friday in Whitsun- 

week, which fell on the 6th of the ides [the 8th] of June. 

Shortly afterwards the city of Rochester was also destroyed 

1 Probably at his " vill of Westminster," where Henry of Hunting- 
don tells us (Hist. p. 254) that this William Curboil, archbishop of 
Canterbury, sometimes resided. Huntingdon draws no favourable 
character of this prelate, either in his History, p. 262, or in the 
" Letter to Warin," pp. 315 and 326. 

3 So far from this being the case, Gwenlian, the wife of Griffyth- 
ap-Rhys, prince of South Wales, a woman of a gallant spirit, seconded 
her husband's efforts for independence, and, in his absence, took the 
field in person at the head of her forces. See Giraldus Cambreensis 
Itin. i., c. iv., and Dr. Powell's notes : see also Warrington's History 
of Wales, p. 293. 


1.0.1137.] MIRACLES AND RELICS. 253 

Sy fire. On Thursday the fourth of the calends of August 
[29th July] the church of Jlath, and, in the same mouth of 
August, the city of Leicester, were burnt. 

[Miracles at Windsor.'] 
One day, while the people were attending the celebration 
of mass at Windsor, as we have been informed by trustworthy 
persons, there was a sudden radianee in the interior of the 
church ; and some persons, wondering what it was, went 
forth and beheld a strange star shining in the heavens, and 
on their return observed that the light within descended from 
the star. Miracle succeeded miracle. Many observed the 
cruiiifix which stood on the altar in motion and wringing its 
hands, the right wiih the left, or the left with the right, after 
the manner of persons in trouble. After this was done three 
tiroes the whole ei'in'ifix trembled, and was bathed in sweat 
for nearly half an hour, returning afterwards to its former 

[Reiki found at Southwell.'] 

At Southwell, a vill of the archbishop's, while a grave was 
being made for a funeral, there were found some relics of 
saints, and a glass phial with raised sides to prevent its being 
broken, and full of very clear water ; which being given to the 
sick, they were on tasting it restored to their former health. 
I give the first of these miracles as I heard it ; the last was 
related to me by Henry, bishop of Winchester. 

[Thurstan, archbishop of York, with Roger, bishop of 
Salisbury, and some other bishops and great men of the 
realm, held a council at Northampton, in the hearing of many 
persons]. 1 

[Schism in the Church of Rome— Pope and Anti-pope.] 

The see of Rome had now been in an unsettled state for 
seven years, in consequence of there being two popes, namely, 
Gregory, who was also called Innocent, and Peter, called 
Leo, in whose cause a war broke out between Lothatre, em- 
peror of the Romans, and Roger, duke of Apulia. Both 
these princes abounded in wealth, but the first was the most 

1 The last paragraph is evidently an interpolation in this place. 
The meeting at Northampton is subsequently mentioned with more 
detail in the course of the events of the present year. 

254 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.d. 11.1S, 

religious as well as superior in dignity ; the latter, to his uwn 
couluiiozi, was more lilieral with his gold. But the ini|icrLl 
majesty, us it is fitting and just, surpasses in all things the 
roviil dignity, Laoh appointed a bishop of bishops at Rome, 
Lothaire supported Gregory, who was canonieally clotted : 
Roger granted the papacy of Rome to Peter Leo. But tills 
mutual strife offending the cardinals and the prefect of the 
city j they admitted for lucre, first Gregory, expelling Leu, 
and then Leo, expelling Gregory, to the apostolic see. At 
last Gregory, appointed by Lothniro, ruled the see of the 
a]iostles. Poler I.eo, the vvholu of the ancient Peter the Lion, 
sits at the Lateran, like another pope. If both were inspired 
by the ambition of power, neither was pleasing to God, While 
they performed their part in the world, they were reserved 
for the judgment of God, whose judgments are profound. In 
consequence of this great schism having lasted for so many 
years in the chief of all the ohunhes throughout the world, i 
day was fixed by common agreement among the princes on 
which a battle, by way of duel, should be fought between 
the two nations, the Romans and Apulians, that God, the 
Omnipotent Judge of all. might give the victory to whom he 
pleased. The emperor Lothaire, therefore, although he ww 
suffering from illness, assembled an immense army, and pitched 
his camp in Apulia. Roger met him at the head of many 
thousand troops, both horse and foot. In the encounter 
which ensued, by God's Providence the emperor and his array 
obtained the victory, and Roger and his forces were con- 
quered, and fled. The royal crown which he had caused t» 
be made that he might be crowned king, inlaid with gold nml 
precious stones, and the royal spear, resplendent with gold, 
were discovered by treachery, and presented to the emperor 
as an acceptable gift. Returning to his own country, he »ooit 
afterwards lost his kingdom and his life. Lewis, king of France, 
died; and was succeeded by his son Lewis. Stephen, king of 
England, returned to England in the month of Decenjber, 
and held his court during Christmas at Dunstable, a town in 

[A Thwringian Tradition.'] 
[A.n. 1133.] Conrad [II.], duke of Bavaria, the innetv-riiiii 
emperor of the Romans, and nephew of Ilenry U *" 

fc.D. 1138.] A THURINGiAN TltiDlTION. 255 

alio had for empress the daughter of Henry, king of Eng- 
land, died after a reign of twelve years. In former times, 
i tribe, migrating from the north, reached the country of 
rburingia, intending to settle there; and the inhabitants of 
mat country granted tkemabogt portion of their territory, 
is the foreigners requested. The people increased and multi- 
plied exceedingly. After the lapse of a long period, they 
refused to pay the acknowledgment due to the Thuringians. 
In consequence, both sides met under arms, as is the custom 
of that nation, that the debt might lie demanded and paid. 
This was done not once only, but a .second time, without a 
wound being received on either side ; the third time it was 
agreed that both parties should meet unarmed, under a guar- 
antee of peace. The great body of foreigners assembled under 
an impression of the weakness of the Thuringians, and that 
their country was deficient both in counsel and courage for 
its good government. On the appointed day they came to 
the conference, having, by way of caution and self-protection, 
their long knives sheathed under their garments. The pro- 
ceedings were not conducted peaceably, but with violent dis- 
putes. In short, tho Thuringians were overcome, the fierce 
and alien race triumphed; for, drawing their long knives, 
they slaughtered many of the Thuringians. These inhabitants 
of the land were driven with ignominy from their country 
and kindred, and nearly all their territory fell into the hands 
of those on whom inconstant fortune now smiled. The 
country which, up to that time, had been called Thuringia, 
then changed its name, and, from the long knives of the con- 
querors, was afterwards called, not Saxony, but, in the 
English idiom, Sosxony. 1 

[Siege of Bedford — Irruption of the SeoU.'} 

The festival days of Christmas being ended,* Stephen, king 

of England, to maintain his regal crown in conformity to his 

name,* put himself at the head of his army and besieged and 

1 From «M, Anglo-Saxon For a knife, dagger, or short sword. 
Adelung, however, rejecting this derivation, says that the most likely 
derivation is from the old German tat», Ang. Sax. aset, an inhabitant, 

' Henry of Huntingdon says that king Stephen began the siege of 
Bedford on Christ mas-eve. 
1 A pun on •rifavoc, la Greek, a crown. 


took the castle of Bedford, which stood out against him, is 
he had before taken that of Exeter. Receiving intelligence by 
a messenger that his enemies 1 had made an irruption, and were 
devastating the lands, burning the vills, and besieging castles 
and towns, he marched with a strong force into Northumbrian 
He did not long remain there, having, with some difficulty, 
accomplished the object he had in view. Those who are well 
acquainted with the facts, relate that, for nearly six months, 
a terrible irruption was made by numerous enemies of different 
races into Northumbria and the adjacent country, both far 
and near. Multitudes were taken, plundered, imprisoned, 
and tortured ; ecclesiastics were put to death for the sake of 
the property of their churches ; and scarcely any one can com- 
pute the number of the slain on the enemy's side or our own. 
On the death of the apostolical Leo Peter, Innocent succeeded 
him, all who had taken the part of Peter against him making 
satisfaction, and being entirely reconciled to him. This pope 
consecrated Alberic, abbot of Yercelli, as bishop of Ostia, on 
Easter-dav, at Rome. 

[How the Devil, in the shape of a black dwarf, teas made a 


About this time reports of the following miracle were cir- 
culated in all quarters. There is a noble monastery in the 
arch-diocese of Treves called Prum, dedicated to the apostles 
St. Peter and St. Paul, and founded in ancient times by Pepin, 
king of the Franks, the father of Charles the Great. A 
strange occurrence is reported by all who were then inmates 
of this monastery. One morning, the cellarer, in company 
with his servant, having gone into the wine-vault, for the 
purpose of procuring wine, as usual, for the sacrifice of the 
altar, found one of the casks which he had left full the pre- 
ceding day emptied down to the orifice commonly called the 
bung-hole, and the wine spiUed over all the pavement. In 
great dismay at the loss which had happened, he chid sharply 
the servitor who was with him, saying that he had fixed the 
spigot very negligently the evening before, and that the loss 
had thus occurred. After saying this, he enjoined him, under 
severe threats, to tell no one what had happened ; fearing 
that if it came to the abbot's ears, he would put him out of 

1 The Scots, under king David. 


lis office in di.=£ii'ac«. VVlifit evening funic, before the brethren 
etired to rest, he went into the cellar, ami having carefully 
■ecured the bung-holes of the vessels in which wine was con- 
ained, shut tlie door, and went to bed. 

In the morning, oq entering the cellar as usual, he per- 
jeived that another cask was emptied as low as the bung-hole, 
ind tlie wine spilt, as on the preceding day. At this sight, 
not knowing to whose negligence he could lay the blame of 
the waste, be was tilled with wonder and grief, and repeating 
Lis commands to the servitor to tell no one what had hap- 
pened, in the evening before he went to bed he fastened all 
the bungs of the casks with the utmost care, and went to his 
pallet, sorrowful and anxious. .Itising at day-break, and 
opening the cellar, he saw, for the third time, that the bung 
had been extracted from a cask, and that the wine was spilt 
as far as the hole. Being terrified, and not without cause, at 
these occurrences, and fearing to conceal any longer the loss 
to the community, ho hastened to the abbot, and tlirowing 
himself at his feet, told him, in order, all that he had seen. 
The abbot, taking counsel with his brethren, ordered tfiat 
towards evoniny the bnn^-holes of all the casks which held 
wine should be anointed round with chrism ; which waa done, 
At dawn of day, the before-mentioned brother going into the 
cellar according to his custom, found a wonderfully dwarfish 
black boy clinging by the hands to one of the bungs. Hastily 
seizing him, and bringing him to the abbot, he said : "Behold, 
my lord, this urchin whom you see has done us all the damage 
which we have discovered in the cellar;" after which he 
related to him how he had found the boy hanging from the 
bung. The abbot, astonished at the singular appearance of 
the boy, took counsel, and ordered that a monk's dress should 
be prepared for him, and that he should associate with the 
youths who were scholars in the monastery. This was done, 
and as the abbot commanded, the boy lived with the young 
scholars day and night, but never took meat or drink, and 
never spoke either in public or private ; while the others were 
taking repose at night or in the noontide hours, he sat upon 
his bed, constantly moaning and heaving incessant sighs. 
Meanwhile, the abbot of another monastery coming to offer 
his devotions in that church, was detained there for some 
days, and the scholar-lads frequently passing before him while 


he sat with the abbot and seniors of the monastery, the little 
boy, stretching forth his hands towards him, cast a tearful 
glance on him, as if he wished to ask him some favour. This 
being frequently repeated, the abbot, wondering at his dimi- 
nutive appearance, inquired of those who sat with him why 
they kept such a little boy in the convent ? They replied, 
smiling, " My lord, the lad is not what you suppose ; and 
they told him the loss he had caused them, and how he was 
found clinging by the hands to the bung of a cask, and how 
he had conducted himself when living among them. On 
hearing this, the abbot was alarmed, and, groaning deeply, 
exclaimed, " Quickly expel him from your monastery, lest you 
incur greater loss, or seripus peril ; for he is clearly a devil 
lurking in human form, but by the mercy of God protecting 
you, through the merits of the saints, whose relics you have 
here, he has been unable to do you further injury." At the 
command of the abbot of the same monastery, the boy was 
immediately brought before him, and while they were in the 
act of stripping off his monastic dress, he vanished from their 
hands like smoke. 

[A council at Northampton.] 

Stephen, king of England, held a council at Northampton, 
in the octave of Easter, which fell on the fourth of the ides 
[the 10th] of April. Thurstan, archbishop of York, and all 
the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and nobles of England 
took their seats at it. In this council an archdeacon named 
Robert, the choice of some few, was appointed bishop of the 
church of Exeter, then vacant by the death of its bishop, 
William de Warewast. Two abbeys were also given away ; 
that of Winchcombe to a monk of Cluni, as it is said a rela- 
tion of the king, named Robert ; the other, that of York, to 
a monk of the same abbey. One of these, the abbot-elect of 
Winchcombe, was ordained abbot of that monastery by jthe 
venerable Simon, bishop of Worcester, on the eleventh of the 
calends of June [22nd May]. 

[Royal visit to Gloucester.] 

The king, breaking up his camp at Northampton, marched 
towards Gloucester, and when his approach was known, the 
citizens met him more than five miles on the road with great 

.d. 1138.] Stephen's expeditions. 259 

jy, and conducted liim into their city, receiving very graciously 
he honours they paid him. On his arrival there, on the third 
legation day [10th May,] the monks recoived him with pro- 
visional pomp, and he ottered on the altar his royal ring, 
rhich the kin;.''? cki|ilairu redeemed tor tilt v" shillings and 
>rought back to him the same day. From thence Mdo, who 
»as then his constable, conducted liim with great honour to 
he royal palace, where the next day the citizens swore allo- 
wance to him. On the third day, being Thursday, the king 
■eturned with his at tend nuts to the abbey, ami joyfully assisted 
it masses and processions in honour of our Lord's Ascension. 

[Stephen marclttts to Hereford.] 

The festival being concluded, the kin<r, having heard that 
the castle of Hereford was t'ortitied against him, put himself at 
the head of a powerful expedition, and pitched his camp 
igainst it, finding on liis arrival that the report he had heard 
was true. Wherefore he remained there for the spaue of 
nearly four or five weeks, and issued orders throughout 
England that bodies of troops should march to support him in 
putting down all who opposed his royal title. 

Meanwhile, the city of Hereford, below the bridge over the 
river Wye, was burnt before his eyes. Not long afterwards, 
the lamentable conflagration of the city of Oxford reached the 
ears of the king and his court. The garrison of Hereford, 
perceiving of a surety by the numbers and strength of the 
royal army, that the king would triumph over them, made 
terms and surrendered to him. And since Stephen was, nay 
is, 1 a loving and peaceable king, he injured no one, but suf- 
fered his enemies to depart free. The king also took the 
fortified place called W T ibbeleage,' which Geoffrey de Talbot 
had held against him, but afterwards evacuated. It was by his 
devices and ability that the king's adversaries were supported 
in breaking the peace. The aforesaid castles and that of Here- 
ford were garrisoned by the king's troops. 

Meanwhile, Alberic, the before mentioned bishop of Ostia, 
came to England commissioned as apostolical legato to root 

i pi 


out and destroy, build up and plant, all things that required 
it. The letters from the apostolical see having been read in 
the presence of the king and the nobles of England, out of 
reverence for the apostolical see, he was at length received, 
though not at first. Making a progress throughout England, 
he noted everything, and kept in mind whatever needed cor- 
rection by the provision and appointment of a council. 

The king having spent some time at Hereford departed with 
his troops. The city, thus deprived of the royal presence, was 
burnt, beyond the river Wye, by the before-named Geoffrey, 
on the eighteenth of the calends of July [the 15th June], 
none of our own people, but seven or eight of the Welsh, 
having been killed. I omit saying anything of the blood-shed 
of many others, for I am ignorant respecting it ; but this 1 


May Christian souls in everlasting rest 
Be with the saints, their warfare ended, blest; 
And John 1 corrected, if there ought occur, 
In which the reader finds his pages err! 

[The Bishops arrested.] 

Then the king, when the Nativity of St. John [24th June] 
was near, proceeded to Oxford, and hearing that the castle of 
Devizes was fortified against him, sent messengers to Roger, 
bishop of Salisbury, the founder of the castle, who was then 
at Malmesbury, commanding him to come and confer with 
him. It is said that the bishop undertook this journey with 
great reluctance, believing that he should never return ; taking 
with him his two nephews, the bishops of Lincoln and Ely, 
and a large retinue of mounted and well-armed soldiers. 
Seeing this, the king, suspecting treason, ordered his followers 
to arm themselves and be ready to defend him, if need should 
arise. While the king was engaged with the bishops in treat- 

1 We are here furnished with the name of the writer of this con- 
tinuation of the Chronicle of Florence of Worcester. He must have 
been living when Ordericus Vitalis visited Worcester, in his journey 
to England, about the year 1124. Both their works and probably 
their lives closed in 1141. Ordericus tells us that he saw at Worcester 
the continuation on which John was, doubtless, engaged at the time 
of his visit; but he is mistaken in attributing the original Chronicle 
to this John, instead of Florence. See the remarks in the preface to 
this volume, and a note in vol. i., p. 493, of Ordericus Vitalis, Boknt 
AtUiq. Lib. 

,I>. 1138.] THE BISHOPS AEF.ESTEI). 261 

ng of various affairs, a, furious quarrel arose between the two 
>arties of soldiers respecting their quarters; and the king's 
mops flying to arms, the bishops' men took to flight, leaving 
II their baggage behind. Roger, bishop of Salisbury, with 
he bishop of Lincoln and his son Roger, surnained The Poor, 
*ere taken ; the bishop of Ely made hia escape, and having 
•cached the castle of Devizes, for titled it and held it against 
Jie king. The king, much incensed, wont in pursuit of him, 
>Iacing the bishops he had arrested in custody ; Roger in the 
.■rib of an ox-house, and the other in a mean hut, while he 
threatened to hang the third, unless the castle wtw speedily 
iurrendered to liiro. Roger finding this, anil alarmed fur his 
ion, bound himself hy an oath that he would neither eat nor 
Irink until the king had possession of the castle ; which oath 
ie kept, and neither ate nor drank for three days.' 

[ Transactions at Bristol and Bath, $a] 
The king proceeded thence with his royal attendants to 
jondon. But Geoffrey de Tall tot, deserting with his followers, 
vent over to the son of the earl of Gloucester, who held 
tristol castle against (he king, and devoted himself to its 
lefence. One day, under colour of giving assistance to a 
■ertain straggler, but more, as it subsequently appeared, with 
i view to reconnoitre Bath and afterwards assault it, he took 
(is way there in company with two valiant knights, William 
Joset and another.* This being discovered, Robert, the 
lisiiop of Bath, thinking to triumph over the king's enemies, 
frew out a body of soldiers, and marched cautiously against 
dm. Two of them fled, but Geoffrey was taken and placed 
n custody. The garrison of Bristol, being much enraged at 
his, marched to Bath with a threatening aspect under the 
on of the earl, their lord, and sent a message to the bishop, 
hreatening that unless their comrade, Geoffrey, was released, 

' Cf. the account of the circumstances attending the seizure of the 
■ishopa and their castles, in Henry of Huntingdon s History, p. 271, 
Intiq. Lib ; Gesta Stepbard, ibid, 370, &c; and William of Malmes- 
■ury, Hitd, 507. 

1 In the " Gesta Stephani," we find that Geoffrey's cousin, Gilbert 
ie Lacy, was bis companion in this enterprise. See in this work fuller 
etails than those given by our author, of the transactions of this year 
i the West of England;, p. 360—367. 


they would hang the bishop and his followers on a gallows. 
Upon this, the bishop, apprehensive, like a mercenary soldier, 
for the lives of himself and his people, brought forth Geoffrey 
from custody, and delivered him to them, in compliance with 
their demands. When this reached the king's ears, he was 
inflamed with anger against the bishop, regarding him as the 
abettor of his enemies ; and he would probably have taken 
from him his pastoral staff, though in so doing he would rather 
have been actuated by his animosity than by his love of peace. 
But as the bishop had acted under restraint and against his 
will, the king " gave not place to his wrath," upon which, 
according to the apostolical precept, it is sinful to "let the 
sun go down." 

Soon afterwards the king moved his army towards Bristol, 
where, in those times, infernal cruelties, befitting the reigns 
of Nero or Decius, were exercised by a kinsman of the earl, 
whose name was Philip Gay. By his agency, a variety of 
bitter torments were invented there, which, afterwards 
introduced far and wide in every part of England, nearly 
reduced the island to ruin. The king, therefore, having 
wasted and burnt the lands and vills of the earl of Glou- 
cester in that neighbourhood, besieged the castle for some 
time. At last, weary of the length of the siege, he drew oft 
to besiege the earl's other castles, Cariff in Dorsetshire, 1 and 
Harptree in Somersetshire, and having constructed forts 
over against them, and garrisoned them with soldiers, he 
departed, and marched with his whole army to attack Dudley 
Castle, which Ralph Paganel had fortified against him. 
Having given the surounding country to the names, and 
seized and carried off large herds of cattle, he went by sea, 
with a large body of troops, to besiege Shrewsbury Castle, 
which William Fitz- Allan held against him. Hearing, how- 
ever, of the king's approach, he secretly escaped, with his 
wife and children, and some others, leaving those in the 
castle who had sworn to be true to him, and never surrender 
it. After the castle had been besieged for some days, accord- 
ing to the accounts of those who were well-informed, a ma- 
chine of this sort was prepared : — A large structure of 
timber was put together and brought forward; the castle 

1 Castle Cary, as well as Harptree, is in Somersetshire. 

\.D. 1138.] BATTLE OF THE STANDARD. 263 

ditch was filled by the king's command ; fire was kindled ; 
and the smoke, rising in the air, smothered all. The royal gate 
having been foreed open, the whole garrison attempted to make 
their escape iiiisep-iMy, by leaping from or creeping out of the 
castle ; but the kin^r gave oritur* that they should be pursued 
and put to death. Five of the men of highest rank among 
them were bung. The enemy being vanquished, the king 
departed thence and proceeded to attack Wan 'bam ; but a 
treaty having been entered into, Ralph Paganel and the king 
made a truce for a time. 

Meanwhile, the before-mentioned earl of Bristol, and Milo 
the constable, having made a league against the king, and 
abjured the fealty which they had sworn to him, despatched 
envoys to invite the ex-empress, king Henry's daughter; 
promising her that within the space of live months she should 
It in possession of her father's kingdom, according to the 
allegiance which had been sworn to her in his lifetime. This 
was the beginning of troubles. This defection, the most 
serious of all, nay, almost the concluding one, brought ruin 
on the whole country. 

[Irruption of the ScoU, and Battle of the Standard.] 

During these events, David, king of Scotland, made a third 
irruption from the borders of his kingdom, with large bands 
both of horse and foot, and began to set on fire farms, towns, 
and castles, on the confines of Northumbria, and lay waste 
nearly all the country. But as he threatened at last to 
pursue his inroad as far as York and the Humber, Thurstan, 
archbishop of York, had a conference with the Yorkshiremeu, 
and prevailed "on them all, with one consent, to take the oath 
of fealty to king Stephen, and resist the king of Scots. 
David, however, was still more incensed at this, and rejecting 
all advice to the contrary, and reaching the river Tees on the 
octave of the Assumption of St. Mary [22nd August], which 
happened on a Monday, he determined to surprise our troops, 
there being a thick fog in the morning of that day. Hoping, 
in consequence, to come upon us unawares, he left many 
vi|la untouched, and would not suffer his men to set fire to 
any place, as they usually did. Meanwhile, our troops being 
warned by a squire, though somewhat late so that they were 


nearly taken by surprise, armed themselves, and drew up in 
order of battle with the utmost despatch, sending out archers 
in front, by whom the Scots were severely galled. Then the 
king's barons marched with the knights, having all dis- 
mounted and stationed themselves in the first rank, and thus 
fought hand-in-hand with the enemy. The conflict was 
ended, and victory secured at the very first onset, for the 
Scots gave way, and either fell or fled in the greatest alarm. 
Our men, however, being on foot, and having caused all their 
horses to be led to some distance, were unable to continue 
the pursuit long, otherwise they would have taken or put to 
the sword the king himself, with his son, and all his immediate 
attendants. Of his army, nearly ten thousand men fell in 
different places, and as many as fifty persons of rank were 
made prisoners. The vanquished -king himself escaped by 
flight, overwhelmed with terror and shame. His chancellor, 
William Comyn, was taken by the bishop of Durham ; but 
being set at liberty, he gave thanks to God, heartily hoping 
he should never again fall into such a scrape. The king's 
son reached Carlisle on foot, attended by a single knight ; and 
his father escaped with some difficulty through the woods and 
thickets to Roxburgh. He had led an innumerable army con- 
sisting of French, as well as English, Scots, Galwegians, and 
the people of all the isles which owed him allegiance, but nine- 
teen only out of two hundred of his mailed knights carried 
back their armour ; for every one left nearly all that lie had 
to become the spoil of the enemy, so that an immense booty, 
both of horses, arms, and clothing, and many other thing?, 
was taken from his army. Eustace Fitz-John, who had 
joined his expedition, met with a similar fate, having been 
wounded, and barely escaping with life <to his castle. Among 
the valiant men who, in Christ's name, fought on behalf of 
king Stephen, were the earl of Albemarle, Bernard de 
Baliol, and many others, but the earl was distinguished for 
his bravery in the battle. 1 

On his return, the king of Scots, in order to encourage his 
adherents and console himself, laid siege with all his force, 

1 A more detailed account of this famous " Battle of the Standard " 
will be found in Henry of Huntingdon's History, pp. 267, &c. [Antiq. 
Lib.'], and in Roger of Wendover, ibid, p. 489. Cf. also William of 
Newbury, Trivet, and Rieval " de Bello Standardi," in Twysden 


and various engines ami machines, to the castle of Wark, or 
Canwi, belonging to Walter d" Epee, from which he had been 
driven by the earl of Mel lent; but the garrison making a 
stout and desperate rocistaneo, lie h:ul no suecews for they made 
frequent sallies, and either cut in pieces or burnt his engines, 
besides killing many of his soldiers ; wherefore, at last, he 
impaired of being able io take it. 

[Atmospheric phenomena — Great tcmlth left hi/ Roger, 
Bishop of Salisbury.] 

On the seventh day of the month of October, when the 
moon was twenty-nine days old, in the dusk of the evening 
before Saturday, the whole firmament towards the north 
appeared of a red colour, and rays of various hues were seen 
blended and flitting. Perhaps these signs portended the 
vast effusion of blood in Northumberland, and many other 
places throughout England, of which we have spoken. A 
most pious monk, nameil William, belonging to the cell of 
Eye, having been elected, was ordained abbot of l'ershore by 
Simon, bishop of W oreetter, €/B Sunday, the twelfth of the 
calends of December [20th November 1 Soger, bishop of 
•Salisbury, a great builder of castles and fortified mansions, 
being worn to death with grief and vesation, died at his 
episcopal seat on the second of the nones [the 4th] of De- 
comber, and was buried in that church, leaving in his castles 
immense sums of money, which fell not into the hands of 
God, but of king Stephen. There are those who say that 
more than forty thousand silver marks were found there, and 
that he had likewise hoarded a vast amount of gold, and a 
variety of ornaments, and knew not for whom he had gathered 
them. 1 He enriched the church dedicated to St. Mary, mother 
of God, with magnificent ornaments. 

[A Synod held at London.] 

In the year of our Lord 1138, and in the ninth of the 
pontificate of pope Innocent, and the third of the reign of 
king Stephen, a synod was held at London, in the church of 


St. Peter the apostle, at Westminster, on the thirteenth of 
the month of December. In this synod, after much canvass- 
ing, sixteen canons were published with universal consent. 
It was presided over by Alberic, bishop of Ostia, the legate 
of the said lord pope in England and Scotland; and attended 
by the bishops of different dioceses, to the number of seven- 
teen, by about thirty abbots, and an immense multitude of the 
clergy and people. 

[A new Abbot cA Gloucester.] 

[a.d. 1139.] The feast of our Lord's Nativity being passed, 
and that of the Purification of St. Mary, his mother, drawing 
nigh, the venerable father Walter, abbot of Gloucester, gave 
up the ghost about the third hour of the day, after hold- 
ing his preferment nine years and a half ; he was buried by 
the venerable abbots, Reynold of Evesham, and Roger of 
Tewksbury, on the sixth of the ides [the 8th] of February. 
After his interment, two of the brethren were sent to Cluni 
to fetch our 1 lord-elect, Gilbert ; king Stephen having, on the 
report of his eminent worth, and at the request of Milo, his 
constable, conferred upon him at London the preferment of 
the abbey of Gloucester. Theobald, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Simon, bishop of Worcester, Roger, bishop of Coventry, 
Robert, bishop of Exeter, and Reynold, abbot of Evesham, 
having been unanimously chosen, proceeded by the pope's 
command to the threshold of St. Peter. On their arrival, 
they were received with great honour by the apostolic see, 
and allowed scats in the Roman council, a circumstance 
without parallel for many ages before. Having there freely 
opened their business, they returned home with joy, bringing 
with them the synodal decrees, now recorded far and wide 
throughout England. The two monks who had been sent to 
bring over the lord-abbot Gilbert, also returned in safety, and 
presented him to king Stephen, who received him graciously, 
and conferred on him, to hold freely, the fief of the church of 
Gloucester. He came to Worcester on the feast of Whitsun- 
tide, which fell on the third of the ides [the 11th] of June, 

1 It has been supposed, from this expression, that the continuator 
was a monk of Gloucester ; but he speaks thus of the new abbot at 
belonging to his own diocese of Worcester. 

a.i). 1139.] Stephen's progress. 267 

and was there ordainral, with great rejoicings and divine 
lauds, by the venerable Robert, bishop of Hereford; and 
going from thence on the following day, wns installed at 
Gloucester with great joy and exultation, and the acclama- 
tions of the commonalty of both orders, in a manner befitting 
•iik'h a. man in the Lord. 

[King Stephen at Worcester, Hertford, and Oxford.] 

Within the octave of Easter, which happened on the second 
of the calends of May [.'.!(.) tli April], Stephen, the magnificent 
king of England, criming to Worcester, with a royal retinue, 
was received with great festivity l>y the. eliTgv and the people 
of the city and neighbourhood, in solemn procession. The 
prayers being ended, and the blessing given as usual, the 
king took his royal ring from his finger, and offered it on the 
altar ; and on the morrow it was returned to him, by common 
consent of the monks. Therefore the king, remarking with 
surprise the humility and devotion of the flock of the church 
of Worcester, yea, rather of the Lord, took hack his ring, as 
he had been adjured to do for the love of St. Mary, mother 
of God. After his dejia.rt.ure from Worcester, the king en- 
camped at Ludlow, where he caused forts to be erected in two 
positions, and stationed strong bodies of troops in them to 
assault the castle, which held out against him ; and then 
returning, by way of Worcester, marched towards London. 
Some of the soldiers, unsparing in their execrable warfare, 
and driven by their headstrong courage, determined to try 
their strength on Ludlow. To accomplish this undertaking, 
large bodies of troops began to flock together. It was truly 
a pitiable sight to behold one poising bis spear against 
another, and running him through ; thus putting him to death, 
without thinking what would be the judgment the spirit 
would receive. But king Stephen checked such designs, by 
the terror of his threats ; and going a second time to Ludlow, 
by way of Worcester, settled all things peaceably, and then 
made a quiet and joyful journey to Oxford— that is, the 
ox-ford. While he stayed there, a charge of rebellion urgently 
requiring it, he arrested Roger, bishop of Salisbury, and his 
nephew, the bishop of Lincoln, and also Roger, his chancellor, 
for engaging in a treasonable conspiracy against his crown, 


and committed them to custody. On hearing this, Nigel, bishop 
of Ely, fearing for himself and his adherents, fled with a body 
of soldiers to Devizes, that he might find protection there. 
The case of these bishops has been already more fully stated 
in this work; 1 but it appears to have been brought to a point 
in the present year. In a council afterwards held it was 
enacted that all fortified towns, castles, and strong places 
whatever, throughout England, devoted mainly to secular 
purposes, should submit to the jurisdiction of the king and his 
barons ; but that churchmen, namely, the bishops, whom I will 
call God's watch-dogs, should not cease to bark in defence of 
their flock, and take every care lest the invisible wolf, their 
malignant foe, should tear and scatter the sheep. 

[The Empress and the Earl, her Brother, land in England.] 

In the month of October, the earl of Gloucester, son of 
king Henry, late king of England, but a bastard, with his 
sister by the father's side, formerly empress of the Romans, 
and now countess of Anjou, returned to England with a large 
army, and landed at Portsmouth, before the feast of St. Peter 
ad Vincula, on the calends [the 1st] of August, while the 
king was besieging Marlborough ; and their arrival filled all 
England with alarm. On receiving this intelligence, Stephen, 
king of England, was much disturbed in his mind, and in 
great wrath with those whose duty it was vigilantly to guard 
the sea-ports. He is the king of peace, and would that he 
were also the king of vigour and justice, treading under foot 
his enemies, determining all things by the balance of equal 
justice, and in the power of his might protecting and strength- 
ening the friends of peace. When, however, he learned that 
the ex-queen 2 had received the ex-empress, with her large 
band of retainers, at Arundel, he was much displeased, and 
marched his army thither. But she, being awed by the king's 
majesty, and fearing that she might lose the rank she held in 
England, swore solemnly that no enemy of his had come to 
England on her invitation ; but that, saving her dignity, she 
had granted hospitality to persons of station, who were for- 
merly attached to her. The king, on hearing this, dismissed 

1 See before, p. 260. 

9 Alice, widow of Henry I., who had Arundel Castle for her dower. 


r, and ordered the bishop of Winchester to conduct the ex- 
ipress with honour, as she was hia cousin, to her brother, at 
•iatol castle, while he himself went in pursuit of the earl. 
Jt hearing nothing certain about him, for lie had taken to 
rtain by-roads for a time, he led hia troops to another 
mrter, as he had planned. Milo, the constable, having ab- 
red hia oath of allegiance to the king, wont over to the earl 
' Gloucester, his liegfi-lorJ, with a large body of troopa, pro- 
ving him on his fealty to lend him help against the king, 
he calamities which flowed from this quarter, namely, the 
ty of Bristol, and spread over all England, are beyond the 
iwwledge or eloquence of man to describe ; for of those who 
[>posed him, or obeyed the royal authority, as many as could 
a taken were made prisoners, and all the captives were 
irown into chains, and subjected to horrible tortures. New 
srieties of cruel punishment were invented ; mercenary 
'oops were enlisted in every direction for carrying on the 
ork of destruction, to whom was given, or sold for their pay, 
le inhabitants of the villages and farms, with all their goods 
id substance. 1 

[The Emprest at Brutol Cattle — Cruelttet at Gloucester.] 
This lady stayed at Bristol more than two months, receiving 
outage from all, and exercising the prerogatives of the crown 
f England at her pleasure. She went there in the month of 
ictober, and came on the eighteenth of the calends of No- 
■mber [15th October] to Gloucester, where she received the 
ibmisaion and homage of the citizens and the people of the 
eighbourhood. But tortures worthy of Decius and Nero, 
ad death in various shapes, were inflicted on those who 
(fused to do her homage, and chose to maintain their fealty 
) the king ; and the city, glorious in past ages, was filled 
ith shrieks and fearful torments, and became horrible to 
lose who inhabited it. In the midat of theae miseriea the 
ing laid siege to the castle of Wallingford, which stood out 
gainst him. Weary of the long siege, and having erected 
irts in opposition to it, he marched away, and encamped near 
[almesbury, where he also threw up works against hia adver- 
iries, the authors of rebellion. 
1 See an account of these atrocities in the "Geata Stejihani," 


[The City and Cathedral of Worcester Sacked.] 

Meanwhile sad tidings came to the ears of the citizens of 
Worcester. It was generally reported that the city would, 
ere long, be sacked by the enemy, and, having been pillaged, 
be set on fire. Terrified by these reports, the citizens of 
Worcester consulted as to what was best to be done. After 
this council they had recourse for refuge in their misery to 
the sanctuary of the most high God the Father, and his most 
blessed Mother, and committed themselves and all theirs to 
his divine protection, under their patron saints, SS. Oswald 
and Wulfstan, bishops of that city. Then might be seen 
crowds of the citizens carrying their goods into the church. 
Oh, wretched sight ! Behold the house of God, which should 
have been entered with oblations, where the sacrifice of praise 
should have been offered, and the most solemn vows paid, 
seems now but a warehouse for furniture ! Behold the prin- 
cipal conventual church of the whole diocese is converted 
into quarters for the townsmen, and a sort of council-chamber; 
for little room is left for the servants of God in a hostelry 
crowded with chests and sacks. Within is heard the chaunt 
of the clergy, without the wailing of children; and the notes of 
the choir arc mingled with the sobs of infants at the breast, 
and the cries of sorrowing mothers. Oh, misery of miseries 
to behold ! There stands the high altar, stripped of its orna- 
ments, the crucifix removed, and the image of Mary, the most 
holy Mother of God, taken away. Curtains and palls, albs 
and copes, stoles and chasubles, are secreted in recesses of the 
walls. All that gave grace and pomp to the celebration of 
divine service, on the festivals of the saints, all the wonted 
magnificence, had vanished. These things were all put out of 
the way, from fear of the enemy, lest he should come upon 
them by surprise, and sweeping off all he could lay hands on, 
succeed in his insane enterprise. 

In the beginning of the winter, one morning at day-break, 
namely, on Tuesday, the seventh of the ides [the 7tfr] of No- 
vember, when we were engaged in the church at lauds, 1 and 

1 It will he observed that our author here speaks of himself as one 
of the mouks of the church of Worcester engaged in the choir ser- 
vice, when these trying occurrences, which he describes as an eye- 
witness, took place. 

i.I>. 1139.] WORCESTER SACKED. 271 

had already chaunted primes, behoi<l the reports we had heard 
'or many days were realised. A numerous and powerful army 
irrived from the south, the eentre of mischief. The city of 
Bloucester had risen in arms, and, supported by a counties* 
wst of horse and foot, marched to attack, pillage, and burn 
the city of Worcester. We now, in alarm for the treasures of 
the sanctuary, put on our albs, and, while the bells tolled, 
bore the relics of Oswald, our most gentle patron, out of the 
church, in suppliant prow-sMon ; and, as the enemy were 
rushing in from one gate to the other, carried them through 
the cemetery. The enemy, collected in a body, hasten first 
to assault a strong fort, which stands in the southern quarter 
of the city, near the castle. Our people make a brave and 
obstinate resistance. The enemy being repulsed at this point, 
is beacons were lighted on che north side of the city, they 
endeavour to make an entrance in that quarter. There being 
no fortifications on that side, the entire host rushes tumul- 
tuously in, mad with fury, and sets tire to the houses iu many 
parts. Alas ! a considerable portion of the city is destroyed, 
but most of it remains standing and unburnt. Immense 
plunder is carried oft', consisting of chattels of all kinds, from 
the city, and of oxen, sheep, eattle, and horses from the 
country. Many people are taken in the streets and suburbs, 
and dragged into miserable captivity, coupled like hounds. 
Whether they have the means, or have them not, whatever 
their cruel foes fix for their ransom they are forced to promise 
on oath to pay, and to discharge the amount. These things 
are done on the first day of a winter, which will, doubtless, be 
very severe to the wretched sufferers. 

And now, the plunder being carried off, and numbers of 
buildings burnt, the host of fierce revellers draw off, never to 
return on such a foul enterprise. The earl 1 came to Wor- 
cester on the thirteenth of November, and, beholding the 
ravages of the flames, mourned over the city, and felt that the 
evil was done to himself. Wherefore, burning for revenge, 

1 Not the eart of Gloucester, it is evident. The author's words are 
— Comet civilutit Wigomiam will. During the reign of Henry 1. 
Waller de Beauchanip whs viscount or sheriff of Worcestershire, in 
right of his wife Emmeline, daughter and heiress of Urso d'Abitol, 
appointed to that office by the Conqueror. On the .accession of 
lung Stephen be deprived William de fieauchamp, who had succeeded 



he hastened to Sudely, with a body of troops, having heard 
that John Fitz-Harold had revolted against the king, and 
joined the earl of Gloucester. If it be inquired what the 
earl did there, the reply is such as it is scarcely fit to record : 
returning evil for evil, he seized the people, their goods, and 
cattle ; and, carrying them off, returned the next day to 

[King Stephen at Worcester and Hereford.] 

After these events, the king, with a large army, marched 
from Oxford to Worcester ; and, having before his eyes what 
he had before heard of its disaster, he mourned over it. Halting 
there for three or four days, he conferred the dignity of con- 
stable, of which he had deprived Milo of Gloucester, on 
William, the son of Walter de Beauchamp, sheriff of Wor- 
cestershire. 1 Here a report reached the king that his"" enemies, 
having violated their sworn promises of peace, had assaulted 
Hereford, and forced an entrance into the monastery of St. 
Ethelbert, king and martyr, as if it had been a fortified castle. 
The king 1 , therefore, put himself in march, and encamped at 
Little Hereford, or Leominster, where some of the inhabitants, 
taking counsel, swore fealty to him; while others refusing, 
sent him this message : " Although we will not swear, the 
king may, if he pleases, trust to the truth of our words." 
The holy days of Advent being close at hand [3rd December], 
a truce was agreed on between them, and the king returned 

his father, Walter, of that dignity, and for a time gave the castle and 
city of Worcester to Waleran, earl of Mellent, with the title of earl 
of Worcester. This nobleman is therefore probably the person meant 
by our author; and what appears in the text is agreeable to the cha- 
racter given of him by the author of " Gesta Stephani," p. 309. He 
did not. however, long retain his honours in Worcestershire, being 
deprived of them by the empress Maud. 

* See the preceding note. We are unable to account for this act of 
favour on the part of king Stephen to one of a family who were the 
most strenuous adherents of Henry I., his daughter the empress, and 
Henry III.; under all whom they held the offices of steward sheriff of 
Worcestershire and Warwickshire, and constable. William de Beau- 
champ, fourth in descent from Walter, married Isabel, the heiress of 
William Mauduit, earl of Warwick ; acquired that title in her right, 
and became the ancester of the powerful family of Beauchamp of 
Warwick. The earls Beauchamp of the present day are descended 
from Walter, of Powick, a younger son of William and Isabel. 

.n. 1140.] kisg Stephen's progresses. 273 

(i Worcester, where a certain i-lerk of eminent piety, Maurice 

Lnanie, who hud been elected by the clergy and people to 
church of Bangor, was presented to the king at the castle, 
L Robert, bishop of Hereford, and Sigefrid, bishop of 
Chester, who, bearing him company, attested his canonical 
lection and fitness for tin- oilii-e of bishop ; and the kingcon- 
irined the appointment. But being urged by the bisho|i3 to 
lo homage to the king, lie replied that he could in no wise do 
o. " There is," he said, " among us a man of great piety, 
vhoin I consider as my spiritual father, and who was arch- 
leieon to my p rede cos.- or David, and he forbade me to take 
his oath." To which they made answer, " Reason requires 
.lint you should do as we have done." Whereupon he said, 
'If you, who are men of high authority, have done this, T will 
lot further heaitate to do the same." He therefore swore 
5*1 ty to the king. 

[King Stephen goes to Oxford, and tJi/mae to Salisbury.] 
From Worcester the king proceeded to Oxford, and from 
thence, with his court, to Salisbury, where he intended to 
relebrate the feast of Christmas, and, as was the royal custom, 
to wear his crown. The canons presented him with two 
thousand pounds, and he granted them entire exemption from 
ill taxes on their lands ; moreover, he gave them twenty 
narks for their own use, and forty for roofing the church ;. 
md promised that when peace was restored, he would refund 
o them what they had bestowed upon him. 

[The King at Reading — Marches against Ely.] 
[a.d. 1140.] A few days after Christmas, the king and 
lis court proceeded to Reading, where a lesson is taught by 
he lot of mortals concerning the little value of kingly pomp. 1 
rtliile there, by the advice of his council, he gave pastors of 
heir own to two abbey3, Malmesbury and Abbotsbury, which 
tishop Roger, as long as he livtrd, had shorn of their honours 
nd kept in his own hands. Malmesbury abbey he bestowed 
>n John, a monk of great worth, and that of Abbotsbury on 
nother named Geoffrey. Then, in order to secure peace, 


and put an end to warfare, which I call a vain thing, he pre- 
pared an expedition against Ely ; a measure much to be de- 
plored, because it tended to increase the arrogance of the 
soldiery, by satisfying their love of vain glory. They enlist 
themselves, they accept the terms, they array themselves in 
arms, and the conqueror seizes all that belongs to the van- 
quished, according to stipulations founded on the detestable 
love of gain ; and, if I may compare great things with small, 
they whisper to one another, like Judah and his brother 
Jonathan, dwelling in the land of Gilead, to Joseph and 
Azarias : " Let us also get us a name, and go fight against 
the heathen that are round about us." 1 They deal wounds 
with sword and spear, little heeding what will be the fate of 
the miserable souls of the slain. During the rebellion of 
those who revolted against the king, many on both sides were 
wounded, taken prisoners, and thrown into confinement. The 
bishop of Ely, finding the valour of the king and the impetu- 
osity of his troops, gave way, nay, fled like a hireling, and 
retiring to the neighbourhood of Gloucestershire, went over 
to earl Robert. Nor was it to be wondered at, for he had 
lost, as it were, his right hand, when his uncle, Roger, bishop 
of Salisbury, died. The king took possession of Ely castle, 
and placed his own soldiers in it. 1 

[Thurstan, Archbishop of York, retires to PonUfraet.] 

Thurstan, the twenty-sixth archbishop of York in succes- 
sion, a man advanced in years and full of days, put off the 
old man and put on the new, retiring from worldly affairs, 
and becoming a monk at Pontefract, on the twelfth of the ides 
of February [21st January], and departing this life in * good 
old age, on the nones [the 5th] of February, he lies buried 

[Winchcombe and other. places attached.] 

Milo, the ex-constable, having assembled a numerous body 
of troops, assaulted Winchcombe on Thursday, the second of 
the calends of February [31st January], and burnt the 
greatest part of the place, which he plundered ; and carried 
off those whom he had stripped of their goods, to exact from 

1 Maccab, c. v. 55—57. * See " Gesta Stepham," pp. 371 — 373. 

*.D. 1140.] THE CIVIL WARS. 375 

them, most unjustly, the Mammon of unrighteousness [in the 
ihape of ransom]. Thence lie diverged to Sudely, but whilst 
le was meditating an at tack, the royal garrison of the place 
fell oq bim, and forced him to retreat, leaving-, as it is re- 
ported, two of his men dead on the spot, and fifteen taken 
prisoners. The king and the earl of Worcester came with a 
large army to Worcester, and after a few days, the earl first, 
find then the king, advanced to Little Hereford in great force, 
for the purpose of driving out their enemies. During the 
king's abode in those parts, the earl, mindful of the injuries 
received from his townsmen, attacked Tewkesbury with a 
strong body of men-at-arms, and burnt the magnificent house 
of the earl of Gloucester, which was within a mile of Glou- 
cester, and everything in its vicinity, as well as some property 
belonging to others ; but, yielding to the supplications of the 
lord abbot and monks of Tewkesbury, he spared their posses* 
sions. Having taken much spoil, both of men and of their 
goods and cattle, he was moved by clemency to order the 
release of the captives, and permit them to return to their 
homes ; and on the morrow lie returned to Worcester, declar- 
ing to all that he had scarcely ever made such a conflagration 
either in Normandy or England. The king, also, on his return 
to Worcester, set forward on the road to Oxford, 

The before-mentioned Maurice and Uhtrod were conse- 
crated bishops of Bangor and Llandaff by Theobald, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, assisted by the bishops of Hereford 
and Exeter. The king, on his arrival at Winchester, by the 
advice of his barons, gave the bishopric of Salisbury to Philip, 
his chancellor, and the abbey of Fecamp to Henry, a monk 
who was his kinsman. The sun was eclipsed while the moon was 
in the tail of the Dragon, hut it illumined the head. 

A compact was made between Philip, king of France, and 
Stephen, king of England, after consulting their barons, that 
Stephen's son should marry the sister of the king of France. 
The betrothal took place abroad in the month of February, 
in the presence of the queen-mother of England and a great 
number of English nobles there assembled. 

[Bobert Fitz-Hubert, a Freebooter.] 
t certain knight, whose name was Bobert, the 
This man, fearing neither 
T 2 . 


God nor man, but trusting solely to his own might, took the 
castle of Malmesbury by a well-devised stratagem. Some of 
the king's knights, who were quartered there, took refuge in 
the church of St. Aldhelm, the bishop, for sanctuary. Pressing 
these to surrender, he one day burst into the chapter-house 
of the monks, at the head of armed men, and with terrible 
threats required them, on pain of confiscation of their pro- 
perty, to give up the illustrious royalists, with their 
horses. They, however, in horror at permitting the 
peace of God, and their patron, St. Aldh plm, being 
broken, refused to consent to his demand ; but at last, al- 
though reluctantly, to appease his fury, they gave up the 
horses. After Robert Fitz-Hubert had held the castle for 
some time, and had exhausted the whole neighbourhood by 
his ravages, the king came to its succour, and besieged the 
place for nearly eight days. William d" Ypres, a kinsman, they 
say, of this Robert, was the go-between for the surrender of 
the castle, and settled, at last, with the king, terms of peace — 
the castle being given up, with entire submission to his royal 
rights ; which was done. 

Meanwhile, Robert joined the earl of Gloucester, proposing 
to stay with him for a time, but all the while meditating 
treachery. Not long afterwards, as he had neither sense nor 
inclination to follow a right course, but still thirsted for 
blood, he betook himself, with his own retainers, to Devizes, 
without the earl's knowledge ; and having first made a com- 
pact with his followers, that the castle, once taken, should 
never be surrendered, he scaled the wall by force or strata- 
gem, 1 and sounded the note of triumph to the king's soldiers 
in the garrison, stormed by surprise the exterior forts, and 
made many the victims of his cruelty. Four days afterwards, 
by force or fraud, he got possession of the citadel within, and, 
in the pride of his heart, ravaged every part of the neigh- 
bourhood by day and by night, doing incessantly all the 
damage he could. At last, he repaired to John, a knight of 
renown, who then held the castle of Marlborough under fealty 
to the king, and required him, with threats, to follow his 

1 He gained the summit in the night time by means of scaling ladders 
made of thongs. Cf. the account of this ruffian in the "Gesta 
Stephani," pp. 374, &c. Malmesbury also gives some strange anec- 
dotes of his barbarity. 

L.D. 1110.] THE CIVIL WARS. 277 

dvioe, or rather his injunction, and agree with him and hold 
nth him in wreaking his saianic maliie, not only on the king-, 
nit on the earl and every one else ; menacing him, on his 
efusal, that he should forfeit his life when lie least expected 
t. John replied : " Id the name of God, I would rather 
aake another man my prisoner than be taken myself;" and 
mmediately seized him, and throwing him into confinement, 
u just retaliation caused all the torrurea which he had inflicted 
m others to he exhausted on himself. 

The earl of Gloucester, and Milo. the ex- eon stable, hearing 
>f these occurrences, came to the said John, with many lol- 
owers, and the earl promised to give him five hundred marks, 
in condition that he should deliver Robert to him on a set 
lay, upon receiving good hostages from himself, John, won 
>ver by the promise of the money and the hostages, delivered 
Robert to the carl, on the terms of his being restored to him 
rithin fifteen days. This compact being made, the eari re- 
urned to Gloucester, taking Rohert with him. They then 
rested respecting the castle of Devizes, of which the earl 
-equired at his hands a voluntary surrender, Robert, how- 
>ver, refused, being loth to break the oath he had made to 
lis comrades, that the castle should never be given up. 
3ut being terrified by threats of being hung on a gallows, in 
uder to save his life, he engaged to yield to the demand. 
A'ithin the time fixed by the agreement, this ruffian was led 
jack to the presence of John ; to whom the earl told all that 
lad happened, and how John, terrified by bis threats, had 
iromised to deliver up the castle. He also requested him 
igain to permit Robert to accompany him to Devizes, pledg- 
ing himself that if he should chance to obtain possession of 
he castle, it should be given up to John, to be held under 
fealty to him. The earl's proposal being acceded to, he im- 
nediately returned to Devizes with Robert, In the mean- 
;ime, the said John sent letters to all, both within and without 
.he castle, assuring them, on his solemn oath, that neither he 
ior the earl would do any injury to Robert ; any how, they 
■vere to see to it that their oath not to give up the castle to 
iny one was faithfully adhered to. The earl returned to 
jloueester, leaving the ex-constable and a man of great 
>ower, named Humphrey, with some others, behind him ; 
vith general orders that, if Robert refused to make a volun- 

278 ' FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1140. 

tary surrender of the castle, he should be hung. Robert did 
refuse, and his friends refused also, lest they should appear 
perjured. In short, after his two nephews had been hanged, 
he was taken and hanged also. All praise be to God who 
delivered up the wicked ! 

Before the Assumption of St. Mary [15th August], the earl 
of Gloucester marched his army towards Bath, but the king 
had long before despatched light troops to watch the enemy's 
motions, and place an ambuscade for the defence of themselves 
and the country. The two parties met; on the one side 
were the king's troops, among whom were two knights, John 
and Roger, both men of spirit and courage ; on the other 
side were the earl's retainers. Many were taken prisoners; 
more were wounded and slain ; one of whom, Geoffrey 
Talbot, 1 a bold but crafty knight, now joining the king, 
now the earl, and thus steeped in treachery, was mortally 
wounded, and dying in consequence on the eleventh of the 
calends of September [22 August], was buried with the 
canons at Gloucester. The royal troops, however, gained 
the victory. 

[Nottingham plundered and burnt] 

Before the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], Robert, 
son of king Henry, instigated by Ralph Paganel, took with 
him the knights of the earl of Warwick, and with those he 
drew out of Gloucestershire and a great body of common 
soldiers, made a sudden attack on the town of Nottingham, 
and finding there was no force to defend it, commenced 
plundering it, the townsmen from all quarters taking refuge 
in the churches. One of these, who was reported to be a 
wealthy man, having been laid hold of, was led tightly bound 
to his house that he might be forced to give up his money. 
The man conducted the free-booters, over greedy for spoil, into 
a chamber underground, where all his household wealth was 
supposed to be stored. But while they were intent upon 
pillage and breaking open doors and locks, he cunningly 
slipped away, and gaining the chambers and then the hall, 
closed all the doors behind them and fastened them with 

1 See " Gesta Stephani," pp. 351— 376.— Antiq. Lib. It wu this 
Geoffrey Talbot who sacked and burnt Hereford. See before, pp. 261 
and 272. 

A.l). 1140.] STEPHEN MADE PRISONER. 279 

bolts. He then set fire to bis limine and consigned the buildings 
and all his goods, together with the robbers, to the flames. 
It is reported that more than thirty men who were in the 
cellar perished by the fire, and some say that it spread 
through the whole town and burnt it to the ground ; for, the 
knights and the whole army swore that they were guiltless 
of having set it on fire. Thus the whole place was consumed, 
and all who could be taken outside the churches were carried 
into captivity ; some of them as far as Gloucester. The rest 
of the common people, men, women and children, who had 
fled to the churches, not daring to come forth for fear of 
being taken by the enemy, nearly all perished as the churches 
fell a prey to the Miring conflagration. It was a cruel sight, 
and even the enemy were filled with sorrow when they be- 
held the temples of God, which even the heathen would 
have spared, consumed by fire. Thus Nottingham was laid 
in ruins ; a most noble town, whieh from the time of the 
Norman conquest of England to the present had flourished 
in the greatest peace and tranquillity, and abounded in wealth 
of all kinds and a numerous population. 

A certain monk, of profound learning and knowledge, 
Peter by name, was preferred to the abbey of Malniesbiiry 
by Henry, bishop of Winchester, and legate of the holy 
Roman church. Having assumed the monastic habit at 
Cluni, he filled for some time the office of prior of La Charity, 
and was removed from thence to preside over the monastery 
of St. Urban, pope, in the diocese of Catalonia, but troubles 
increasing and threatening his own safety, he was compelled 
to quit the place, and at the instance of the before-mentioned 
bishop of Winchester, came to England, and this year under- 
took the government of the aforesaid church. 

[Stephen made prisoner at the battle of Lincoln.] 

Stephen, king of England, after long toils and sieges of 
castles, in which he had struggled during five years and six 
weeks for the peace of the kingdom, at last, on the day of 
the Purification of St. Mary [2nd February], which fell on 
Sexagesima Sunday, was, by the just judgment of God, out- 
manoeuvred and taken prisoner at the siege of Lincoln castle by 
Robert, earl of Gloucester, his uncle's son, and Ranulph, 


earl of Chester ;' and, bring first brought to Gloucester on 
Quinqnageaima Sunday [9th February], wag then oa a Sa M 
to the city of Bristol and placed in custody. Many of his 
adherents were tuken with him and thrown into prison. 

[The Empress Matilda acknowledged queen.] 

Meanwhile, the lady empress-queen, Henry's daughter, 
who was staying at Gloucester, was overjoyed at this even!, 
having now, as it appeared to her, got possession < * 
kingdom for which fealty had been sworn to her;' she there- 
fore, having consulted her council, left the city on the fifth 
day after Ash -Wednesday [17th February], and attended by 
two bishops, Bernard, bishop of St. David's, and Nigel, li-linti 
of Ely, with Gilbert, abbot of Winchester, and many barons, 
knights, and ollieers, proceeded to Cirencester, the first 
place at which she lodged after such joyful intelligence, and 
of which she received the allegiance. Departing thence, 
when she drew near to tbo city of Winchester, there ad- 
vanced, to meet her, in great state and pomp, tbe bishops of 
almost all England, many barons, a great number of n 
of high rank, innumerable knights, divers abbots with theii 
societies, and two convents of monks and a third of n 
chanting in procession hymns and thanksgivings, and tht 
clergy of tbe place with the citizen* and crowds of the people. 
Thereupon, the famous city of Winchester was delivered over 
to her; she received possession of tbe royal crown of England,' 
and the legate himself cursed those who curse her, bleued 
those who bless her, excommunicating her adversaries, anil 
absolving those who submitted to her government. 

The lady [Matilda] departing from Winchester with her 
court went to Wilton, where Theobald, archbishop of Canler- 

1 The best account, uf the battle of Lincoln is givon by Henry of 
Huntingdon, who was a canon of that church, ami most probably 
reei dent there at the time of the battle. 8ee bis History, pp. 2T3— 
280, Antig. Lib. The account, in " li.-la Stephani" is singularly de- 
ficient in details, ibid, p. 378. Roger of Wendover's in rather niore 
circumstantial, ibid, vol. )., p. 492. 

* See before, under the year 1 12fi, p. 241. 

' "The royal crown, which she had al ways ardently desired," Mf< 
tho author of " Gesta Stephani.*' p. 381. The bishop-legate, Henry tie 
Rhus, caused her to be proclaimed queen in tbe market place tt 
Winchester; but it does not appear that Matilda w 

mat plau « 

A.D. 1140. J THE EMPilESa MATILDA. 281 

bury, came to pay his respects. Here such crowds of people 
flocked to meet her, that the ij'iics of the town hardly allowed 
their entrance. After celebi'iaiui; there the feast of Easter, 
she came in the lioyatiou days [-Ifli May] to Reading, where 
she was received with honours ; the chief men and the people 
pouring in from all quarters to tender their allegiance. 
While there, she sounded one of the leaders, Robert D'Oyley, 
respecting the surrender of Oxford castle, and upon his con- 
senting to it, she proceeded there and received the fealty 
and homage of the whole city and the country round. Con- 
tinuing her progress, she was received at the monastery of 
Si. Albans, with processions, and honours, and rejoicings. 
Many of the citizen-; of London can ic to her there, and had 
various conferences with her touching the surrender of the 

[A violent thunder-storm.] 
About this time a terrible occurrence took place in the 
diocese of Worcester, which we tiiink is worthy relating. On 
Wednesday before the octave of our Lord's Ascension [11th 
May], about the ninth hour of the day, at a village called 
Walffishurn, distant one mile from Hampton, the country seat 
of the bishop of Worcester, 1 there arose a violent whirlwind, 
accompanied by a frightful darkness reaching from earth to 
heaven, which striking the house of a priest named Leofrid 
levelled it to the ground and shattered it to pieces, with all 
the out-buildings ; it also tore off the roof of the church, and 
carried it across the river Avon. Nearly fifty houses of the 
villagers were thrown down and ruined in the same way. 
Hailstones also fell as large as a pigeon's egg, which striking 
a woman caused her death. At this spectacle all present were 
filled with terror and dismay. 

[Matilda goes to London.] 
The empress, as we have already said, having treated with 
the Londoners, lost no time in entering the city with a great 
attendance of bishops and nobles: and being received at 
Westminster with a magnificent procession, took up her abode 
there for some days to set in order the affairs of the kingdom. 
Her first care was to take measures for the good of God's holy 
1 Hampton -Lucy, near Stratford-upon-Avon. 


church, according to the advice of good men. She therefore 
gave the bishopric of London to a monk of Beading, a vene- 
rable man, Robert by name [who accepted it], in the presence 
and by the command of his reverend abbot, Edward. God's 
business being thus done, the queen of England interceded 
with the lady [Matilda] for her lord the king, who was a 
captive in close custody and fetters. She was also entreated 
on his behalf by the highest and greatest nobles of England, 
who offered to deliver to her any number of hostages, with 
castles and large sums of money if the king were set free, and 
his liberty, though not his kingdom, was restored to him; 
promising to persuade him to abdicate the crown, and thence- 
forth devote himself to the service of God only, as a monk or 
pilgrim ; but she would not listen to them. The bishop of 
Winchester, too, petitioned her that the earldom which belonged 
to his brother, should be given to his nephew, the king's son, 
but the lady [Matilda] refused also to listen to him. The 
citizens also prayed her that they might be permitted to live 
under the laws of king Edward, which were excellent, instead 
of under those of her father; king Henry, which were grievous. 
But, refusing to accept good advice, she very harshly rejected 
their petition, and in consequence there was a great tumult 
in the city ; and a conspiracy being formed against her, the 
citizens, who had received her with honour, now attempted 
to seize her person with indignity. Being, however, fore- 
warned by some of them, she fled shamefully with her 
retinue, leaving all her own and their apparel behind. 1 

The bishop of Winchester, who was also legate of the holy 
Roman church, perceiving this, turned his mind to his brother's 
liberation, and to accomplish it, gained over the good-will 
and influence of the Londoners to his purpose. Meanwhile, 
the fugitive lady reached Gloucester, by way of Oxford, where, 
having consulted with Milo, the ex-constable, she immediately 
returned with him to Oxford, intending to tarry there while 
she re-assembled her scattered troops. And as she had chiefly 
used the counsel, and been supported by the assistance of Milo, 
insomuch that up to that time she had neither received pro- 
visions for a single day, nor had her table served, except by 
his munificence and forethought, as we have heard from 

1 See "Gesta Stephani," pp. 383—386, Antiq. Lib. 


-lilo's own mouth, 1 she conferred upon hiin while she was 
here the earldom of Hereford, to Kind 1dm mure closely to her 
;rviee, and as a distinguished reward for it. 

\The siege and " rout " of Wincliester.] 
Her forces having increased in power arid numbers, on the 
pproach of the feast of St. Peter ad Yitietila [1st August], she 
ent to Winchester, unknown to her brother, f.lie carl of Bristol, 
ut finding the place already indisposed towards her, she took 
p her quarters in the castle. Astonished at her unexpected 
rrival, and exceedingly disturbed in consequence, Henry, 
iskop of that city, left it by another gate, and withdrew him- 
_'lf then and for ever from her presence. They being now at 
ariance, this wealthy city, so glorious for ages, and whose 
ime was renowned through all lands, was suddenly placed in 
state of siege, kin.-tolk engaging ii. mutual hostilities, and the 
uhabitants and their good* being destroyed by common and 
mercenary soldiers, who, breathing fury, spread themselves 
hrough it for this purpose. Nor did this alone suffice to 
atisfy the bishop's wrath, for goaded bv rage, and to strike 
error and dismay into the hearts of the people, he determined 

set fire to the city and burn it to the ground ; and this he 
id. Thus on the second of the month of August, having 
red the city, he reduced to ashes the monastery of nuns with 
:s buildings, more than forty churches, with the largest and 
est part of the place, and, lastly, the monastery of monks 
evoted to God and St. Grimbald, with its buildings. 

There was in this church of St. Grimbald a great and holy 
•oss, made long since by order of king Canute, and by him 
tquisitely enriched with gold and silver, jewels and precious 
ones. Wonderful to relate, this cross, on the approach of the, as if conscious of the impending danger, began to 
seat and grow black before the eyes of the monks who were 
-esent, yea, it waxed as black as the incendiaries themselves; 
id the very instant it caught fire, three awful claps of loud 
■under sounded as it were from heaven. The city being 

1 It appears from this and other incidental notices, that the monk 
1 Worcester, to whom we are indebted for the continuation of the 
hronicle of Florence, was not only cotemporary with the events he 
■tribes, but bad access to persons of rank who took a leading part 



thus burnt within and beleagurcd by the enemy without, the 
bishop is reported to have said to the earl of Northampton, 
" Behold, lord ear], you have my command, let it be your 
business to raze it to the ground ;" words which disclose the 
inmost feelings of the speaker's heart. Seven weeks having 
been spent in the siege, the bishop, weary at last of its loaj 
duration, on the eve of the day preceding tlie feast of the 
Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14th September], ordered pi 
to be proclaimed throughout the city, and the gates to I* 
thrown open. 

The empress hail already mourned her horse, accompanied 
and guided by her brother, Reginald ; leaving more than two 
hundred cavalry under the command of the earl of Bristol 
[Gloucester], as a rear-guard, when the bishop suddenly 
ordered his troops to fly to arms, and making a desperate 
attack on the enemy, take as many prisoners as they could. 
Many were thus captured, and very many scattered and slain, 
among whom was a knight named William de Cureell, with 
six troopers ; and he was buried at St. Grime-aid's. The lad)' 
[Matilda], learning this, was in great terror and dismay, and 
reached the castle of Luggorshall, for which she was making, 
sad and sorrowful ; but she found it no safe resting-place for 
fear of the bishop. In consequence, by the advice of her 
friends, she once more mounted her horse, male fashion, acl 
was oonducted to Devizes ; but apprehending that she should 
not be safe from her pursuers even there, she was placed, 
already nearly half-dead, upon a hearse, and being bound with 
cords like a corpse, and borne upon horses, was carried, igno- 
tuiniously enough, to the city of Gloucester. 1 

Meanwhile, her brother, Robert, the earl of Bristol [Glou- 
cester], having left Winchester by another road, was ban! 
pressed by those who went in. pursuit, and being captured it 
Stolbridge by the Flemings, under earl Warreue, and brought 
to the queen, who was residing there, was by her command 
given in custody to William d' Ypres, and confined it 
Rochester. Milo, earl of Hereford, being hemmed in by tins 

1 A very cin.'ii;iHlaaiia! acomrit of the siege of Winchester, ni 
the "rout" of Matilda's forces is given in the " Gesta Stephani," PJ 
386 — 390. Our author here adds some curious details connected wtU 
her escape, which we may conclude, from his position, he d»ri"J 
from local information. 

A.D. 1140.] KT. CROSS Bl-ltNT. 285 

enemy, threw off his armour and all his accoutrements, and, 
glad to escape with his lift', flod in disgrace, reaching Glou- 
cester, weary, alone, and' naked. John, also, their abettor, 
was pursued by the bishop's soldiers to the monastery of 
Wherwell, where he had taken refuge : and being unable to 
drive him out, they set fire to the church of St. Cross, oo the 
very day of the feast of the Exaltation of (he Holy Cross [14th 
September], burnt it to the ground, with the uuos' houses 
and effects, and carried off, without scruple, their vestments, 
books, and ornaments, after much horrible effusion of human 
Wood before the holy altar; hut yet they could neither take 
nor drive out John before mentioned. Elfrida, the wife of 
Edgar, the glorious king of England, [during his reign] 1 
erected this monastery in honour of St. Cross, being struek 
with remorse for the murder of her step-son. 

After these events, bishop Henry's wrath being somewhat 
appeased, while his covetousiiess knew no bounds, at the sug- 
gestion of the prior of the new minster which had been just 
burnt down, he recovered from the ashes of the cross five 
hundred pounds of silver, thirty marks of gold, and three 
'towns, with as many steps of the purest Arabian gold studded 
all round with precious stones of most exquisite and admirable 
workmanship, and laid them up in his own treasury. 

[Stephen exchanged for the Earl of Oloucetter.] 

Meanwhile, the king and the earl were kept in custody, 
but the queen employing herself actively on the king's behalf, 
and the countess using great exertions for the earl, after many 
messengers and confidential friends had passed to and fro 
between them, the following terms were the result of the 
deliberations on both sides; namely, that the king being 
restored to his royal dignity, and the earl being invested with 
the dominion of the whole of England under him, both should 
become just administrators and restorers of the peace in the 

1 The words between the brackets eomey a gross anachronism. 
King Edgar died in 975, and [St.] Edward, who succeeded him, was 
murdered in 978. A note in the margin of one of the MSS. states the 
fact that "Aelfdryth"" erected the monastery of St. Cross with the 
motive here stated, but omits the words in the text, which assigns a 
date to the foundation incompatible with the facts. 


government and country, as they had hitherto been the authors 
and promoters of all its dissensions and disturbances. Bat 
the earl refusing to carry this into effect, without the consent 
of the empress, his sister, repudiated all that had been con- 
certed in the affair, and utterly rejected all terms of peace 
and alliance with the king. Whence it came to pass that 
they parted without any pacification, and during the whole of 
the ensuing year, in all parts of .the kingdom and country, 
pillage of the poor, slaughter of men, and violation of churches 
cruelly 1 

1 The old printed text ends here abruptly. In one of the MSS. tht 
interval between the year 1141, where the first Continuation of 
Florence's Chronicle terminates, and the year 1152, where the secotd 
Continuation begins, is supplied by a transcript from Henry Htt- 
tingdon's history of that period, for which see pp. 273 — 291, Antiq.IA> 





[a.i>. 1152.] The emperor Courad suceeedeil the emperor 

A divorce was decreed between Lewis, king of France, 
and queen Eleanor, the daughter of William, duke of Aqui- 
taine, by whom the king then had two daughters. Henry, 
duke of Normandy, iiiiirvii'd this Eleanor, and received with 
her the county of Aquiraine. St. Bernard, abbot of Clair- 
vaux, died on the thirteenth of tiie calends of September 
[20th August]. 

[a.d. 1153.] 

[a.d. 1154.] Benedict, prior of Canterbury, was trans- 
ferred as abbot to Peterborough. Adrian was made pope. 

[a.d. 1155.] Queen Eleanor bore a son, whom she called 
Henry. Frederic was crowned as emperor. 

[a.d. 1156.] Queen Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, 
named Matilda. 

[a.d. 1157.] Queen Eleanor gave birth at Oxford to her 
son Richard. 

[a.d. 1158.] Queen Eleanor gave birth to Geoffrey. 

[a.d. 1159.] Adrian died, and thereupon a schism arose 
from the election of two popes. The kings of France and 
England acknowledged pope Alexander, while the emperor 
adhered to Octavian, on whose behalf he wrote to the two 
kings before mentioned, but did not obtain his object. 

[a.d. 1160.] The marriage between Henry, son of the 
king of England, and the daughter of the king of France, was 
celebrated. Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, died. 

288 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [\.». 11C1-70. 

[a.d. 1161.] Queen Eleanor bore a daughter, to whom 
she gave the name of Eleanor. 1 

[a.d. 1162.] The council of Tours was held, 3 at which 
Thomas, the archbishop, was much honoured by the pope. 

[a.d. 1163.] 

[a.d. 116+.] Tlie bishops of England are called tocher 
at Clarendon, to take account of the customs of the realm, " 
Loose clerks are denounced. Archbishop Thomas withdraws 
privately ; the king duly summoned him to answer in hi* 

[a.d. 116j.] Eleanor, bore a son, who was called .'ulin 
Sans-terre. 1 

[a.d. 1166— 69.] 

[a.d. 1170.] In this year the king held his court, (luring 
the feast of Easter, at Windsor ; at which festival there wsn> 
present William, king of Scotland, and David his brother, aiul 
nearly all the nobles and great men of England, both bishop, 
carls, and barons. 

[A council of nobles at London.] 

After celebrating the feast of Easter, the king went from 
thence to London, and there held a great council for the 
coronation of his eldest son Henry, and making laws for his 
kingdom ; and there he dismissed nearly all the sherifls (J 
England and their baililts. for having ill-treated the liege- 
men of his realm. And each of the sheriffs and bailiffs fi.nroil 
pledges for himself to abide by the judgment of the court, 
and give such redress to our lord the king, and the liege-men 
of the realm, as they ought to do out of their reprises. Aftf" 
wards the king caused all the liege-men of his realm, to wit, 
the earls, barons, knights, free tenants, and even villein?. *■> 
swear, on the holy gospels, in their several counties, that they 
would tell the truth, namely, what and how much the iberiH's 

1 According to Roger of Wenriover and Matt. Westm., the prb«« 
Eleanor was horn in ll(!2. 
5 The council of Tours was not held till 1163. 

3 The famous "OnstiUilujus nf ClaremW were framed on lb» 
They may bo seen in Wilkin* 's Cone, and Rog»r W 

wards king John; he was boru 


l.D. 1170.] PRINCE HENRY CROWNED. 289 

ind their bailiff's levied on them, anil what judicially, and what 
i'il.r.1 judicially, and for what default. But injury was 
thus done to the English nation, for, after the inquisition 
*M made, the king reinstated some of the sheriffs in their 
offices, and they became afterwards more oppressive than they 
■ere before. Moreover, in the aforesaid council, (he king 
nused Roger, archbishop of York, Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
ind the other bishops of his kingdom, to be summoned to 
meet at London at a. time appointed. 

[Coronation of Henry II.' t eldest son Henry. ~\ 

On the following Sunday, which was the eighteenth of the 
calends of July [1 4-th June], and the vigil of SS. Vitus and 
Modestus, martyrs, and St. Crescent ia, virgin, king Henry 
aused his eldest son Henry to be crowned and consecrated 
iing at Westminster, by Roger, archbishop of York and 
egate of the episcopal sue, being assisted in the ceremony by 
Jugh, bishop of Durham, Gilbert, bishop of London, Josce- 
ine, bishop of Salisbury, and Walter, bishop of Rochester; 
nd almost all the earls, bishops, and nobles of the realm 
'eing present. On the morrow after the consecration, the 
lag made William, king of Scotland, and David, his brother, 
ud all the earls, barons, and frank-tenants of his kingdom, 
o homage to the new king, his son ; and swear, on the relics 
f the saints, allegiance and fealty to him against all the 
■orld, save only their fealty to himself. And there the king 
btained the consent of the earls and barons for crossing the 
» to Normandy, because Lewis, king of France, bruited 
broad that his daughter Margaret was not crowned with her 
osband, the new king of England, and therefore proposed to 
ar up war in Normandy. 

{King Henry falls sick in Normandy.] 

Accordingly, the king passed over to Normandy, setting 
til from Portsmouth about the feast of St. John the Baptist 
24th June], and sent his son, the new king, to England, 
mpowering him to administer affairs and justice under a new 
sal, which he ordered him to make. About the octave of 


the feast of SS. Peter and Paul [Gth July], the king came to 
Ferte- Bernard, 1 and consulted Count Theobald about making 
peace between himself and the king of France, and then thej 
departed. And the king, about the feast of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen [22ud July], went ns far as Vendome" to treat with [he 
king of France, and in that conference they came to such -s 
mutual understanding, that for the time they remained in 

The conference being ended, the liing returned to Nor- 
mandy, and reaching La Motte Gernee, not far from Dom- 
front," about the feast of St. Lawrence [10th August], there 
fell so dangerously ill, that it was reported throughout France 
that he was dead; and there he divided his kingdom mid 
dominions amongst his sons. He gave to Henry, his eldest 
son, the kingdom of England and the duchy of Normandy, 
with the counties of Anjou and Maine ; and committed to liim 
the maintenance and promotion of his youngest brother Xilm. 
To his sou Richard, he gave the duchy of Aqtiitaine, with all 
its appurtenances, to be held of the king of France. 

Afterwards, he commanded the bishops, earls, and barons, 
who were ahout him during his sickness, that if he did not 
recover, they should convey his body to Grammont, near St. 
Leonard's,* and showed them a charter which the good men 
of Grammont had granted him for the interment of his 
remains at the entrance of the chanter-house of Grammont, 
at the feet of the superior of that house, who lay buried there. 
On hearing this lliey were much surprised, and were unwilling 
to allow it, saying that it was derogatory to his royal dignity. 
The king, however, persisted in enjoining compliance with lib 
wishes; but, by the will of Divine Providence, he shortly 
afterwards recovered from his sickness, and, as soon as he 
was able, in fulfilment of a vow made during Ids illness, lie 
proceeded with all haste, about the feast of St. Michael [29th 

1 La Fert6- Bernard, on ill" ltnisn<\ui tin. 1 department of La Sarthe. 
' Venilumc, on one of the branches of the Loire. Some ruins of its 
ancient castle still remain. 

3 Domfront was a strong frontier fortress of Normandy, of great 

* St.. Leonard's stands on the right bank of the Vienne, about tea 

i.D. 1170.] becket's ghievanceb. 29X 

September], to St. Mary's of Rocamadour, 1 and having per- 
formed his pilgrimage returned into Anjou. 

[Dispute! between king Henry and Thomas A Becht.'] 
Meanwhile, St. Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, who 
was now in the sixth year of his exile, hearing that in his 
absence, and in despite of his privileges, a new king had 
been consecrated in England, at London, by Eoger, arch- 
bishop of York, was greatly chagrined ; and turning in his 
mind how he might best vindicate the rights of the church of 
Canterbury, sent frequent messengers to pope Alexander, 
entreating him to censure the archbishop of York and his 
coadjutors who had assisted him in llin consecration of the 
new king of England. Likewise, the same year, Lewis, king 
of France, solicited the Roman pontiff on be! i id!' of the afore- 
Mid archbishop of Canterbury, entreating him, as he valued 
his personal regard, and the respect lie paid him, and from his 
love of the kingdom of France, and for the honour of the 
apostolic see, no longer to allow the procrastinating pleas 
lodged by the king of England. C'<>iii|:.assii>i];iiing, also, the de- 
solate condition nf the church of England, William, archiiishop 
of Sens, petitioned the apostolic see, and besought the church 
of Rome that, all appeals being quashed, the king of England 
should be sentenced to excommunication, and the kingdom 
laid under an interdict, unless peace were restored to the 
church of Canterbury. The day peremptorily fixed, beyond 
which the sentence could no longer be deferred, -was now 
at hand. 

The king of England, therefore, constrained by his fears of 
the rigour of the canons, at length consented to restore peace 
to the English church, and about the feast of St. Denys, on 
Monday the fourth of the ides [the 12th] of October, he 
came as far as Amboise, in the neighbourhood of Tours, 
attended by the archbishops, bishops, and great men of his 
realm, to meet William, archbishop of Sena, and Theobald, 
count de Elois, who brought with them St. Thomas, archbishop 

1 De rape A rlamatorit. The place is situated near Cahors, on the 
high road from Paris to Bayunne. Its famous Oratories, dedicated, 
the one to St. Mary, and the other to St. Amadour, on the summit of 
the rock overhanging tlie talley of the little river Alzou, which fall* 
into the Dordogue, are still the resort of the religious. 

c 2 


of Canterbury. On the morrow, king Henry, in conformity to 
the will of Divine Providence, and in compliance with the 
instances of the king of France, and tlie mandate and moni- 
tion of pope Alexander, as well as by the advice of the arch- 
bishops and bishops of his realm, re-adioitted the before- 
mentioned archbishop of Canterbury to his favour and love, 
and he pardoned him and all who were in exile with hire, 
anil shared his wrath :iw.l persecution ; promising that all tie 
possessions of the church of Canterbury should be restored 
to him entire, as he held them the year before he departed 
front England. 

There were great rejoicings among the people throughout 
the kingdom on the arrival and re-establishment of their 
father, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury; for he, apprehen- 
sive of the peril of souls, and conducted to his see by the 
king's orders, returned to England on the calends [the 1st] 
of December, in the seventh year of his exile. Arriving it 
Canterbury, lie was received by the clergy and people as an 
angel of the Lord, the multitude shouting with one voice, 
" Blessed is he that conicth in the name of the Lord.'' On 
his part, he, like a good shepherd, received them all with the 
kiss of peace, and addressing to them a paternal admonition, 
enjoined on them the love of their brethren; while, if needs 
be, they should lay down their lives, and contend unto death 
for the law of God. The lord pope having, on the complaint 
of St. Thomas, learnt the presumption of the before-mentioned 
archbishop of York, and the bishops, his coadjutors, he sus- 
pended Roger, archbishop of York, Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
and Walter, bishop of Rochester, from their episcopal func- 
tions, and issued a sentence of excommunication against 
Gilbert, bishop of London, and .loscelino, bishop of Salisbury. 
This harsh proceeding, which was published on the restoration 
of St. Thomas, further embittered the king's mind, and gave 
a fresh poignancy to the envenomed tongues of the arch- 
bishop's detractors. For Roger, archbishop of York, Josccline, 
bishop of Salisbury, and Gilbert, bishop of London, as sooti 
as the sentence was published against them, sailed for Nor- 
mandy, and sharpening their tongues, like a sword, prejudiced 
the king by their complaints against the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and more and more roused his indignation t 
him. The champion of Christ was, therefore, again stit 

».». 1170.] becket's martthdom. 293 

to losses, and made again the mark for more atrocious and 
excessive injustice; and he was even prohibited, by a public 
edict, from going beyond the bounds of his church. Whoever 
gave him, or any of his friends, a civil word, was thought a 
public enemy. But the man of God bore all these injuries 
with exemplary patience, and living on familiar terms with 
those about them, edified all by his conversation. 

[Martyrdom of St. Thomas A Beeket.'] 
This year the son of the empress Matilda' held his court at 
Euros, in Normandy, on the day of our Lord's Nativity, which 
fell on Friday, in much sorrow and trouble at the refusal of 
the archbishop of Canterbury to absolve the English bishops 
from the sentence of excommunication which he had pro- 
nounced on them. The kind's indignation being Thus raised, 
four knights of his household and family, desirous of relieving 
him from the. disturbance of mind which tliey observed to be 
preying upon Iiira, secretly and without the king's knowledge 
harried to the coast, for the purpose of crossing the sea to 
England, and, having landed there, lost no time in taking the 
road to Cantcrhury, The holy fluffier had scarcely resided a 
month at his church, wlicn, live days after ('lirisscmaa, the four 
knights, or rather the hirelings of Satan, before mentioned, 
whose names are William de Tracy, Hugh de MorvlDe, 
Richard Briton, and Reginald Fit/.-Urse, rushed furiously and 
ready armed into the church, at the entrance of which they 
cried loudly, "Where — where is the traitor?" No one 
making any answer, they again demanded, "Where is the 
archbishop of Canterbury?" Upon which he replied, "Here 
am I, the servant of Christ, whom ye seek." One of the ill- 
omened knights then said to him in a rage, " You shall die, 
for it must not be that you live any longer." The archbishop 
answered, with as much firmness of expression as of spirit, 
" I am ready to give up my life in the cause of God, and 
as the champion of justice and of the liberties of the church. 
But if ye seek my life, I forbid you, in God's name, and under 
the penalty of being held accursed, from doing any sort of 
injury to any other, he he monk, or clerk, or layman, of high 
or low degree; let them be free from harm, as they are from any 

' Hi'iirv Fid -Empress. 

294: FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D. 1170. 

pretence for it." Do not his words seem to express those of 
Christ, when lie said, during his passion, " If ye seek me, let 
these go their way " ?' Having said this, and seeing the exe- 
cutioners draw their swords, he honed Ills head in the act of 
prayer, and poured forth these his last words : " I commend 
myself and the cause of the church to God and St. Mary, and 
the saints who are the patrons of this church, and to St. 

After that, in the midst of all his anguish, the undaunted 
martyr, with wonderful firmness, uttered not a word nor a 
cry, nor suffered a groan to escape him ; nor did he raise Iirn 
arm or cover himself with his robe io protect himself from his 
assailants, hut retained imnnivahly the attitude he had assumed, 
bowing his head to the stroke of their swords, until their 
work was done. Thereupon the knights before mentioned, 
being in fear from the concourse of multitudes of both sexes, 
who flocked together on all sides, that a rescue would be 
made, and their uttcnipt foiled, hastened the accomplish meat 
of their villanous deed; and one of them, brandishing hia 
sword and aiming a blow at the archbishop's head, nearly 
struck otf the arm of a certain clerk, named Edward Grhn.'itt 
the same time wounding in the head the Lord's anointed; for 
tins clerk had thrust out his arm over the father's Iiead to 
intercept the assailant, or rather to ward oft' the blow. Stif! 
the righteous sufferer for justice stood like an innocent lamb, 
without a murmur, without a complaint, and offered himself a 
sacrifice to the Lord. And now, that not one of the accursed 
gang might be able to say that the bishop was free from 
injury by his hands, a second and third knight dealt heavy 
blows on the head of the intivpid champion of the faith, which 
they fractured, and levelled the victim of the Holy Spirit to 
the ground ; and a fourth, 3 raving with an excess of bar- 
barity, cut oft' his shaven crown, while he was prostrate and »t 
the last gas|>, and, shuttering his skull, inserted the point of 
his aword, and scattered his blood and brains on the stone 

Thus, in the beginning of the seventh year after his banish- 
ment, this martyr, Thomas, contended even to death for lk* 

> John xviii. 8. 

- ] li- mis tin' lii'liq.V I'l-nss-liearcr. 
1 Hia name was Hugh de Horsay. 

A.». 1170.] THE AS9ASSIK8 ESCAPE. 295 

law of his God and the rights of the church, which in Eng- 
land were well nigh Inst, fearing not the words of wicked 
men; but founded upon a rock of strength, that is Christ, fell 
in Christ's church and for Christ's OBVBB, himself innocent, by 
the swords of the impious, on die fifth day of Christmas, 
which is the morrow of the feast of Innocents [29th Decem- 
ber]. Then all left hitn and fled, that the saying of Scrip- 
ture might be fulfilled : " I will smite the shepherd, and the 
sheep shall he scattered." 1 Meanwhile, the knights who had 
perpetrated this accursed deed made their retreat by way of 
the martyr's stable, and bringing out his horses parted them 
among themselves, each taking which he pleased : and then 
without loss of time, sensible of the atrocity of their crime, 
and despairing of pardon, did not dare to return to the king's 
court, whence they had come, hut retired into the western 
part of England as far as Knaresboroitgh, the vill of Hugh de 
Morville, where they abode until they were treated as in- 
famous by the inhabitants of that district; for all avoided 
having any intercourse with them, nor would any one sit at 
table in their company. They, therefore, ate and drank 
alone, and the fragments of their repast were thrown to the 
dogs, which having tasted, even they refused to devour. See 
here manifestly the just vengeance of God, that they who 
despised the anointed of the Lord should be even spurned by 

Meanwhile the king, who was holding his court at Bures 
as we have before mentioned, had gone to Argentan, where 
hearing that the archbishop of Canterbury had been cruelly 
murdered in the church of Canterbury, his grief was intense 
and inexpressible ; and existence became wretched to an un- 
heard of degree. For three days he partook of no food, and 
refused to speak to any one ; and led a life of solitude with 
closed doors for five weeks, until llotro, archbishop of Rouen, 
and the bishops of Normandy, came and comforted him. How- 
ever, when they had so done, Lewis, king of France, and 
William, archbishop of Sens, wrote to pope Alexander against 
the king of England, respecting the death of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, to this effect : 

1 Zechariah ijii. 7 ; Mark iiv. 27. 


[The Letter of the king of France.] 

" To his most holy lord and father, Alexander [III.], by the 
grace of God, pope, Lewis, king of France, sends greeting and 
due reverence. 

" The son who dishonours his mother is a stranger to the 
laws of human feeling ; nor is he mindful of the Creator's 
benefits, who does not sorrow for insults offered to the holy 
see. But it is to be especially lamented, and the novelty of 
the enormity draws forth a fresh burst of unspeakable grief, 
when the Lord's saint was the mark for a malignant attack, 
the pupil of Christ's eye was pierced with the sword, and the 
light of the church of Canterbury was no less cruelly than 
basely extinguished. Let justice be roused in its keenest 
form, and the sword of Peter be unsheathed to avenge the 
martyr of Canterbury ! For his blood cries for vengeance 
through the church universal, which not so much claims it 
for him as for the injury inflicted on her. Lo ! the Divine 
glory has been revealed in miracles, as we are informed, at 
the martyr's tomb, and it is manifested from heaven on the spot 
where his mortal remains rest, for whose name he fought to 
the end. The bearers of these presents, men bereaved of 
their father, will detail the particulars to your Holiness ; and 
we pray you to lend a willing ear to their testimony of the 
truth, and in this affair, as well as in others, give them the 
same credence as you would to ourselves. Tour Holiness, 

[How the king sent to the pope of Rome, after the death of 

St. Thomas.] 

While affairs were in this state, the lord [archbishop] of 
Rouen, the lord [bishop] of Evreux, and the lord [bishop] of 
Worcester, together with several of the clerks and others 
attached to the king's court, set forth on a journey to the 
Roman pontiff, on behalf of the king and his realm. -But the 
lord of Rouen, being worn with age and infirmity, when he 
had accomplished nearly half the journey, could proceed no 
further, and returned to his own see. But the before-men- 
tioned bishops, with the king's clerks, proceeded on their way, 
and succeeded with great difficulty in obtaining the pope's con- 

.D, 1170.] MISSION TO THE POPE. 297 

cnt that two cardinals, Tlieoiline and Albert, should, on his 
art, come into Normandy, to take cognizance of the caae 
,t issue between the king and the church of Canterbury 
ouching the death of St. Thomas, and respecting other 
wlesiastical dignitaries, and decide eotuvniing them as God 
hould direct. Tha envoys who had proceeded to Rome 
yrote to their lord and king w the following tenor : 

[The Letter to ih,: hiiiy hi/ hh chyles whom he sent to Rome.'] 

" To their most dearly beloved lord, Henry, the illustrious 
iing of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and 

mint of Anjou, R., abbot of W ', R., archdeacon of 

ialisbury, Rol»'rt, archdeacon of Lisieux, Richard Barre, and 
laster Henry, greeting, and loyal service in all things and 

" We would have your majesty know, that Richard Earre 
aving gone forward before us, and, after much danger and 
jffering, arrived first at the court of our lord the pjpe, we 
mr, and the two hishopa, the dean of York, and Master 
[enry, with much difficulty got as far as Sienna. There 
e were detained for some days, as count Macarius had so 
esct all the roads that no way was open to us for getting out 
f the place. When, however, we four, who with the bishops 
•ere very desirous to depart, could not accomplish it, being 
1 much trouble of mind, by common consent we made our 
scape privately at midnight, and so by mountain paths, 
nd almost impassable tracks, we at length after much peril 
nd apprehension reached Tusculum.' There we found 
Uchard Barre very anxious, as was his duty, to maintain 
our honour, and exerting himself with much prudence and 
ndustry for your profit. But he was in great distress and 
ismay, as he had neither been admitted to an interview with 
he lord pope, nor had others shown any kindness or civility 
o him. On our arrival, the pope refused to see us, and allow 
is the kiss, even of his foot ; and scarcely any of the car- 
linals condescended so much as to exchange a word with us. 
Lfter long delay, during which we were much harassed by 
.nxiety and bitterness of spirit, we entreated those who were 
liithfully attached to you to use their influence that in some 
1 •' Abbas WaUatin f " * Now called Frascatl. 


way the pope might grant us a. hearing. In the end, at their 

instance, the lord abbot of W , and R., archdeacon of 

Lisieux, were admitted to an audience, as being those of us 
who were least suspected. But when, in making their salu- 
tations on your behalf, (hey mentioned your name as a most 
devoted son of the Roman church, the whole conclave cried 
out, ' Hold, hold ! ' as if it were odious to the lord pope even 
to hear your name. 80 leaving (he conclave they returned 
late to our lord the pope, and laid before him, after con- 
sulting together, what your majesty commanded us; at the 
same time recounting all the benefits you had conferred on 
the late archbishop of Canterbury, and the succession of 
usurpations and affronts to your dignity of which he had been 
guilty. All this we detailed, first in private, and afterwards 
in the presence of our lord the pope and all the cardinals; the 
clerks of Canterbury, Alexander, and Gunter, the Fleming, 
shewing cause before them on the other side. 

" The Thursday before Easter [2.3rd March] heing dot 
near at hand, and that being the day on which, according to 
the usngc of the Roman Church, the lord pope is wont to 
absolve or excommunicate in public; as we had certain in- 
formation that up to this point their consultations tended to 
the trouble of you and your kingdom, we consulted those we 
knew to be most favourable to your majesty, namely, the lord 
[bishop] of Porto, the lord Hyacinthus, the lord [bishop] of 
Pavia, the lord Peter di Mirto (the lord John of Naples wis 
absent), and urged them most anxiously and earnestly to Id 
us know the pope's intention.-, and what he proposed to ilct'T- 
mine in our ease. But as they reported to us nothing but 
■what was disastrous and disgraceful to your highness, we 
presumed, from the sad accounts given by these persons and 
by your faithful servant, brother Francis, that the pope W 
firmly resolved, with the general consent of the conclave, to 
issue that very day a sentence of interdict against you, pf- 
sonally, and against all your dominions on this side or beyond 
the sea. Being placed in these most difficult eircumstancOi 
we used our utmost etlorts, through the cardinals smd those i>l 
our associates who had access to them, and by means of their 
intimate friends, to induce the pope to abandon this measure 
or, at least, to defer it until the arrival of your bishops. 

" Finding it impossible to eflect this, we, as our duty is. 

1. 1172.|] tiie Eif tots' letter, 299 

d as we arc your debtors, being neither able nor willing to 
ar the indignity to your person, nor the oppression to your 
lole dominions, at last had a meeting of our friends in the 
esenee of some of the cardinals, at which menu were dis- 
vered by which your honour and welfare would be secured, 
th advantage to your territories and profit to the bishops. 
/ this proceeding wo get rid of the danger and disgrace 
th which you, your dominions, and bishops were throat- 
ed, although for this immunity we expose ourselves to 
treme peril; believing, however, and having a sure hope 
at the whole affair "ill take tin* course which we think you 
mid desire. The lord bishop of Worcester and the lord 
shop of Lisicux, with Robert, dcati of Lisieux, and Master 
enry will soon be here. We left them beyond measure 
.xious and troubled, because they were not able to come 
ith us, as they wished to attend to your business. It was 
eir opinion and our own, that we oii^lit to hiisten forward 
mewhat in advance of them, in order to throw impediments 
the way of the proceedings of your adversaries to your dis- 
>nour and injury. For we had certain information that the 
arjie acfaiitsl you was lodged in court, and we were appre- 
nsive of what is customary on that day. Farewell ! and 
ly your highness long live. Bo comforted in the Lord, 
d let your heart rejoice ; for after this cloud there will 
■ fair weather, to your glory. We came to the court on 
e Saturday before Palm-Sunday [21st March], and 
e bearer of these presents leaves us on Easter-day [28th 

'King Henry's Reconciliation tciih the Court of Rome?] 

[a.d. 1172.] King Henry crossed over to Ireland, and 
ide peace with the people there. He then returned and 
itained absolution from the cardinals. Rotro [archbishop] 
Rouen crowned Margaret, the king's daughter, as the 
ture queen of England. Meanwhile the king returned 
)m Britain, and about the feast of St. Michael, the apostle, 
me into Normandy to the city of Avranches, where he 
und the before-named cardinals, and on Wednesday the fifth 
the calends of October [27th September], being the feast 
SS. Cosmo and Damianus, the martyrs, he made satisfac- 


tion to God and the pope touching the death of St. Thomia 
the martyr. For he cleared his innocence before the afore- 
said cardinals, and tin- archbishop of Rouen, and tlie bishops, 
clergy, and people of his dominions, in the church of St. 
Andrew the apostle, at Avraiiehes. He also swore on the 
Holy Gospels, before the churchmen already named, that he 
neither commanded nor wished that the archbishop of Can- 
terbury should be slain, and that when he heard of it he was 
thrown into the deepest distress. But whereas he could not 
take the malefactors who had murdered Thomas, archbishop 
of Canterbury, of blessed memory ; and whereas he feared 
that they wrought, that impious deed in consequence of their 
observing his slate of mind, he took, for satisf*!- 
tion, an oath to the following effect : — 

First, he swore that he would create no schism with pope 
Alexander, or with his catholic successors, so long as they 
treated him as a catholic king. 

Next, lie swore that he would neither hinder, nor sunk 
any hindrance, to appeals being freely made in bis kingdom 
to the pope of Koine in ecclesiastical causes; provided that 
if he saw reason to suspect the parties, they should give 
security that they would not seek the injury of himself or lib 

Moreover, ho swore that he would take the cross from Christ- 
mas then ensuing, for the term of three years, and would go 
to Jerusalem in person during the summer nest following, 
unless he staid with leave of pope Alexander, or his catholic 
successors. But if, in the meantime, he should, from urgent 
necessity, go into Spain against the Saracens, the time spent 
in that expedition should be considered as added to that 
employed in the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 

He swore, besides, that in the meantime he would pay to 
the Knights Templars such sums of money as, in the judg- 
ment of the brethren of the order, would be sufficient for 
the maintenance of two hundred knights for the defence of 
the territory of Jerusalem for the space of one year. 

Moreover, he pardoned all, both clerks and laymen, who 
were in exile on account of St. Thomas, for their wrath and 
disaffection, and granted them permission to return home in 
freedom and peace. 

He also swore that whatever possessions had been take 

l.D. 1173, 1174.] THE KIKG ABSOLVED. 301 

from the church of Canterbury should be restored entirely, as 
the aforesaid archbishop held them the year before he departed 
'i tm i England. 

He also swore that he would lUogfithet disillow any cus- 
toms derogatory to the rights of the church in his territories, 
which had been introduced during his reign. All this he 
swore that lie would observe in good faith and without covin. 

He also caused king Henry, bis eldest son, to swear that he 
would observe all these articles, those excepted which referred 
>nly to him personally. And that this compact might be 
ilaced upon record in the Roman Church, the kins commanded 
lis own seal and the seals of the cardinals to be affixed to the 
instrument in which these articles are contained. 

[AJ>. 1173.] This year, Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, 
deposed William, abbot of Peterborough, for certain causes. 

The count of St. Giles' did homage to the king-father. 
King Henry and his son quarrelled. A hundred and forty 
Flemings, making an irruption into England, were drowned. 
Geoffrey Ride!, archdeacon of Canterbury, was elected bishop 
of Ely ; his consecration by Richard, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, was deferred till the year following. William Turbe, 
bishop of Norwich, died on the seventeenth of the calends of 
February [16th January]. St. Thomas the Martyr was 
canonised in the beginning of Lent [21st February]. Mary, 
sister of St. Thomas, was made abbess of Barking. Robert, 
earl of Leicester, landing in England with three thousand 
Flemings, burnt the castle of Hagenest ; but he and his wife, 
and all the Normans and French who accompanied him, are 
taken prisoners. Part of the Flemings are slain, some part 
are drowned; but none escaped., Done without the burgh 
of St. Edmund's on the sixteenth of the calends of November 
[17th October]. 1 

[a.d. 1174.] The Flemings coming over in aid of the 
king's son, bum Norwich. Richard, prior of Dover, is con- 
secrated archbishop of Canterbury by the lord pope. All the 
world is afflicted with coughs and colds. 

1 Also called the count of Thoulouse. 

a This is the first notice in the present continuation of the Chronicle 
of Florence which shows the connection of the writer or writers with 
St. Edmondsbury. It appears also, from the following paragraph, and 
others subsequently in which the present tense is used, that the Con- 
record of passing events. 


A.D. 1175-9. I.' 

found it in ! i 
» his vowi at '■' 

The king- father, on his arrival in England, found 
rebellion against him ; but, while he was paying his vc 
the shrine of St. Thomas, the king of Scotland was taken I 
prisoner, and the king carried him with him to Normandy. 1 
The same day the king-son returned to France, the fleet 
which he had assembled against his father having been dis- 

[a,d. 1175.] The castles were razed to the ground in all 
parts both of England and Normandy. William, king of the 
Seots, a captive according to the laws of war, gave hostages, 
and so returned train Nvt-mundy to Scotland. 3 

John of Oxford, dean of Salisbury, is consecrated bishop 
of Salisbury on the nineteenth of the calends of January 
[14th December], 

[a.d. 1170.] The emperor Frederick sacks Milan. linger, 
archbishop of York, was maltreated at Westminster, because 
lie made pretensions to a seat in council at the right hand of the 
legate. John of Salisbury, an excellent clerk, is made bishop 
of Chartres. 

[a.d. 1177.] Johanna, daughter of the king of England, 
was married to William, king of Sicily. Secular canons were 
removed from Waltham, and regular ones introduced. The 
emperor Frederic, renouncing bis schism at Venice, acknow- 
ledged pope Alexander. 

[a.d. 1178.] William, abbot of Ramsey, was made arch- 
abbot of' (,'luuy. The kiKir knitted his son Geoffrey. Ricbanl 
de Lucy founded the abbey of Leslies/ 1 Saladin, being van- 
quished by Eudes, master of the Temple, betook himself t"> 

[a.d. 1170.] Roger, the [abbot] -elect of St. Augustine's, 
reeeived the pontifical ornaments from the pope. A council of 

1 He was committ'd to custody at Fnlaise. 

' The charter afterwards executed by William, kins of Scotland, 
acknowledging, as the terms of his release from captivity, Edwaro"i 
rights of Buisi'i-fitiity t.vcr ihit kin- Join, is inserted in the latter part of 
the present " Continuation," among other documents connected with 
king Edward's claims. 

' Roger of WeiiiloviT informs us that " Richard de Lucy, josticiarj 
of Ehi-lnml. on the Ilth June, 1178, laid the foundations or a con'rn- 
tual church [the abbey of Leslies of our author] in honour of St 
Tlioma3 the martyr, at a place colled Westwood, in the territory of 
Rochester." Vol. ii., p. 36, Antlg. Lib. 

.D. 1180-5.] VARIOUS OCCURRENCES. 303 

iree hundred and ten bishops was held at Rome 1 on the 
jurteenth of the calends of April [19th March]. Seven 
*rs of corn grew on one stalk. Lewis, king of France, 
lade a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Thomas. Pope Ales- sent a letter to Prester John in India.* 

£a.». 1180.] A new coinage, of a round shape, was struck 
o England. Lewis, king of 1' ranee, died, and was buried at 
he abbey of Barbeaux. Hugh, abbot of St. Edmund's, re- 
timing from the tomb of St. Thomas, fell from his horse, and 
o died from infirmity and old age. 

[a.d. 1181.] A boy, named Robert, waa sacrificed by the 
lews, at St. Edmund's, on Wednesday the fourth of the idea 
the 10th] of June. King Lewis was succeeded by his son 
['hilip, who put himself under the jruidance of the king of 
England. Pope Alexander wrote toueliiiur rendering succour 
to the Holy Land. Lucius succeeded Alexander. 

[a.d. 1182.] Henry, duke of Saxony, having incurred the 
hostility of the emperor Frederic, came into Normandy to 
king Henry, with his wife and family. Tax-gatherers were 
burnt throughout France. 

[a.d. 1183.] Kinjj Henry, the son, died penitent, in sack- 
cloth and ashes, on the third of the idea [the 11th] of June, 
and was buried at Mans. Then Walter de Constance was 
consecrated bishop of Lincoln at Rouen ; the year following 
he was raised to the archiepiscopal see of Rouen. 

[a.d. 1184.] Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, died. 
He was succeeded by Baldwin, bishop of Worcester. A 
fountain in Scotland flowed with blood. Saladin and Safadin, 
kings of the Saracens, wrote to the lord pope touching the 
ransom of captives, in the year of the Hejira 578. The 
emperor Frederic gave the crown of the German empire to 
his son Henry. The holy order of the knights in Spain, with 
the red sword for their badge, was confirmed by the pope. 
Astrologers struck terror into men's hearts by predicting 
future events from the conjunction of planets. 

[a.d. 1185.] The patriarch Heraclius, and Roger, master 
of the Hospital,' came into England. John, the king's son, 

1 The third council of Lateran. See an account of its proceeding* 
in Roger of Wendover, ibid, vol. i , p. 44. 
3 The letter is preserved in Hoveden, ibid, vol. i., p. 491. 
' Roger Di'suiouliiis; be waa slain at the siege of Acre, in 1187. 

304: FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1186-9. 

was knighted. Duke Henry returned into Saxony, contented 
with his patrimonial states. The church of Lincoln tfm 
shattered by an earthquake, on the eighteenth of the calendi 
of May [loth April]. Pope Lucius died, and Urban suc- 
ceeded him. 

[a.d. 1 186.] Geoffrey, duke of Brittany, the king's son, died, 
and was buried at Paris. Hugh, a native of Grenoble, and prior 
of the Carthusian order in England, becomes bishop of Lincoln. 
Henry, king of Germany, married Constance, daughter of 
Roger I., king of Sicily, who was the son of Roger, count of 
Sicily, brother of Robert Guiscard, of Norman origin. The 
following verse was inscribed on the seal of king Roger:— 
" Apulia, Calabria, Sicily, and Africa are mine." 

Guy of Joppa 1 was crowned king of Jerusalem. 

[a.d. 1187.] Constance, countess of Brittany, gave birth 
to a posthumous son, named Arthur. The cross of Christ was 
captured by Saladin, near Tiberias," on the fourth of the 
nones [the 4th] of July ; and two hundred and thirty per- 
sons were beheaded with B. de Ch&tillon, their lord. Pope 
Urban died ; Gregory VIII. succeeded him. Richard, earl of 
Poitou, the first of the peers, took the cross. Pope Gregory 
died ; Clemens III. succeeded him. 

[a.d. 1 1 88.] The kings of France and England took the cross. 
Richard Barre, archdeacon of Lisieux, was sent as ambassador 
to the emperors of Rome and Constantinople, respecting a free 
passage for the kings of Prance and England. At Dunstable, 
on the fifth of the ides [the 9th] of August, at the ninth hour 
of the day, a cross of wonderful size was seen in the heavens, 
with Jesus Christ nailed to it, crowned with thorns: blood 
flowed from the wounds, but did not fall to the ground. 
This appearance lasted from the ninth hour until evening. 
The emperor Frederic wrote to Saladin 8 for the liberation of 
king Guy and twenty thousand Christian souls. 

[Order of the GUbertines."] 

[a.d. 1189.] St. Gilbert, founder and creator of the order 
of Sempringham, 4 died on the nones [the 5th] of February. 

1 Guy de Lusignan. 

2 See Roger de Hoveden, vol. ii., p. 60, Antiq. Lib. 

3 The letter is preserved by Wendover. See vol. ii., p. 64. 

4 In Leicestershire, the Gilbertines soon counted 26 houses, con- 
taining 700 brethren and 1,500 sisters in their order. 

A.D. 1190, 1191.] DEATH OF I1ENRY II. 305 

King Henry Fitz-cm press, died on the second of the nones 
[the 6th] of July, and was buried at Fontcvrault. Earl 
Richard was absolved by the archbishops of Canterbury and 
Rouen for having taken arms against his father. Geoffrey 
Ridel, bishop of Ely, died on the twelfth of the calends of 
September [21st August]. Earl Richard was crowned king 
at London, on the iliird of the nones [the 3rd] of September, 
on which day the Jews were massacred at Londou. King 
lliehard gave to the Cistercian monks one hundred marks 
yearly, to procure themselves a chapter. 

[a.d. 1190.] William de Longcharnp, the [bishop-] elect 
of Ely, caused himself to be enthroned on the least of 
Epiphany with great pomp and ceremony : in consequence, 
these verses were made :— 

Geoffrey, a son of king Henry, was elected archbishop of 
York, and the election was confirmed by the pope. Numbers 
flocking to Jerusalem, put Jews to death. The Jews were 
massacred at Norwich: many wen; trampled do wu during 
the time the fair was held at Stamford ; at York five 
hundred fell by each others' hands, on the seventeenth of the 
calends of [April 16th March]. At St. Edmund's, the 
Jews were butchered on the fifteenth of the calends of April 
[18th March], it being Palm Sunday; those who survived 
were, at the instigation of abbot Sampson, banished from 
that place for ever. William, bishop of Ely, becomes the 
pope's legate, justiciary of England, and the king's chancellor. 
The emperor Frederic, in his journey to Jerusalem, is 
drowned in the river Cydnus: Henry succeeded him as 

The kings of France and England landed at Messina, in 
the month of October. The Sicilian insurgents are excluded 
from Messina by the king of England. Baldwin, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, died on St. Edmund's day, having 
encumbered his see by much extraordinary expense. Pope 
Clement died : Celcstine III. succeeded him. 

[a.d. 119L] This pope crowned Henry, king of Germany, 



as emperor of Rome, on Easter Monday [15th April]. 0a 
the fourth day of Easter the city of Tusculum, 1 founded by 
the Romans, was laid in ruins. King Richard conquered ' 
Cyprus and its emperor Isaac, whose standard ho sent to St. 
Edmund's. While lie was in Cyprus he married Berengarij, 
daughter of the king of Navarre, on the fourth of the ides 
[the 4th] of May. King Richard sunk a large Saracen bark, 
between Tyre and Acre. Geoilivy, archbishop ijf York, who 
had been lately consecrated at Tours, was arrested at Dover 
on his return to England. William [bishop] of Ely, flying 
with terror from the presence of earl John, was taken at 
Dover in a. woman's dress ; but being liberated soon after- 
wards, he crossed the sea to solicit the intervention of our 
lord the pope. The sun suffered an eclipse on the ninth of 
July [23rd of June], so that the stars were visible during 
three hours. The city of Acre was surrendered to tins kings 
of Prance and England, on tlie fourth of the ides [the 12ib] 
of July, with many prisoners and groat store of wealth. 

[Biehard taken prisoner on his return from the Holy Land.} 

[a.d, 1192.] The king of France returned from the Holy 
LaDd and was welcomed at Paris. A caravan of Sarnctns is 
taken by king Richard, on its way from Babylon. KinR 
Richard recovers Joppa, which the Saracens had reduced. A 
truce was made between the Christians and Saracens, on the 
eight of the ides [the Gth] August, from the ensuing Easier 
[5th of Aprilj, for three years, three months, three ireeh 
three days, and three hours. King Richard returning from 
the Holy Land, entered the territories of Leopold, duke of 
Austria, by whom he was made prisoner at the city of Vienn*, 
on the thirteenth of the calends of January [20tli December]. 
He had embarked on the feast of .St. Deny a on the seventh of 
the ides [the 9th] of October. 

John, hearing of his brother's captivity, entertained tht 
hope of seizing the crown, and fortified many castles in Eng- 
land : he also crossed the sea and made an alliance with the 
king of France. The duke of Austria delivered the king of 
England, for a sum of money, to Henry, the emperor of Rome, 
' How Frascati. 

D. 1194, 1195.] RICHARD I. RELEASED. 307 

ho placed hiru in custody at a place OsUed Ti ilVls. 1 of which 
;icc Aristotle says, at the close of the second book of his 
opies, " Parricide is reckoned a virtue at Trifels ; but 
uimion murder is no virtue." 

Hubert Fitz-Walter, bishop of Salisbury, was elected arch- 
■sliop of Canterbury, on the third of the calends of June 
SOth May]. The king's ransom amounted to the large sum 
F one hundred thousand pounds in money. The emperor 
lotted fifty thousand marks for the share of Leopold, and 
jvctously kept the rest. The prelates and nobles flocked in 
reat numbers to Germany, to visit the king. Eleanor, the 
ueen mother, also went over to him. Hubert [archbishop] of 
Canterbury was enthroned. 

[a.d. 1194.] On the second of the nones [the 4th] of 
'ebruary, king Richard was released ('roiii captivity, in which 
ie had spent one year, six weeks, and three days, and landed 
.t the port of Sandwich on the third of the ides [the 
,3th] of March. He then hastened to visit St. Edmund's, 
"rom motives of policy king Richard was [again] crowned at 
Winchester, on ilie octave of Easter [17th April]. King 
?ichard, crossing over to Normandy, received the tubmisaitra 
if all the country from Verneuil to Caricroix. Leopold, 
luke of Austria, fell from his horse on St. Stephen's day, and 
laving crushed his foot in the fall, it was, by the advice of his 
ihysicians, amputated, and he died in consequence, by the just 
udgment of God, in great suflering.' 

[a.d. 1195.] Hubert [archbishop] of Canterbury was 
:rented papal legate on the fifteenth of the calends of April 
18th March], The Old Man of the Mountain lately sent a 
etter to Leopold, duke of Austria, exonerating Richard, king 
if England, from the charge of murdering the marquis Conrad.' 
Et was dated in the year one thousand five hundred and five, 

1 " The castle of Trefels, near Anweiler, a small town between. 
Landau and Zwejbrucken [Deux Fonts], the picturesque rains of 
which are still an object highly interesting to the antiquarian 
ra v ell er . "— Thorpe. 

' In the charters connected with Scottish affairs, inserted towards 
.he close of this work, there is one from king Richard to William of 
Scotland, granted this year. See Hovedei), vol. ii., pp. 318, respecting 
.hese and other important transactions after Richard's return from 

' See the letter in Wendcncr, vol. ii., p. 129. 

308 FLORENCE OF WOHCESTER. [a.D. 1196, 1197. 

from the time of Alexander the Great. Hugh, bishop of 
Lincoln, paid the king a thousand marks instead of the 
mantle of sables annually presented by his predeeessow. 1 
Eustace, bishop of Nidaros, in Norway, 1 m banished because 
he refused to take part in the -coronation of Suerre, prince of 
Norway, which was performed against the pope's prohiliitinu. 
Alfonso, king of Castile, expelled the Pagans from his 

[a.D. 1196.] William Long-beard, citizen of London, TO 
hung, and eight others with him.* King Richard gave the 
county of Poit<m to his nephew Otlio, son of Henry, duke of 
Saxony. The count of St. Giles married Joanna, fbnaerb 
queen of Sicily, and sister of Richard, king of England. 
William, earl of Salisbury, son of earl Patrick, died ; and ting 
Richard gave his daughter to William, his hastard brother, 
with the earldom. King Richard fortified the castle of 
Andelys attainst the consent of the archbishop of Rouen, die 
lord of that castle; and thereupon the archbishop laid die 
whole of Normandy under an interdict. Marchades, the in- 
famous prince of Brabant, and John, <:ount of Moruin, 
captured Philip, bishop of Beauvais. 

[a.d. 1197,] William, bishop of Ely, died, and was buried 
at the Cistercian abbey of Des-Pins. 1 John, bishop " Cane- 
riensis" dying, throe others, successively elected in his place, 
all died within forty days. Robert Long champ, fin- > i., u- 
cellor's brother, was made abbot of York ; Henry de Long- 
clianip, his third brother, was the eminent abbot of CroylunJ. 
The iirclibi.sho|) of Rouen received in exchange for Andelys tlie 
vill of Dieppe with its appurtenances, and several others. 
The son of Frederic the emperor, by the empress Constance, 
daughter of Roger, king of Sicily, a child seven years old, was 
baptized by the name of Frederic. He succeeded Otlio as 
emperor of the Romans. Safadiu, brother of Sahulin. t"k 
Joppa, and slew in it more than twenty thousand Christian*. 

1 See Hoveden, vol. ii., p. 371. 

5 The arcliljinlii'i'i's mime «-j>; Nidaros is the ancient name 
of Trondhjem or Drontheim. See the Saga of king Suerre, in 
Snorro'a Heimsltringla. 

a For the details of the insurrection under William Fita-Olbw») 
see Hoveden, ml, ii., |>. 3SS, nuil Wtudover, ii., 7 " 

' He died at Poictiirs, on his way to Rome. 

D. 1198.] REIGN OP RICHARD T, 309 

?nry the emperor died and was succeeded by Otho, son of 
BttfT, duke of Saxony and nephew of king Richard. 

Frederic, son of the emperor Henry, was made king of 
eily by the pope. John (Yinryn, archbishop of Dublin, pre- 
rring exile rather than to endure the injuries done hiln by 
e vassals of John, the king's brother, departed, .liter excom- 
unicating the offenders. On his going away, a certain 
:>oden crucifix, in the church at Dublin, appeared to shod 
ars, about the sixth hour, and blood and water flowed from 
s right teat, which the clergy of the church collected, and 
nt an account of the miracle to the pope, attested by thera- 
lves. 1 

[a.d. 1198.] Ethclwold, bishop of Winchester, had, in the 
;ar of our Lord nine hundred and seventy-three, partly 
eeted secular canons from the English church and substituted 
onka. Hugh, bishop of Cheater, I icing of a contrary opinion, 
l the year of our Lord one thousand and ninety-one, expelled 
ic monks from Coventry and introduced clerks. In the 
resent year, Hubert, archdeacon of Canterbury, Hugh, 
aishop] of Lincoln, and Sampson, abbot, of St. Edmund's, 
y order of the pope, removed the canons, and restored the 
lOnks.* Pope Celestine [III.] died ; Lotharius, a cardinal- 
eacon, succeeded him, under the name of Innocent III. 

Otho was crowned emperor of Germany. Eustace, bishop 
f Ely, was consecrated on the eighth of the ides [the 8th] of 
larch. Geoffrey Fitz-Peter was made justiciary of England, 
1 the place of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury. King 
iichard defeated the king of France at Gisors on the fourth 
f the calends of October [28th September].' A tax of five 
tillings was imposed on every plough-land throughout' 
Ingland. The shrine of St. Edmund was consumed by fire 
□ the sixteenth of the calends of November [17th October]; 
: rained blood on the castle of le Roche- Andelys. Richard,, 
ishop of London, died : he was succeeded by William, of St. 
lary's church/ of Norman race. 

1 Hoveden gives a circumstantial account of the miracles, and' of 
e archbishop's exile, vol. ii., p. 407. 
1 See Hoveden, vol. ii., p. 412. 

' See Wendover, vol. ii., p. 175. Hoveden, vol. ii., p. 431. 

— ' ■ calls Mm a " canon of St. Paul's, London."" 

■r of Wendover ci 

FLOHE.VCE OF WORCESTER, [a.d. 1199,1200. 

[Death of Richard I. and Accession of King John.] 

[a.d. 1199.] King Richard died in A qui tain e, on I 
eighth of the ides [the Ctli] of April, after a reign of n: 
years, six months, and ten days, and eleven days after lie was 
wounded by Bert rand de Gurdun, before the castle of 
Clialtu. 1 Ho was buried at, by the side of hii 
father. John, lord of Ireland, was crowned king at Wat- 
minster, on the sixth of the calends of July [26th June] ; on 
which day he gave to William Marshal the earldom of StriguL 
and to Geoffrey Fitz-Petcr the earldom of Essex. Philip, 
king of France, knighted Arthur, duke of Brittany. The 
pope and the Romans made Otho emperor. 

[a.d. 1200.] King John levied throe shillings on every 
plough-land, save only there belonging to the monks. Lewi*. 

u of the king of France, married Blanche, daughter of the 
king of Castile, through the mediation, for the sake of peace, 
of king John, the uncle of Blanche. Marchades of Brabant 
was slain by a townsman of Bourdeaux. France was Isid 
under an interdict in cunseijuonee of the king having divorced 
Eotilde. 1 King John married Isabel, daughter of the comit 
of Aogouleme, on the ninth of the calends of September 
[24th August]. John, l>i-h<>|> uf Xonvidi died : John de Grey 
succeeded him. The church of Rouen and nearly the whole 
city were consumed by fire. A quarrel arose between the 
citizens of Paris and the German scholars, in which the 
[bishop] elect of Liege was slain.' Eustace, ahbot of H»ye, 
illustrious for the miracles lie wrought, came into England to 
preach, and forbade the sale of goods in the market on the 
Lord's-day.' St. Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, departed to the 
Lord at London, on the sixteenth of the calends of December 
[16th November]. 

' See Hoveden, vol. ii., p. 453, &c, for the details of Richard's 
death before Chalui, near Limoges. He calls the person who shut 
liiut Bertamnva de Gurdun ; hj Wendaver he is called Petrvi Baiiliui, 
and by Gervase Johannes Snbruz. 

1 Ingehour^. sister ■>('' VI., king of Denmark. 

' Hoveden gives the detnil, .jf this emvnte, vol. ii.. p. 484. 

*, For particulars of this movement njjainst the desecration of tbt 
I.ord's-dav, see Wendover, vol. ii., pp. 190—192. Hoveden, voL SL, 

. 1201-4.] WARS IN NOfUEAXDT. 311 

a.d. 1201.] There was an earthquake in England on the 
h of the idea of January [8th January], King John, 
ising over to Ireland, collected a large sum of money, and, 

Ilia return to England, was crowned at Canterbury, 
ether with his queen, on Easter day [25th March]. Ho 
a went to Paris, where ho was received in solemn pro- 
don and lodged in die royal palace. Waiter de Ghent, the 
t abbot of Walthiim, died on the sixth of the nones 
e 6th] of May, Eustace, abbot of Haye, returned into 
nee, because his preaching was disagreeable to many 
lutes of the church. 

a.d. 1202.] Hugh, who was abbot of St. Edmund's, and 
irwards bishop of Ely, became a monk on the feast of 

Assumption of St. M:irv [1 ">th August]. The same year, 
;hur, the son of Geoffrey, duke of Brittany, was knighted 

the king of France. Eleanor was besieged by Arthur 
I the troops of the king of France, in the castle of 
rabeau ; but king John coining to the rescue, raised the 
re and took Arthur, and more than two hundred of the 
>les with him. The count of Flanders, with the countess, 

forth on the road to Jerusalem. Arthur was sent 
soner to Falaise. 

a.d. 1203.] The king of France took several fortresses 
die king of England, in Normandy, some of which he rased 
the ground, others he preserved entire for his own pro- 
tion. Hugh de Gournay, who betrayed the eastle of 
intfort, which the king of England had committed to his 
tody, surrendered it, with the whole domains, to the king 
France. The castle of Roche was besieged by the king of 
mce. The Norman nobles revolt from king John. The 
enth part of the rents of the barons and conventual 
irches in England was paid to king John. The king came 
;r from Normandy and landed at Portsmouth on St. 
tolas' day [6th December]. 

[a.d. 1204.] The king levied scutage in England, namely, 
o marks and a half for each scutage. The castle of Roche was 
;en, and the soldiers of the king of England were carried 
into France. There was a red light in the sky, like fire, 
the calends [the 1st] of April, which lasted till midnight, 
i the stars appeared also bright red. The whole of Nor- 
indy, Anjou, Maine, and Poitou submitted to the king of 


France. Q.tieon Eleanor died on the twelfth of the calends of 
April [31st March] and was buried at Fontevrault. The 
count of Flanders took Constantinople and was made emperor, 

[a.d. 1205.] A sharp frost lasted from the nineteenth of 
the calends of February [14th January] until the eleventh of 
the calends of April [22nd March]. The money issued long 
before, in the year eleven hundred anil fifty-eight, was this yew 
re-coined. At this time there was a severe famine, for tie 
quarter of wheat was sold for fourteen -hillings. The king 
of France took Chinon. Hubert, mvlibishop of Canterbury, 
died on the third of the ides [the 13th] of July. 

[a.d. 1206.] King John sailing from England with a large 
army, landed at Eocbcllc, on the seventh of the ides [the 9th] 
of July. A truce for two years was agreed on between the 
kings of Franee and England, on the calends [the 1st] of 
November. The king of England thereupon returned and 
landed at Portsmouth, on the second of the ides [the 12th] of 
December. John of Florence, the papal nuncio, having col- 
lected large sums of money, held a synod at Reading, on the 
thirteenth of the calends of November [20th October]. Then, 
having carefully packed up his treasures, he hurried back to 

[a.d. 1207.] A sudden wind prostrated a great number of 
houses and trees in England, on the sixth of the calends of 
February [27th January]. An eclipse of the sun hapjiened 
on the second of tiie calends of March [28rh February]. 

The elections of the bishop of Norwich, Mid of the sub-prior 
of Canterbury, being annul led, Maxtor Stephen Lang ton, priest- 
cardinal, was elected archbishop, and consecrated by pope 
Innocent [III.] at the city of Viterbo, on the fifteenth of 
the calends of July [17th June]. The king was so indignant 
at this that all the monks of Canterbury were expelled from 
England, 1 except fourteen who were infirm ; and some monks 
from Rochester, St. Augustine's, and Fever sham were substi- 
tuted to perform the service ; Fulk do Canteloupe managing, 
or rather dissipating, the property, and the lands of the arch- 
bishop lying waste. 

King Otho came to England to confer with his uncle, king 
John, and having received from his said uncle five thousand 

1 See Wendover, vol. ii., p. 241. 


B. 1208, 1209.] REIGtf OF KING JOHK. 313 

arks, returned to his own country. Queen Isabel bore a son 
i the feast of St. Remi [1st October], who was named 
enry. 1 The thirtieth part of all the chattels in England 
as granted to king John. Tin- archbishop of York, only, 
fusing his assent, reiireil privately from England. 
[a.d. 1208.] There was an eelipse of the sun, which 
>j>eared of a red colour, on the third of the nones [the 3rd] 
' February. An interdict was laiil on the whole of England, 
i the tenth of the calends of April [23rd March] by 
llliam bishop of London, Eustace bishop of Ely. and Malger 
ishop of Worcester, by a mandate frum the pope, because 
ohn, in disobedience to the pontifical monitions, had 
;f used to receive the archbishop and the monks of 
auterbury. The concubine* of the clergy, throughout Eng- 
ind, were compelled by the king's officers to pay ransom, 
hilip, duke of Swabta, Otho's adversary, was assassinated in 
is own chamber. The princes and nobles of Germany did 
omage to Otho. The bishops of London, Ely, Worcester, 
nd Hereford, retired out of England. The Cistercian monks 
elebrating divine service at the command of their abbot are 
^communicated by the pope. King John, at Ibistol, during 
Christmas, prohibited fowling. Henry, duke of Saxony, 
ttho's brother, came to England to confer with the king, his 

[a.d. 1209.] Lewis, son of the king of France, was 
nighted, with one hundred others, at Compeigne. Con- 
entual ehurches were allowed the privilege of having divine 
;rvice celebrated once in the week with closed doors. At 
lis time the kings of England and Scotland made an alliance, 
ostages being delivered to the king of England. The fences 
f the forests were burnt, and the corn was laid open to 
ne ravages of beasts.' Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, 
nd the bishops of London and Ely, came over to England 
bout the the feast of Michaelmas, by the king's order, to 
■eat of an accommodation, but returned to France without 
ecomplishing it. The Albigeois, men of impious character 
nd enemies of the name of Christ, were nearly all destroyed 
y an army in the parts of King Otho was 
rowned emperor of Eome, on Sunday, the fourth of the 

1 Afterwards king Henry III. 

* By order of kiog John. See Wendover, rol. ii., p. 249, 

314 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1210-12, 

nones [the 4th] of October, Sentence was pronounced | 
against king John about the feast of St. Deny* ['hh October], 
unless he made sutisfiii/tion before the feast of All Saints 

SBth November], which he did not do. All the bishops left 
England, escept the bishop of Winchester, lest they should 
have to communicate with the king. Hugh, the bishop-elect 
of Lincoln, was consecrated by Step!: en, archbishop of 
Canterbury, at Melun, on the twelfth of the calends of 
January [21st December]. 

[a.D. 1210.] A dissension arose between the pope anil 
the emperor Otho. A frost lasted seven weeks, during which 
cattle, fishes, and birds famished. The Jews, in every part of 
England, both men and women, were thrown into prison. 
Matilda do Braiose and her son William were starved to dentil 
at Windsor. 1 She gave a precious cloth to the abbey of St. 
Edmund's, for the use of the refectory. The pope excommu- 
nicated the emperor Otho, for having persecuted Frederic 
Icing of Sicily. All the princes of the empire were also 
absolved from their oath of allegiance to Otho. The lower of 
the church of St. Edmund was thrown down by a violent 
wind, on the ninth of the calends of October [23rd Sep- 

[a.D, 1211.] William de Braiose died at Paris, and wis 
buried at St. Victor's. King John reduced Wales to sub- 
mission, and subjected them to the English laws. The count 
of Boulogne revolted from the king of France. Pandulph, i 
sub-deacon, the pope's nuncio, and Durand, a brother [of the 
Temple], came over to England to restore concord, but re- 
turned without effecting it. Sampson, of blessed memory, 
abbot of St. Edmund's, died on the third of the calcndi «f 
January [30th December]. King John knighted the son of 
the king of Scots. 

[a.D. 1212.] The emperor Otho married Isabel, daughter 
of the king of Swabiu, and the marriage was consummated, 
but she died a few days afterwards. The greatest part of tbe 
city of London was consumed by fire, and vast numbers of 
people perished by the lire, the smoke, and water. 1 

' See Wendover, vol. ii., p. 254, 256. 

' The fire sveam to liavi' Wii I'-.ritincd to Southwark ami its nfii'i- 
bourhood. Matt. Paris givps 1.1m details: "On the night of &* 
translation of St. Benedict, the church of St. Abuy, at S> "' " 

e night N '". : 
,t Boathmfc ■■■■ 

AD. 1212.] HEVOLT OF THE UARON8. 315 

It was reported to king John that nil the nobles of 
England were released from their allegiance by letters re- 
ceived from the pope. Thereupon he suspected every one, 
but after taking hostages from, them, he felt more secure. 
Robert Fits- Walter was ordered to be arrested, but he 
took refuge in France, with his wife and children. 1 King 
John received an assurance in writing from the barons of 
England, that they would stand by him in his opposition to 
the pope. Geoffrey, a clerk of Norwich, because, as it was 
alleged, he had read the letters of our lord the pope in the 
presence of the barons, was summoned before the king at 
Nottingham, and in the meantime was loaded, or rather 
dressed with fetters, until he expired.' The archdeacon of 
Huntingdon, being h a pris o ned, gave the king two thousand 
marks for his release. The burgesses of Bury St. Edmund's 
promised, though reluctantly, that they would make a contri- 
bution through the hands of a monk. The king caused the 
hostages of the Welsh to be hung at Nottingham. The monks 
and clergy wrote to the pope, at the instance of the king of 
England, that they had freely and of their own mere goodwill 
forgiven him .'ill the injuries lie had inflicted on them. 

King Philip assembled a powerful licet fur the invasion and 
conquest of England, part of which was burnt on the coast by 
the nobles of England. In those days there lived in England 
a certain man named Peter the Wise,' who predicted to king 
John the misfortunes which afterwards happened to him ; for 
this he was ordered to be hung at Corfe. Savary de Maul6on 
rising in arms against the king of England in Poitou, reduced 
the whole country in a few days, Bochelle only resisting his 

London, was burned, and also the bridge of London between three 
piers, as well as a chapel on the bridge, besides a great portion of 
the city, ami part of the town of Southwark, the fire making its way 
across Ihe bridge. By this calamity about a thousand people were 
lulled, including many women and children." 

1 See the reason of his flight in Roger de Wendover, and the quo- 
tation from Matt. Paris. Ibid, vol. H., p. 268. 

5 See the horrid details in Matt. Paris, quoted in a note to 
Wendover, vol. ii., p. 2(30. 

J He lived in Yorkshire, and was called Peter the Hermit. See the 
particulars of his prophecy in Wendover (vol. ii,, p. 208], who sayi 
that he was kept in chains at Corfe to await its event, , 

316 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1213-15. 

[a.d. 1213.] CardinaLNicholas, bishop of Tusculum, 1 per- 
forms the functions of legate in England. Hugh, a monk of 
St. Edmund's, was unanimously elected abbot of that monas- 
tery by the monks, but shortly afterwards there was a 
schism in the convent respecting the election. Nicholas, the 
legate of the apostolical see, was at St. Edmund's on Christ- 

[a.d. 1214.] King John made an expedition into Poitou 
about the feast of the Purification of St. Mary [2nd February]. 1 
A battle was fought in Flanders, near Bo vines, on a Sunday, 
between the king of France and the barons of the king of 
England, in which the counts of Flanders and Boulogne, and 
William, earl of Salisbury, were taken prisoners, on the side 
of the king of England. The emperor Otho was also present, 
but perceiving the event of the battle he took to flight. The 
general interdict in England was relaxed, by order of pope 
Innocent, on the sixth of the nones [the 10th] of July. It 
had now lasted six years, fourteen weeks, and three days. 

[a.d. 1215.] Eustace, bishop of Ely, died on the second 
of the nones [the 4th] of February, Frederic, king of Sicily, 
son of the former emperor, Henry, succeeded the emperor 
Otho. Hugh, the [abbot] elect of St. Edmund's, had his elec- 
tion confirmed by judges, deputed by the pope, on the fifth of 
the ides [the 11th] of March, and received the benediction 
from Benedict, bishop of Rochester. 

In this year, about Easter [19th April], the war began 
between John and the barons. 8 John de Grey, bishop of 
Norwich, died, and Pandulph, the pope's sub-deacon, was 
elected. A fire broke out on the third of the nones [the 3rd] 
of June, which consumed great part of the town of Bury St. 

1 Frascati. The Continuator of Florence strangely omits any notice 
of the eventful events of this year, in which John [on the 15th May, 
the eve of Ascension-day] resigned his crown and did homage to the 
pope, on whose part Pandulph acted. Roger of Wendover gives 
details of these important transactions, and a curious account of John's 
offer to become tributary to the emperor of Morocco, with charters 
and other documents. See vol. ii., pp. 261—270 ; 283—292. 

3 See Wendover, ibid., p. 293. He also gives a particular account 
of the campaign in Flanders. 

3 Here, again, the absence of details on king John's struggle with 
the barons, his grant of the great charter of liberties, ana all the 
important events which occurred towards the close of his reign, is 
very rer in a Chronicle undoubtedly cotemporary. 

i.D. 1216, 1217-] DEATH OF KIKG JOHN. 317 

Edmund's. Pope Innocent held ii council in the Latcran in 
the nionth of November, at which there were present three 
hundred and twelve bishops and more than two hundred 
abbots and priors, besides (he ambassadors of Frederic and 
many others. 

[a.d. 1216.] Walo, a cardinal priest, by the title of St. 
Martin, came to England on the thirteenth of the calends of 
June [20th May]. The barons of England having given 
hostages to Philip, king of Prance, Lewis, his son, invaded 
England, and the city of London immediately submitted to 
him. The papa exiurimmnicitted the barons and laid an in- 
terdict on tliosu parts nf I'li^lmid wLiTe tlinse iv'n-ls against 
tlie king were present. [Pope] Innocent [III-] died on the 
sixteenth of the calends of August [17th July]; Honorius 
[III.] succeeded him. 

[Death of king John — Henry III, succeeds to the throne.] 

King John died on the fifteenth of the calends of November 
[28th October], and was buried at Worcester. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Henry, who wjis crowned at Bristol by 
Walo, cardinal and legate, on the fifth of the calends of 
November [28th October]. He was the twenty-second king 
of England from Alfred, who was the first monarch of Eng- 
land after the time of the Britons. 

[a.d. 1217.] In the battle of Lincoln, the count of Perche 
and many others of the French were slain on the thirteenth of 
the calends of July [19th June]. Moreover, the barons and the 
French were repulsed from their siege of the castle by the 
royal troops. 1 The army, which was on its way from France 
in aid of Lewis, was nearly drowned in a naval action with 
Hubert de Burgh and the other faithful adherents of the king, 
fought at the mouth of the river Thames, on the 9th of the 
calends of September [24th August]. John, abbot of Wells, 
was elected bishop of Ely. Lewis, having been absolved by 
Walo, the legate, from the sentence of excommunication, re- 
turned to France. Then, after two years and a half of war, 
blessed peace was restored about the Nativity of St. Mary 
[8th September]. 

318 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [A.D. 1218-2i. 

Ja.d. 1218.] Ralph, prior of Norwich, was consecrated 
bishop of Chichester. Walo departed from England on the 
twelfth of the calends of December [20th November], 
Pandulph, the bishop-elect of Norwich, was made papal legattt 
"a England. The city of Damietta, in Egypt, which, according 
o some, is called Memphis, was besieged by the Christians 
after Easter [15th April]. The siege lasted more than a veai 
and a half, during which, at one time the Christians, it 
another the Saracens, were victorious, according to their 
various fortunes. 

[a.d. 1219.] The city of Damictta was taken by the 
Christians on Tuesday the nones [the 5th] of November, 
when, out of fortv thousand armed men, to whom the defence 
of the place had been entrusted, and as many women, scarcely 
fifty were found alive at its capture, for all had perished, 
struck down by the sword of the Lord, and their putrefying 
coqjses were found in the sewers. Frederic [II.] wW 
crowned by pope Honorius as emperor of the Romans. 

[a.d. 1220:] The translation [of the remains] of Si. 
Thomas, archbishop of CuiiU'i'ljury, was made on the nones 
[the 5th] of June. Herbert, prior of St. Edmund's, died on 
the fourth of the ides [the lOtb] of September. Richard De 
Lisle succeeded him. 

[a.d. 1221.] Paudulph, the bishop-elect of Norwich, was 
removed from the oltiee of legate. Damietta was given up to 
the Saracens, all tin.- Christians beinu- driven thence. 

[a.d. 1222.] Ralph, bishop of Chichester, formerly prior 
of Norwich, died. Pandulph, was consecrated as bishop 
of Norwich. Richard Dc Lisle was elected abbot of Burton; 
and Henry succeeded him in his priory, on the second of the 
calends of June [31st May], A comet appeared in the 
month of June. Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, held a 
synod at Oxford with his suffragans. 

[a.d. 1223.] About this time began the pilgrimage to 
B roni holm." Philip, king of France, died, and was buried at 
St. Denis : Lewis succeeded him. 

[a.d. 1224.] The castle of Bedford, 1 to which siege was laid 

1 See the History of the Holy Cross of Bromholro [Norfolk], uJ 
the miracles ascribed to it, in Wendover, vol. ii., p. -446. 
a Tlie castle of Bedford was held by Fulk de Breaute, one of kbg 


A.D. 1225-28.] ItEIQS OP henry in. 319 

in the month of June, was taken on the nineteenth of the 
calends of September [14th August], and all who were found 
in it were hanged. 

[a.d. 1225.] John, bishop of Ely, died on the second of 
the nones [the 6th] of May. Geoffrey, son of tiie justiciary 
Hubert de Burgh, succeeded him. The order of friars- 
minors and preachers was first establi.slieil in England. 

[a.d. 1226.] William, earl of Salisbury, died. Pandulph, 
bishop of Norwich, died in Italy on the seventeenth of the 
calends of September [16th August]. He was succeeded by 
Thomas de Blunville, who was consecrated on the seventh of 
the calends of January [26th December], Lewis, king of 
France, died at Avignon, and was buried at St. Denis : his 
ion Lewis succeeded him. Pope Honorius [111.1 died : he 
was succeeded by the bishop of Ostia, who took the name of 
Gregory IX. Disputes arose between the. pope and the em- 
peror, whereupon the pope excommunicated the emperor. 

[a.d. 1227.] 

[a.d. 1228.] The French attacked the Albigeois, with the 
sign of the cross on their breasts. Stephen, archbishop of 
Canterbury, died on the sixth of the ides [the 10th] of July. 
Eustace de Falv<>nlierg, bishop of London, died. Geoffrey de 
Burgh, bishop of Ely., died on the sixteenth of the calends of 
January [17th December]. 

Quarrels broke out between the scholars and citizens of 
Paris and the country people of St. Marcel. Wherefore the 
masters gave up their lectures during a whole year, and the 
scholars, being unable to endure the persecution of the legate, 
who was then in France, nearly all went away. Some one 
said of the legate and the queen, with rather too much free- 
dom — 

" We're murder'd, drown'd, stript, plunder'd, ground. 
The work, I wean, of the legate's quean."' 

Master Eicbard Magnus [archbishop] elect of Canterbury, 
Master Roger Niger [bishop-elect] of London, and Hugh, 
ibbot of Ely, elected to the bishopric of Ely, were consecrated 
on the fourth of the ides [the 10th] of June. 

John's foreign followers. For an account of its siege and capture, 
lee Wendorer, to(. ii., p. 451. 

1 " En morimur strati, ciesi, mersi, spoliati, 
Scortum legati nos fecit ista pati." 

320 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER, [a.B. 1230-36, 

[a.d. 1230.] King Henry went over to Brittany with in 
army. Raymond de Burgh, and Gilbert de Clare, earl of 
Gloucester, died. King Henry, returning from Brittany, 
landed at Portsmouth in the month of October, and was at 
Winchester on the calends [the 1st] of November. 

[a.d. 1231.] Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, died on 
the fourth of the nones [the 2nd] of August. Thomas, bishop 
of Norwich, assisted at the festival of St. Edmund, and 
Richard, abbot of that house, gave the benediction in the vigil 
after vespers in the bishop's presence, vested in a cope of the 
fashion of the secular clergy. William Marshal, the younger, 
died. Ranulph, earl of Chester, died. 

[a.d. 1232.] Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, having in- 
curred the king's displeasure, was thrown into prison, fill 
wife having taken sanctuary at St. Edmund's, remained there 
in security until a reconciliation took place. The bishops 
made visitations of the religious houses throughout England. 

[a.d. 1233.] Master Edward, of Abingdon, was elected 
archbishop of Canterbury. Richard, abbot of St. Edmund's, 
died at Ponthieu on the fourth of the calends of September 
[29th August]. Henry, prior of St. Edmund's, was elected 
abbot on the feast of SS. Cosmo and Damianus [27th Sep- 

[a.d. 1234.] Henry, abbot-elect of St. Edmund's, received 
the benediction from Hugh, bishop of Ely, at Hatfield, on the 
feast of the Purification [2nd February]. At the same time 
Gregory was made prior of St. Edmund's. Edmund, the 
[archbishop] elect of Canterbury, was consecrated on the 
fourth of the nones [the 2nd] of April. Richard Marshal was 
killed in Ireland on the thirteenth of the calends of May [the 
19th April], Hubert de Burgh was reconciled with the king 
at Gloucester, on the tenth of the calends of June [23rd May]* 
The emperor Frederic married Isabel, the sister of the king 
of England, in the month of June. 

[a.d. 1235.] Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, died ; he was suc- 
ceeded by master Robert Grosseteste. The bishops of Ely 
and Hereford crossed over to France to receive the daughter 
of the count of Provence, who was betrothed to the king of 

[a.d. 1236.] Henry, king of England, brought over 
Eleanor, daughter of the count of Provence, and married her 

A.D. 1236-0.] HENRY III. CROWNED. 321 

it Canterbury, on Sunday, the idea [the 13th] of January. 
Kin? Henry and hi* quewj were crowned at London on the 
thirteenth of the calends of February £20th January.] Thomas 
lie Blunville, bishop of Norwich, died on tlie seventeenth of 
the calends of September [16th August]. 

[A.D. 1237.] Otho, card in;d-de;i eon, by the title of St. 
Nicholas in the Tullian I'rison, Lnuie to England on the sixth 
of the ides [the 10th] of July, in the character of legato. 
Meanwhile there was a quarrel between pope Gregory and the 
emperor Frederic. 

[a.d. 1238.] A synod was held at Oxford after Easter 
[4th April], of which the legate was president. During its 
iittiDg a tumult arose between the scholars and the legate's 
ittendants, in which some of them were wounded and slain. 
Several of the scholars were put in prison by the king's officers. 
The pope excommunicated the emperor Frederic, for divers 
causes, and commanded the excommunication to be enforced. 

Otho, the legate, being on a visit to St. Edmund's, the 
friars preachers came to him there, and urgently entreated 
that they might he permitted to have a house of residence 
within the limits of the liberties of that church. The monks 
apposing this, the legate went in person to the aforesaid limits, 
and having inspected the monks' charters of privilege, 1 decided 
that the petition both of the friars-minors and preachers 
should be dismissed. This was done on the eighth of the idea 
[the 6th] of June, being the octave of the Holy Trinity. 

[a.d. 1239.] William de Raleigh was elected bishop of 
Norwich on the fourth of the ides [the 10th] of April. A 
savage race called Tartars, which, lately issuing from the 
islands, had covered the face of the earth, devastated^ Hungary 
and the adjacent regions. 

Eleanor, queen of England, gave birth, on the fourteenth of 
the calends of July [18th June], to her eldest son Edward, 
whose father was Henry, whose father was John, whose father 
was Henry, whose mother was Matilda, the empress, whose 
mother was Matilda, queen of England, whose mother was 
Margaret, queen of Scotland, whose father was Edward, 
whose father was Edmund Ironside, who was the son of 
Ethelred, who was the son of Edgar, who was the son of 
Edmund, who was the son of Edward the Elder, who was the 
1 See Wendover, Antiq. Lib., rol. ii, p. 406, Sic. 

322 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [AJD. 1240, 1241. 

son of Alfred. The genealogy of Alfred up to Adam, the 
first man, has been already given. 

[a.d. 1240.] At Norwich, four Jews, being charged with 
divers atrocities, were torn asunder by horses, and, at length, 
hanged. The principal charge was that they had circumcised 
a certain Christian boy according to the Jewish rite. 

Richard, earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry, king of 
England, set out for Jerusalem, accompanied by many English 
nobles, on the third of the ides [the 11th] of June. Our lord 
the pope sent letters after the feast of All Saints [1st Novem- 
ber] to all the prelates of the church, summoning them to be 
present at the apostolic see on the ensuing Easter, without 
fail, by themselves or their envoys, to treat of important 
ecclesiastical affairs. 

Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life on 
the sixteenth of the calends of December [16th November]. 

[a.d. 1241.] The legate Otho. set out from England, on 
his return to Borne, in the month of January ; but, as well as 
two other legates, namely, those of France and Italy, and 
many other prelates of the church, embarking at Genoa, fell 
into the hands of the emperor Frederic on the fifth of the 
nones [the 3rd] of May, and he imprisoned them in different 

places. Some wag said concerning them — 

■ # 

" Three legates of the court of Rome, 
With many a prelate, hastened home ; 
But fettered were these lettered wights, 
Despite the apostolic rights ; 
Nor could the churchmen's rank and style 
Save them from suffering durance vile. l 

Pope Gregory pX.] died on the eleventh of the calends of 
September [22nd August]. He was succeeded by cardinal 
Geoffry, who was consecrated on the fifth of the calends of 
November [28th October], and assumed the name of Celes- 
tine IV. He filled the papal throne [only] seventeen days, 
dying on the third of the ides [the 11th] of November, After 
his death the see remained vacant for one year, seven months, 
and thirteen days. 

Boniface, a native of Savoy, was elected archbishop of Canter* 
bury on the calends [the 1st] of February in the present year* 

1 " Omnes prselati papa? mandato vocati, 
Et tres legati veniant hue usque ligati." 

A.D. 1242-5.] REIGN OF HENRY III. 323 

Eleanor, the wife of Geoffry, count of Brittany, and sister 
of Arthur, died. Queen Margaret bore a daughter, named 

[a.d. 1242.] Richard, earl of Cornwall, after receiving 
distinguished honours from the emperor Frederic, the king 
of France, and other princes beyond sea, on his return from 
the Holy Land, landed at Dover on the eleventh of the calends 
of February [22nd January]. Gregory, prior of St. Edmund's, 
died on the ninth of lliiM-alentis of May [23rd April). Daniel 
succeeded. King Henry levied a scutage in England of 
forty shillings for each scutage. The king of England, with 
his queen and nobles, went over the sea to Gascouy on tho 
second of the nones [the 2nd] of May. 

[a.d. 1243.] Queen Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, 
who was named Beatrix. Sinebald, a cardinal-priest of St. 
Lawrenee-iii-Lueina, was consecrated pope on the seventh of 
the calends of July [25th June,] and took the name of Inno- 
cent IV. King Henry and his queen returned from Gascouy, 
landing at Portsmouth on the 7th of the calends of October 
pfflt* September]. Hubert As Burgh, earl of Kent, died on 
the third of the ides [the 13th] of May. Richard, earl of 
Cornwall, married the daughter of the count of Provence, who 
was sister to the queen of England. William, bishop of Nor- 
wich, being named to the see of Winchester, translated 
himself to Winchester by virtue of a bull of the pope, against 
the king's will. 

[a.d. 1244.] Dissension arose between the kings of 
England and Scotland. On the death of Daniel, prior 
of St. Edmund's, Richard At-Wood, a monk, succeeded 
Mm on the second of the nones [the 4th] of June. A 
violent whirlwind levelled many trees and houses on the 
third of the ides [the 11th] of June. Peace was renewed 
between the kings of England and Scotland on the idea 
[the 13th] of August, at Newcastle. Pope Innocent came 
into France and staid some time at Lyons. An extraordinary 
conflict took place on the vigil of St. Lucia [12th December], 
between the Christians and Kharismians, near Gaza, in which 
all the army of the kingdom of Syria, with a host of Christians, 
were put to the sword by the before-mentioned Kharismians. 1 
1 Cosmerinof; the hordes from Kharizim, a country east of the 
Caspian Sea, at that time comprising Khoraasan. 



[a.d. 1245]. Queen Eleanor bore it son, who was called 
Edmund, from the name of the glorious king and martyr 
Edmund ; our lord the king requiring, by letter addressed to 
abbot Henry, that he should be enrolled among us. On the 
eighteenth day of January, in the twenty-ninth year of the 
reign of king Henry, Boniface, the [archbishop] elect at 
Canterbury, was consecrated by the pope. Walter, [bishop 
elect of Norwich, was consecrated on the eleventh of the 

ends of March [19th February]. King- Henry led »n 
army into Wales alter Whitsuntide [4th June], Pope Inno- 
cent held a council at Lyons, in which he summarily deposed 
Frederic, the emperor of the Romans. Roger de Weseham, 
dean of Lincoln, was consecrated bishop of Coventry on the 
eleventh of the calends of March [19th February]. 

[a.D. 1246.] While pope Innocent resided at Lyons, the 
landgrave Henry was elected by the princes of Germany as 
their king, and the future emperor of the Romans, on Tues- 
day the eleventh of the calends of May [21st April]. The 
same year the landgrave fought a battle with Conrad, son of 
Frederic, the late emperor, in which he defeated Conrad. 
On Conrad's side there were taken prisoners six hundred 
knights, and one thousand two hundred squires, besides the 
foot soldiers and the slain, whose numbers are not recorded. 
The archbishops of Cologne and Meniz, and the bishop of 
Metz, who by order of the pope supported the landgrave 
with their forces, gained a victory ai (Stra.-brng in the begin- 
ning of the month of August. Sixteen counts and great 
barons were taken prisoners, besides those already mentioned. 
St. Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, was canonised. 

[a.d. 1247.] A violent earthquake was felt Oil the calends 
[the 1st] of March in various parts of England. The land* 
grave, who in the preceding year was elected emperor, dW. 
St. Edmund, archbishon of I 'ant crimpy, was translated on tin. 1 
fifth of the ides [the 9th] of June. Frederic, the Uu 
emperor, besieged Parma. This year, there was a coinage 
in England; on w hid i occasion king Henry granted Vs wt 
monks of St. Edmund's a die of the new coinage, with free 
liberty of using it, with a difference, as the king himself used 
his own dies, 

[a.d. J.248.] On the night of the Circumcision [1-t 
January] there was a violent storm of wind. Frederick 
army was defeated by the Parmesans, with great slauj"' ' 

a.d. 1248-50.] cnrsADE op lewis ix. 325 

Frederic himself being driven to flight by a standard with 
a picture of the glorious Virgin Mary, which the Parmesans 
bore. This happened on the twelfth of the calends of March 
[18th February]. 

Henry, abbet of St. Edmund's, died on the thirteenth of 
the calends of July [19th June] ; after whose death, master 
Edmund de Walpole was elected abbot on the nones [the 7th] 
of July. He had not been a monk two years from the time 
of his taking the habit to the day of his election. The bene- 
diction was given h tin by Hugh, bishop of Ely, on the fifth 
of the calends of l ictohiT [27th September]. 

The same year, Lewis [IX.], king of France, having taken 
the cross, departed from France with hia wife after Whit- 
suntide [7th June], towards the Holy Land, and arriving at 
Lyons, received absolution front the pope. Having obtained 
his benediction, he embarked for Cyprus, and landing about 
the feast of St. Michael, spent the winter there. 

[a.d. 1240.] The king of France left Cyprus on the day 
of our Lord's Ascension [Kith May], and in Whitsun-week 
[23rd May] arrived by sea before DnmieUa, which place he 
found almost deserted, and on Thursday, in the same week, 
he took possession of it and all he found there. For the 
citizens of Damietta had retired towards Alexandria, believing 
that the king of France would come to their town. The same 
year, on the twentieth day of November, the said king and 
hia army set forth from Damietta on their way to Mansourah, 
where they arrived on the Thursday before Christmas. In 
this march they suffered greatly from the attacks of the 
Saracens. Having encamped at Mansourah, near a river 
called Thaneos, they halted while a raft was constructed to 
enable them to cross the river and give battle to the Saracens, 
erecting machines to defend the passage, which, however, 
were burnt by the Saracens. 

[a.d. 1250.] On the first day of the Carnival' [23rd 
January], the king of France, after a consultation with his 
knights, determined to pass the river, a Saracen being in- 

1 Die Carniprivii ; Septuageaima, which is called the Sunday of the 
" Carnival " in Fitz- Stephen's Hist, of Thomas it Becket, and in a 
charter of the year 1195. It appears to have been originally the com- 
mencement of the Carniprivium before Lent, which was afterwards 
deferred till Quinquagesima. Every one knows that the Carnival 


duced by a reward to show thorn a good passage. But the 
Templars, ltobert, count of Artois, the lord William hmtgafr 
spee, the lord R. do Coney, and several others, having crossed 
tiie river, not wait ins for the king's troops and without any 
precautions, pushed forward beyond Mansourah, as it is said 
at the suggestion of the count of Artois, and marching in 
disorder and without cross-bow men, they were overwhehik'ii 
by an immense body of Pagans ; and the king was not ible 
to afford them any succour, inasmuch as he himself was iiir- 
rounded by a vast multitude of the Pagans. On that day, 
therefore, and in that conflict, most of the knights Templars, 
the count of Artois, William Longuespee, U. da Couey, and 
many other Christians, fell. The king halted there with hi* 
army during the whole of Lent, suffering severely from sick- 
ness and famine, besides frequent attacks by the Pagans. 

Under these cireumstaneos, the king, poiwiving the variow 
perils which threatened him, on Tuesday alter the octave of 
Easter 1 [3rd April}, retraced his steps towards Damietta, * 
movement which was betrayed to the Pagans by some 
Christian renegadoes. In consequence, on the following Jay. 
Wednesday, they attacked the Christians with such impe- 
tuosity that they took the king himself with his brothers, aud 
the whole army prisoners, and put them in counueiricijt at 
Mansourali, where the king was detained for a month, that is. 
till Ascension day [5th May]. On that day the king was 
released on the terms of surrendering Damietta and releasing 
the captives. Moreover, lie paid for his ransom and the costs 
and expenses, one hundred thousand livrea sterling 
hundred thousand livres of Tours ; and the Saraeens on llittir 
part liberated all their prisoners. A truce was also made fur 
three years, and the king departed, believing that this con- 
vention would he completely carried into etlecl ; hiit tin' 
Saraeens took no pains to fulfil it, for only part of the pri- 
soners were given up. 

William, bishop of Winchester, died on the calends [the 
1st] of September, and was buried in the church of St. Martin 
at Tours. The ex-emperor Frederic died. William. (QOpI 
of Holland, was elected his successor. The same year, there 
was a storm of thunder and Iij,di tiling at daybreak. 

.D. 1251-3.] REIGN OF HEXBY III. 

[Iasu rrection of the Pasloureavx.] 

[a.D. 1231.] The pnpo departed from Lyons on Wcdnev 
ly in Easter week [16th April]. The same year, an 
apostor came into France, and gathering about him a vast 
multitude of shepherds, by giving out that he was " The 
hepherd," coin missioned by the blessed Mother of God, 
ad that it was revealed to him by her that by such persons, 
Hit is shepherds, the Holy Land eould be rescued. Having 
■avelled through nearly all the cities (if France, preaching, 
id pretending to work mirack's, he at length came to Orleans 
ith his followers, where a tumult broke out between him 
id the clergy, in which many of the clergy, but very many 
iore of the shepherds, were slain on the ides [the 13th] of 
line. On the day foil mi insr, being Friday, the loader of the 
lepherds himself was slain, and all the rest were dispersed. 1 

The same year, on Christmas day, Alexander, king of 
Gotland, was knighted by the king of England, and on the 
orrow he married Margaret, the daughter of that king." 

[a.d. 1252.] This year many died from the excessive 
•st of the summer. Also awful thunder claps were heard 
i the morrow of the Assumption of the blessed Virgin, 
'ar was waged between the Germans and Flemings, in 
hich many thousand Flemings fell. The same year, 'the 
*w church at Ely was dedicated on the fifteenth of the 
lends of October [17th September]. 

Richard, prior of St. Edmund's, died on the tenth of the 
lends of November [23rd October]. Symon de Luton 
icceedcd him as prior. This Symon was the first prior who 
as elected by a scrutiny of the abbot Edmund and two 
onks, one named by the abbot and one by the convent, 
ho with the abbot took the votes of the electors, and thus 
vmon was declared prior of St. Edmund's. 
' [a.d. 1253.] King Henry levied an aid of forty shillings 
■r every knight' s-fce, on creating his eldest son a knight, 
he same year, king Henry, being desirous to promote the 

d excesses of 


328 FLORENCE OY WORCESTER, [a.d. 1253, V2,',\. 

advancement of his second son Edmund, obtained from tic 
pope for five yours the lenth of all the movable goods of the 
monks, and clergy, under pretence of a subsidy for the Holy 
Land ; but this was done to enable him. to make liis son 
Edmund king of Sicily and Apulia.' The same year, king 
Henry confirmed the liberties granted by the charter of 
forests and others formerly granted, under pain of excom- 
munication to those who should contravene such liberties. 

The same year the king embarked at Portsmouth on the 
eighth of the ides [the Gth] of August, intending to cross 
the sea to Gascony to reduce the rebels in that province; 
which he efi'ected. Robert, bishop of Lincoln, died on the 
nones [the 7th] of October. The sea overflowed its banki 
and flooded many places on the coast. Queen Eleanor gave 
birth to a daughter who was named Catherine. Henry, son 
of the emperor Frederic, aud nephew of the king of 
England, died. 

[a.d. 1254.] Conrad, son of the emperor Frederic, died 
on Ascension day [21st May]. Hugh, bishop of Ely. de- 
parted this life on the eighth of the ides [the Tub] of August, 
Master William of Kilkenny, the king's chancellor, was 
elected bishop. Lewis, king of France, returned from the 
Holy Land, and arrived at Paris on the feast of St. Mary the 
Virgin, that is, her Nativity [Sth September]. Edward, son 
of the king of England, was knighted in Spain by the king 
of Castile, on the day of the Translation of St. Edward 
[13th October], and soon afterwards married the king's 

King Henry, with the queen find a numerous retinue of 
English nobles, returned into Gascony in the month of 
November, the people there being inclined to peace : anil, 
after visiting the king and queen of France at Paris, lie 
made a pilgrimage to St. Edward the confessor at Foutigny,' 

' See the particulars of this Fruitless undertaking in Matt. Paris. — 
Ibid, pp. 89, 137, 225. 

' Pontigny, near Auxetre, where there was a Cistercian mbbef, 
founded in 1118, the fine church of which still exists. The reraum 
of St. Edmund, archbishop of Cinterlnirv, wh« died in exile on llw 
lfith November, 1240, were dfjiiwited there. He was canonised tt 
1240. Matt, l'.-iri.i lins pn.crveil 11 letter from the monks to Innocent 
IV., attesting the miracles performed at his tnnib, vol.ii. [Ant>tj. Lib]* 
p. 512; and see the pope's letter of canonisation in the " Additamenti, 

a.b. 1255-7.] mchard, man OF GERMANY. 320 

mid on his departure thence went to Boulogne, where lie 
celebrated Christmas. 

[Pope] Innocent [TV.]dicd. Alexander rVsueceedodhim. 
Henry, king of England, embarked on tin 1 night of St. John 
the apostle [27th Doeenibor] to return to England. 

[a.d. 1255.] Peter, bishop of Hereford, at the instigation 
of king Henry, anil, as was reported, with the privity of some 
[prelates, falsely and treacherously represent inir himself as the 
procurator of all the clergy of England, entered into an 
obligation binding all the religious bouses in England, 
exempt or not exempt, to pay certain merchants, both of 
Sienna and Florence, sums, to the amount of one or two 
hundred murks fur the lesser bouses, three or four hundred 
for the larger, and for some, as much as five hundred. The 
abhey of St. Edmund, king and martyr, he pledged by a bond 
for two hundred marks, and took upon himself to execute 
the instrument as a legally authorised procurator; and the 
consent of the pope was quoted to give authority to alt this ; 
I only hope it was forged. All this money was thus collected 
for the purpose of driving out .Manfred, the emperor Fred- 
eric's son, from the territories of Apulia and Sicily, which 
the pope had bestowed on Edmund, the king of Etig-hiiirt's 
son, who never got them. 

[a.d. 1256.] William, count of Holland, was slain in the 
month of February. William, bishop of Ely, died. On the 
day of the Holy Innocents [?8th December] there was a 
violent storm of thunder and lightning at Westminster. Ed- 
mund, abbot of St. Edmund's, departed this life on the second 
>f the calends of January [31st December]. 

[a.d. 1257.] Richard, earl of Cornwall, brother of the 
;ing of England, was elected king of Germany in the month 
if January. Going by way of St. Edmund's to Yarmouth, 
in the day of that saint's translation [29th April], and 
mbarking on the feast of the apostles SS. Philip and James 
1st May], he sailed for Germany, and was crowned, as 
:ing, by the archbishop of Cologne on Ascension day [17th 

The same year, Symon, prior of St, Edmund's, was elected 
,bbot of that monastery on the nineteenth of the calends of 
ol. it., p. 396. See also Matt. Paris'a account of the archbishop, 


February [Htli January] i after Ins confirmation, messengers 
were sent to the apostolic see, but they returned without 
suttlins the affair, because there was a new rule that all whn 
ploaded exemption should come in person to the court of 
Borne. Accordingly the abbot-elect set out on his journey 
towards the said court on the third of the calends of August 
[30th July], and he received the rite of benediction from pope 
Alexander at Viterbo, on the eleventh of the calends of No- 
vember l-'-inl October]. 

Memorandum — that the said Symon, abbot of St. Edmund, 
was the first abbot of all the exempt religious houses in Eng- 
land who went to the Roman court for his benediction 
and confirmation, and the costs were two thousand niarki 

In the course of this year the king led an annv bA 

The same year, the friars-minors clandestinely entered tte 
burgh of St. Edmund's, 1 on the tenth of the calends of July 
['22nd June], and said mass privately, but aloud, in the hew- 
ing of all who assembled, at the house of Roger de Herde- 
berri, on the east side of the north gate. At this time 
Symon, the prior and abbot-elect, with the sub-prior and 
sacristan, and several other monks, were on their road to our 
lord the king, to make him a representation on the subject 
of the election ; but notwithstanding this the friars' chapel. 
with all the houses whie'i stood in that court, were levehfirf 
to the ground, just as the knight before mentioned, with the 
friars aforesaid, were sittinsf, down to dinner. 

Walter, hish.ip of Norwich, died, and was succeeded hy 
master Symon de Wauton. This year there were excessive 
rains, causing such vast inundations, that on the ides [the 15th] 
of July, houses, walls, and trees were thrown dowi 
was swept off by the force of the current, and bridges without 
numl>er demolished. 

[a.d. 1258.] A general scarcity was the consequence of 
the inundations of the preceding year ; for, what, had rarely 
happened, the quarter of wheat was sold for as much as fifteen 

1 Matt. Paris says they were introduced by the inllueuce of tiie l»j 
of Gin iii-ester, a ilcularcd enemy of theahbot nnd convent, who W 
involved them in an expansive lawsuit, aad Gilbert of Preston- V«L 
iii.,p. 278. 

l.V. 1258.] FOltEIGNERR ESPELLED. 331 

or even twenty shillings. 1 Tliis caused sucli a famine, that 
the poor devoured horse-flesh, the bark ot' trees, and things 
still worse, while multitudes died of starvation. The same 
year all sorts of corn, of which there was an abundant crop, 
were nearly rotted by the ruins of the autumn, and in many 
places the harvest lay in the fields after the feast of All 
Saints [the 1st November] ; and many persons gathered into 
their barns on Sundays and other feast-days, when the wea- 
ther happened to be somewhat fair. 

At this time the queen of England, and her Poitevin 
brothers, and Savoyard kinsmen, drew on themselves the 
hatred of the nobles of the realm hy the oppressive manner 
in which they used the royal authority, wherever any of them 
had an opportunity of domineering. Wherefore, after Easter, 
in an assembly of all the basons of England at Oxford, cer- 
tain stntutes 3 were made for sustaining, as it was said, tlie 
liberties of the church and the perogatives of the crown, in 
the presence of our lord the king, and his eldest son Edward, 
who ratified the aforesaid statutes, although reluctantly, by 
the sanction of the royal seal sod their oaths. The barons of 
tlie realm al.-o hound themselves to each other, by the obliga- 
tion of an oath, to fight to the death, if needs be, for their 
maintenance, and take arms against those who infringed them. 
Pursuant to this, at the aforesaid parliament, Aimar, the 
bishop-eleet of Winchester, and William de Valence, and the 
other brothers of the king, both Poitevin and Savoyard, were 
banished the realm of England. After their expulsion, the 
crooked and extortionate dealings before alluded to gradually 
came to an end. 

Robert, surnamed Eussel, was elected prior of St. Ed- 
mund's. In the same year, on the seventh of the calends of 
May [25th April], the friars-minors, supported by the. royal 
authority and an armed force under the orders of Gilbert de 
Preston, the king's justiciary, intruded themselves into the 
Jurgh of St. Edmund's, contrary to the rights and privileges 

' See Matt. Paris, vol. iii., pp. 2* 
L arl of Cornwall and king of Germany, 
aden with wheat to relieve the scarcity. 

3 See the account in Matt. Paris of these proceedings of theParlia- 
nent held at Oxford at the feast of St. Barnabas, 1268, commonly 
:alled " The Provisions of Oxford." Voi. iii., p. 285. 

332 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER, [a.d. 1258, 125R 

of that place. The moon was totally eclipsed in the nisrht of 
the fourteenth of the calends of June [19th May], In the 
same year, a violent wind blew down a number of houses, 
trees, and towers, on the night of St. Andrew [30th Novem- 
ber], at which time the king was at St. Edmund s. 

A scutage of fnrty shilling* was levied for the expenses of 
the army in Wales. It must be understood that since the coro- 
nation of king Henry, son of king John, soutagea have been 
imposed eleven times, as appears by the following table : — 

At the retreat of bonis 2 marks 2nd year. 

Biham 10 Ahilliogn 5th y pit. 

Montgomery 2 marks 8th year. 

Bedford 2 marks 8th year. 

Kerry 2 marks 8th year. 

Brittany, scuUrp 4i> shillings 14th year. 

Poitou 40 shilling* 15th year. 

Elweyn 20 ghiliiugs 16th year. 

Gascons 40 shillings 17th year. 

Ganiior' 40 shillings 29lh year. 

Wales 40 shillings. 42ndyear: 

[a.d. 1259.] Richard, king of Germany, returned to Eng- 
land about the Purification [2nd February]. Tin- 
Folk, bishop of London, on the twelfth of the calends of June 
[21st May]. An agreement was made between Richard de 
Clare, earl of Gloucester, and the convent of St. Edmund's, 
on the morrow of St. Leonard's [Ttli November], for settling 
their lawsuit touching the lands of Medchale and Kclighiua, 
which had lasted nine years and five days. The same yetr 
the king crossed the sea about the feast of St. Martin [11th 
November], and celebrated Christmas at Paris ; and at tliis 
time he ceded to the king of France Normandy, Poitou, An- 
jou, and nearly all his territories beyond sea, with the ex- 
ception of Aquitaine. The king of England now a! 
[the cognisance on] his seal, adopting a sceptre instead of » 
(word ; which gave rise to the following verses : — 

' Glamorgan, Murgannc 

I.D. 1200-62.] HENRY CEDES NORMAXDr, ETC. 333 

Then Anjou, Poitou, Xnnnandy, the boast 
Of England - warlilii.' liin.i;-;, |-i. 5 r-licii win) lost, 
Were ihe rkli Irophirs of tliu power of France; 
And Henry ulun-nl lii- ni'iil iiinl .■■j^nisanoe. 
Assumed llie Mjeptre for the conqueror's sword. 
Though siill a ting, no lunger Ncusliio's lord." 

[a.d. 1260.] Lewis, the eldest son of the king of France, 
died. Tlie king of England returned to England, The king 
and the barons became at variance, because the Provisions 
o!' Oxford were not oWrveil. SymOB de Montfort was the 
leader of the barons. This year, about the Purification of St. 
Mary [2nd February], the debts of the abbot and convent of 
St. Edmund's were apportioned, namely, five thousand marks, 
so that each paid two thousand five hundred, 

[aji. 1861.1 There was an eclipse of the sun on Friday, 
the calends [the 1st] of April, at the end of the fourth month 
of the year, as the Arabs reckon. [Pope] Alexander [IV.] 
died on the eighth of the calends of June [25th May], and 
the see was void for three months on account of a disagree- 
ment among the cardinals. At last, on the fourth of the 
calends of September [29th August], they elected master 
Jacob de Trecis, patriarch of Jerusalem, who took the name 
of Urban IV. Sanchia, queen of Germany, died. Pope 
Urban canonised St. Richard, bishop of Chichester, and ap- 
pointed the third of the nones [the 3rd] of April to be kept 
as the day of his entombment. 

[a.d. 1262.] King Henry crossed over to France on the 
fourteenth of the calends of August [19th July], and soon 
after his arrival, he, as well as nearly all his household, fell sick. 
Many of his great officers died, and the rest narrowly escaped 
death. Returning thence through Champagne, he crossed the 
sea to England on the eve of St. Thomas the apostle, and 
celebrated the feast of our Lord's Nativity at Canterbury. 

Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, died on the eleventh 
of the calends of August [22nd July]. Henry, bishop of 
London, died [also] on the eleventh of the calends of August, 
and Richard Talbot was elected his successor ; but he too died 
Immediately after his confirmation, and was succeeded by 
Henry de Sandwich. Johanna, wife of Henry de Hasting, 
gave birth to her son John, at Alesle, on the feast of St. 
John-ante-Portam-Latinam [6th May]. 


[a.d. 1263.] On the seventh of the ides [the 7th] of 
February, a fire broke out with such fury at [the palace of] 
Westminster that it burnt down the king's chamber, the little 
hall, the chapel, and other buildings. 

There was discord between the king and the barons, because 
the king, through the influence of the queen and others, 
principally foreigners, had prevailed on the pope to absolve 
him from observing the statutes of Oxford and from his oath. 
Whereupon the. barons employed ruffians who destroyed die 
property of the queen and the counsellors of the king, at 
whose suggestion he had procured the absolution already men- 
tioned, without respect to their order or dignity. For they 
even dragged the bishop of Hereford out of his church, and 
threw him into prison ; and the bishop of Norwich could find 
no safety but by fleeing with all speed to sanctuary in the 
liberty of St. Edmund. Indeed, at that time, the liberty of 
St. Edmund's was very precious in the eyes of the barons. 
They also plundered the effects of the Roman [clergy] where- 
ever they could find them, driving the owners out of England; 
and they either preferred others to their churches, or gave 
them up to whom they pleased ; they also treated all aliens in 
the same manner. 

On the eve of the feast of St. Edmund [28th April], the 
friars-minors, making absolute submission, relinquished to 
the abbot and convent of that place the house which they had 
occupied for five years, six months, and twenty-four days 
within the vill of the saint, into which they were intruded by 
our lord the king, contrary to the liberties of the aforesaid 
church. They were induced to this by a certain papal 
rescript obtained by the convent of St. Edmund, which en- 
joined them, in virtue of their obedience, to withdraw from 
that place ; so that they were not forcibly expelled, hut 
retired voluntarily, declaring publicly before all the people 
that their possession of the premises had been illegal. 

[The Civil War and Battle of Lewes.'] 

By mutual consent of Henry, king of England, and the 
barons before mentioned, the case of the Provisions of Oxford 
was submitted to the arbitration of the king of France. 

[a.d. 1264.] Immediately after Christmas, and before the 
award of the king of France was published, Edward, the 

.». 1264.] WAR WITH THE DARONB. 335 

dest son of the king of England, having , assembled a 
jmerous army, set to work in burning iind plundering the 
>untry, being joined by ninny powerful men, who had pre- 
ously espoused the cause of the barons. The king of 
ranee decided by his award that the king of England was 
leased from his obligation to observe the Provisions of 
xford, already referred to. War then immediately broke 
jt in all parts of England, the royalists, laim?iitubly, rushing 
i arms against the barons, and the barons against the 
lyuliats. The king ol Kngland, with his brother, the king of 

erniatiy, and his eldest son, Edward, took Northampton, 
though it was garrisoned with a large force. On the 
iturday before our Lord's Passion [13th April] the barons, 
ined by the Londoners, forced the troops who held the 
tadel of Bochester, who came out to fight them, to retreat 
ithin the tower, leaving several of their comrades dead, 
he barons and Londoners plundered the Jewry, and many 
' the Jews were slain. 

After many sad losses on the one side and the other, the two 

ngs fought a rather spvei'e hat tie with the barons at Lewes, 1 on 
le second of the ides of -May 1 4-th May], in which the barons 
lined the victory. Although they took the king of Eng- 
nd, they did not treat him as a captive ; but, keeping him 

custody, paid him courtly observance as their sovereign, 
he king of Germany they carried off as prisoner. Edward 
ive himself up as a hostage to procure the release of his 
ther and uncle ; and they swore to observe all the 
-ovisions of Oxford before mentioned. Thenceforth the 
ng went where the barons went, and did exactly, and with- 
it opposition, what it was their will he should do. Peace 
is proclaimed throughout the country by a royal edict. 
:ie queen of England, who was in foreign parts, was much 
stressed when she heard the state of affairs ; and taking 
to pay an immense army, meditated the invasion of 
igland ; but the sea and the coast being, by order of the 

1 The battle was fought on the SouthdownB upon Plumpton Plain 
A the heights above Lewes, the castle of which was held by 
; royal forces. Matt. Paris gives a circumstantial account of the 
tile, and the movements before and after the important victory, 
lich threw the whole power into the hands of Simon de Moutfort 
d the barons. 

336 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [A.D. 1264, 1265. 

king and barons, guarded by a powerful armament, the 
enemy were afraid to cross over, and the queen's treasury 
being exhausted, her forces returned home after no little 
toil and disgrace. When this became known, the navtl 
armament was withdrawn. 

Memorandum — that if the sea had not been thus guarded, 
England would have fallen into the hands of foreigners. 
Memorandum also, — that all the boroughs and vilJs, as 
well as both the rural and regular clergy, were taxed accord- 
ing to their means to furnish for the sea-guard, both fighting 
men, and the expenses of maintaining them as long as they 
were employed in the service. 

A comet was visible in the eastern quarter of the heavens 
before day break throughout the month of August. It was 
of a dull hue, and the direction of its tail was southward. 

Guy, bishop of Sabina, a cardinal, and legate of the 
apostolic see, came into France, and wished to pass into 
England ; but, as the barons supposed that he was come in 
the interest of the king and queen, he was not allowed to set 
foot in England. [Pope] Urban [IV.] died at Perugio on 
the calends [the 1st] of October, and the see remained 
vacant four months. 

[a.d. 1265.] Guy, cardinal-bishop of Sabina, formerly 
bishop of Narbonne, and now legate of the apostolic see, was 
made pope on the nones [the 5th] of February, and took 
the name of Clement [IV.] . Gilbert de Clare, earl of 
Gloucester, and some others who joined him, abandoned 
the party of the earl of Leicester for various reasons; but 
chiefly because they had not their share of the castles and 
domains, which were partitioned out after the battle of 
Lewes, allotted to them in fair proportion to their cost 
and exertions. Charles, count of Anjou, was elected king 
of Sicily and Apulia ; being also raised to the dignity of 
senator of Rome, he made his entry into that city on Whit- 
sun eve [23rd May]. 

At this time, Edward, son of the king of England, being 
released from prison, was led about with the king by the 
earl of Montfort wherever he went. At length they came to 
Hereford, where Edward, escaping from the custody of the 
before-mentioned earl, joined the earl of Gloucester and the 
lords-marchers, who were close at hand, on the fifth of the 

J.D. 12G5.J THE BAKONS' WABS. 337 

caleuds of Juno [the 28th Slay] ; the king, and the earl of 
Leicester being detained on the borders of Wales in great 
straits and moenattn, becnau the earl of Gloucester and 
his party would not allow them to go towards Eugland- 
Meanwhile, Symon de Montfort, the son of tlie earl of 
Leicester, having entered Winchester by surprise, about the 
feast of St. Swithun, carried off from thence a largo sum of 
money and much booty ; and soon afterwards, this Symon, 
eirl of Oxford, the sou of the carl of Leicester, William de 
Montchesuey, and divers other nobles joined their forces at 
Kenilwerth, which they propose'.! to garrison for the earl of 
Leicester. However, Edward and the earl of Gloucester, with 
their adherents, falling upon them by surprise, when they 
"ere at their ease and unarmed, made them prisoners, 
strirjiing them of all they had, and placing them in custody 
in diffurent parts of England. 

Battle, of Evesham. 

While these events were passing, and in ignorance of what 
was going on, Symon, carl uf Leicester, and his partisans, 
having the king witli them, crossed the river Severn and 
pushed forward as far as Evesham. They were pursued by 
Edirard and Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, and tha 
lords marchers, with a large body of their followers, who 
gave them battle on Tuesday the second of the nones [the 
4th] of August just outside the town of Evesham. 1 In this 
battle fell the earl of Leicester, his eldest son Henry, Hugh 
1'wpencer, and nearly all the Other barons who were on the 
k-nj's side. The Welsh and the rest of the fugitives, who 
fled for refuge to the abbey, were horribly massacred, both 
within and without the church ; the king and the royal 
attendants, were captured, with their free goodwill. On the 
aa nie day, about the third hour, there fell such a storm of 
r J:u. necuiiipiiiiicd by thunder and lightning, and the dark- 
R ess was so groat, that at the dinner hour they could scarcely 
^c what was sot before them for the repast. 


A Parliament at Winchester. 

After tins battle, the king collected his household, as if he 
had never been in custody, making it much more numerous 
than before ; and, proclaiming peace, summoned his parliament 
to meet at Winchester, on the Nativity of St. Mary [8th Sep- 
tember]. In this parliament, both the father and his sod, 
and the other courtiers, extorted large sums of money from 
nearly all the prelates in England ; of which they got almost 
eight hundred marks from the Church of St. Edmund the 

[Of this sum the convent paid one half ; but very unwil- 
lingly, because their tenants, as well as those of the abbot, 
were then with the troops guarding the sea-coast, to prevent 
the queen and her army from invading England. But only 
the abbot's share was claimed on default in the king's court ; 
and the convent were deeply aggrieved at this apportionment 
of the subsidy on this account, and because it might be made 
a precedent thereafter.] 

The parliament was prorogued to the feast of Michaelmas, 
to be then held at Windsor ; from whence some persons about 
the court were despatched to London, who, under colour of 
smooth words, proposing a treaty with the king, which was 
rather a treachery, 1 prevailed on the mayor and a great num- 
ber of the citizens to accompany them to Windsor. On 
arriving there, they were immediately seized and thrown into 
prison ; the defences of the city were occupied by royal 
troops, who entirely demolishing the barriers and iron chains 
with which all the streets and courts of the city were wonder- 
fully fortified, reduced it to subjection to the king ; and many 
of the citizens, having disinherited the rest, ransomed them- 
selves for twenty thousand marks. 

The king disposed at his pleasure, both among the English 
and aliens, of all the lands and possessions of those who had 
been in arms against him at the battles of Lewes and Eve- 
sham, or were found at Northampton and Konilworth, except 
the lands of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester ; such being 
the king's policy, although there wefe some who did not 
concur in it. The castle of Dover was restored to [prince] 

1 Fcedus federantc?, immo fcedantes. 


Edward ; and alt or that, ijnocn Kioiiii'ir, with her son Edmund, 
landed in England on the fourth of the calends of November 
[29th October], At the same time Ottuhoni, cardinal-deacon 
of St. Adrian, tlie legate of the apostolic see, came to England. 
Having summoned ivll the prelates of England, he held a 
council at the New Temple, about the feast of St. Nicholas 
{6th December], in which lie published ft sentence of excom- 
munication against Symon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, and 
all Ids abettors and partisans. This Symon, earl of Leicester, 
as numbers asserted, wrought many shining miracles. 

The same year, on Thursday night, being Christmas-eve, 
about midnight, there was a total eclipse of the moon, which 
became of a red colour ; it lasted three hours of the night, 
the sun being in the head, the union in the tail of the Dragon. 
It occurred in the year 664 of the Hejtra, and on the fifteenth 
day of the third month, according to the Arabian reckoning. 
That year, among the Arabs, commenced on Monday the 
fourth of the ides [the 12th] of October. 

Symon, the son of the earl of Leicester, after the battle of 
Evesham, withdrew from the castle of Keuttworth, with some 
others who were outlawed, to the island of Axholm, which 
cominjj to the king's cars, he caused the island to be sur- 
rounded by a numerous body of troops. Symon therefore 
and his companions, finding that if they resisted they should 
be soon taken, pledged themselves to peace with the king, 
Syrnon being detained in [prince] Edward's custody. More- 
over, Symon and those who were with him obtained the grace 
of absolution from the legate. 

[a.d. 1266.] After Christmas, Symon the younger escaped 
from the custody of Edward at London, and hurried over to 
Trance. A number of the outlaws seized the castle of Kenil- 
worth, and, carefully fortifying it, ravaged from thence the 
country round. Many of them also who had concealed them- 
selves at St. Edmund's, marched out of the town in great 
array on the morrow of Palm-Sunday, and seizing the moor- 
Jands, pushed their attack as far as Lynn, in Easter-week, but 
the townsmen making a stout resistance, they retired after a 
fruitless assault. On Whitsun-eve [15th May], when the 
outlaws had collected iu the town of Chesterfield, and having 
no apprehensions, some were scattered about, and others gone 
out to hunt, the royal troops came on them suddenly, and 


attacking them, slew some, took others, and routing the rest, 
retired victorious with a great booty. Meanwhile, the rest 
of the outlaws again drawing together in bands in many 
quarters, established themselves in fastnesses in the thickest 
parts of the woods, and it was worse to fall in with them than 
with a bear that has lost its whelps ; for they ravaged the 
whole country round for all they wanted. 

It happened this year that on the sixth of the calends of 
June [27th May], John, earl Warrenne, and William, de 
Valence, the king's brother, came unexpectedly to St. Ed- 
mund's with a crowd of followers, for the purpose of searching 
out the king's enemies. Rudely summoning before them 
the abbot and the burgesses of the town, they charged them 
with favouring the king's enemies, inasmuch as the outlawed 
barons stored and sold there the fruits of their ravages and 
robberies, without any impediment. The abbot having made 
a sufficient reply on behalf of himself and the convent, the 
king's inquisitors threw the whole weight of the charge on 
the burgesses, who, answering unadvisedly and without the 
abbot's counsel, admitted their guilt by their own words. 

There was also at that time a quarrel between the abbot 
and convent and the burgesses, in consequence of the bur- 
gesses having for a long time been rebellious against them and 
their bailiff. But as they were now forced to purchase peaco 
with money, and this they could not accomplish without being 
assisted by the counsels of the abbot and convent, they pite- 
ously entreated that the money might be paid to the royal 
commissioners through t he mediation of the monks, and w 
their liberties and those of the convent might be preserved 
intact ; and this was done, for the burgesses paid down to 
the king two hundred marks, and promised to pay the abbot 
and convent one hundred pounds. 

About the feast of St. John the Baptist [24th June], the 
king laid siege to the castle of Kenilworth ; besides wliich, the 
legate, having in the first place sent them admonition, excom- 
municated the besieged and their accomplices. The besieged 
however manfully resisted the royal troops, and caused them 
severe losses. At last, a truce was agreed on between the 
king and the besieged, from the feast of St. Martin [11th 
November J for forty days thence ensuing ; during which period 
many of those who were shut up in the castle perished from 


drinking poisoned liquid?. Provisions likewise began to fail, 
and their wants were well known to the royalists ; for thcro 
itns some among them who favoured the king's party, and 
informed them of their deigns by privati? signals, so that they 
would never sally out against the royal forces as they wished 
and might have done. These tailors wen hov.ever convicted 
and hung in the fortress. On the eve of St. Lucia [12th 
December], the castle of Konilworth was surrendered to the 

Meanwhile the king, in the presence of the legate and sur- 
rounded by many of the nobles and prelates of England, 
exhibited the Indulgence of our lord the pope, in which it was 
contained that tho pope hart granted to the king, for three 
rears, the tenth of all ecclesiastical revonni s '.n England, ac- 
cording to the red value, ccvpt the property of the Hos- 
pitallers, Templars, and Cistercian*. 

Moreover, during the truce, twelve men of rank were 
chosen, clerks as we'l a* laymen, win. should make provision 
respecting the rebels taken in battle, and in prison or besieged, 
in the manner following, that is to say: that some should for- 
feit their lands for one year, others for two years, some for 
three, many for four, very many for five, and in extreme cases 
for seven years ; and that each should pay the king within the 
next three years the value of the land for seven years ; and if 
they were able within the next three days to discharge the 
third part of the aforesaid tax, they should be put in possession 
of one third part of their lands ; if they should pay a moiety 
of the aforesaid ciiarge, they should have half their lands ; if 
they should pay the whole, they should recover their lands 
entire ; but if within tho said three years they should not dis- 
charge tho whole assessment, they should he for ever disin- 
herited. According to this statute, the barons who were 
taken at Kcnil worth before the battle of Evesham, as well as 
those who were taken in that battle and those who were he- 
sieged in the castle of Kenilworth, were allowed to depart 

The Isle of Ely taken by the Outlaws. 

On the fifth of the ides [the 9th] of August, the outlaws, 
who, as it has been related, lurked in the woods, approaching 
cautiously, seized the isle of Ely, of which the bishop had before 

342 FLOREXCE or WORCESTER. j_A.D. 12CG-7. 

undertaken the custody in the king's presence; but aft or 
this mishap he retired from it, ami suspended the island. The 
rebels plundered the whole country round, and, pushing for- 
ward, took the town of Norwich on the seventeenth of the 
calends of January [IGtli December], and carried off with 
them, as it is reported, seven e;u't-loads or wag'gon-loadi of 

A Parliament Itelcl at Bury. 

[a.d. 1287.] On the eighth of the ides [the Gth] of 
February, being the. Sunday alter the Purification, the king 
arrived at St. Edmund's, and on the day following Ottoluni, 
the legato, filso came there ; all the prelates and barons of the 
realm having been convoked to meet at this place by a 
summons from both. The legate of St. Peter in Catlietlrl, 
holding ibis council, the rebels in possession of the isle of 
Ely, with their accomplices and abettors, having been pro- 
monished, were publicly excommunicated, in the king's pre- 
sence, unless they submitted to the royal clemency within 
fifteen days afterwards. On -the next night following wine 
dark rumours so alarmed the legate and his attendants, that 
he was induced unexpectedly to take his departure fa 
London on the morrow, on which day the king, also leaving 
the town of St. Edmund the Martyr, encamped with his irrny 
at Cambridge, where he passed the whole Lent ■fait in funuim: 
schemes for the blockade of Ely ; meanwhile it turned out 
that the siege came to nothing. 

Gilbert, earl of Gloucester, entered London with a nu- 
merous retinue, on the eve of Palm Sunday [ihh April], and 
immediately took possession of the defences of the city, W& 
the citizens' consent. He also cut off from the legate, who 
was in the Tower, all egress towards the city. The king, 
presently hearing of ihi.-, left the blockade of Ely, and betook 
himself to Stratford, after the octave of Easter, to lay siege to 
London; and the count of St. Pol, the count of Boulogne, 
and the count of Guisnes met him there, with a boil ;i 
their retainers, to aid the king with all their might. 

In this state of affairs, overtures were made for the restora- 
tion of peace between the king and the earl, through MM 
persons who carefully mediated between them, and, 
the feast of St. John the Baptist, the peace 


(lie earl swearing on the altar of St. Paul's, in the legate's 
presence, that he would novel' bear arms against his lord the 
king, except in self-defence. To the Londoners of the carl' a 
party the king promised si.vuritv fur life mid limbs, and others 
who had lent their aid to the carl were admitted to pardon 
on the terms hefore stated with res pee t to Kenilworth. This 
being settled, the king made his entry into London on the 
fourteenth of the calends of July [18th Juno], no one who 
was not a eitkun being allowed to remain in the city beyond 
the space of three days. 

Some ruffians, sallying forth from their stronghold at Ely, 
seized the horses belonging to certain persons, which were 
concealed in the inner court of the abbey of St. Edmund the 
.martyr, and, leading them through the midst of the infirmary, 
carried them off to the island. A monk of that house having 
pursued them made a clear statement of the facts to the 
authorities in the island. At last, the islanders, accepting his 
statement, left the aforesaid ruffians and the horses to the 

judgment of the monk. As for the horses ' when 

f"the ruffians] had offered the swords which they had irreve- 
rently drawn against the liberties of St. Edmund, the Martyr, 
upon the altar of the saint, in token of their presumption. 

Edward, the king's eldest son, gained an entrance into the 
isle of Ely, under the guidance of some of the islanders, on 
the fifth of the ides [the 11th] of July, and it was immediately 
surrendered to him, the rebels being pardoned on the terms 
before stated with respect to Kenihvorth. 

[a.d. 1268.] The city of Antioch was taken by the sultan 
of Babylon, on Ascension day, which fell on the sixteenth of 
the calends of June [17th May], through the treachery of the 
Jews who dwelt there. 

The legate Ottohoni held a council at'London, after Easter 
Sunday [8th April], on which was chanted the gospel, " I am 
the good shepherd." In this council he absolved Symon de 
Montfort, carl of Leicester, and the others whom he had ex- . 
communicated, on account of the insurrection already men- 
tioned. He held another council at Northampton, where the 
king was holding a parliament of his barons. In this council 
prince Edward, and Gilbert, earl of Gloucester, with a number 

1 Here the teit is defective. 


of other nobles, 1 took the cross at the legate's hands. The 
council being ended, he earnestly solicited leave to return 
home ; and, embarking on the third of the ides [the 13th] of 
Julv, crossed the sea. 

Charles, king of Sicily, and his brother, the king of France, 
fought a battle with Conrad, at Benovento, and gained the 
victory, on St. Bartholomew's eve. In this engagement 
Conrad* had sixteen thousand men in armour, and Charles 
seven thousand. 

General Taxation of the Clergy. 

This year the clergy were enjoined, by royal authority, in 
all the dioceses of England, to tax the property, both temporal 
and spiritual, of all the clergy of England, except the pos- 
sessions of the Templars and Cistercians, at its real value, 
according to the valuation of persons of the lower order, called 
in for the purpose. This being done, all the bishops com- 
pounded with the king, each for his own see. When, however, 
the bishop of Norwich came to compound with the king in 
respect of his bishopric for the tenths of two entire years, he 
included in his agreement the lands of St. Edmund the 
Martvr, having first consulted the abbot and convent on the 
subject ; and, although this appeared to be contrary to the 
liberties of the said monastery, nevertheless, on account of the 
further time thoy might gain, and also because they could 
deal better with the bishop's collectors than with the king's, 
they preferred accounting with the episcopal rather than with 
the royal ofliccrs ; and, although the clergy were only answer- 
able for the tenths of two years, as they had already dis- 
charged them for the first year, nevertheless they voluntarily 
offered the bishop to pay him also the tenths for the third 
year, besides those of the second year already granted, on 
condition, however, that they should discharge their tenths 
according to the taxation made by Walter, late bishop of 
Norwich ; which was done. In consequence of this arrange- 
ment, the convent of St. Edmund's accounted trienniallv for 
the tenths of their property before taxed by the said bishop, 
and paid them to the bishop. But as to the rest of their 
goods, which had never been taxed by bishop Walter, they 

1 Edmund, the king's younger son, was included in the number. 


ilso paid the tenths of them to the king every two years, 
ta'rcrdnie: lo the taxation of the aforesaid clerks. 

On the feast of tiie apostles Simon and Jude [28th October], 
n the present year, (he fifty- seeoud ye:ir of the reign of king 
lenry, son of king John, was completed. 

Pope Clement [IV.] died on St. Andrew's eve, and the see- 
emained vacant two years .... months, 1 three weeks, and 
jut days. 

[a.d. 1260.] Edmund, son of king Henry, married the- 
aughter and heiress of the count of Aumale, the marriage 
eing celebrated at Westminster, in the presence of the king, 
n the fifth of the ides [the 9th] of April. 

There was a quarrel between Edward, the king's son, and 
Hlbert, earl of Gloucester, on account of the too great 
itimacy which Edward was said to have indulged towards 
lie earl's wife. 

The earl of Gloucester arrested, at Cirdifl', a caitiff who had 
ttempted to poison him. 

King Henry transferred the relies of St. Edmund into a 
,ew shrine, which he had caused to be constructed, of 
dmirahle work m;m -hip, depositing them in their new recept- 
acle on the day of the saint'.-; Ti'imslarinn [Ujtli February^. 

The king required the clergy to advance the tenths for the- 
ourth year to come ; against which the clergy generally made 
n appeal, as rlie bishops were unwilling to do so. 

[Prince] Edward and the earl of Gloucester were made 
riends, through the intervention of many of the nobles, 
idward having crossed the sea to confer with the king of 
franco touching the affair of their expedition to the Holy 
jand, they came, it is reported, to the following agreement : 
iz., that the king of France should lend the lord Edward 
ieventy thousand marks, on the security of all Edward'* 
lomains over sea ; and that if this sura were not paid within 
hreo years, the lands aforesaid should belong for ever to the 
dag of France ; and that, as he was to accompany the king- 
.0 the Holy Land, lie should render him fealty as ono of his 
>wn barons. Edward sent his son Henry as a hostage for the- 
wrformaiico of this agreement, hut, for some reason which is- 
mknown, lie was immediately sent back, 

1 There is a blank in the MS. Trivet sajs tho sen was vacant three 
'cars two months anil ten days. 

346 FLORENCE OF WORCESTEB. [a J>. 1269-70. 

The city of Nocera was surrendered to Charles, lung of 
Sicily, on St. Bartholomew's eve [23rd August]. Three 
thousand Saracens were there put to death, the rest of the 
people in the city being spared, and subjected to tribute. 
The justices in eyre in Norfolk and Suffolk were Nicholas <le 
Turri, Henry de Montfort, and Henry de Wihamton. 

[a.d. 1270]. On the eve of Palm Sunday, and on the 
day of that feast [5th and 6th April], the Christians and 
Pagans had an engagement between Acre and Saphran,in 
which, after eight emirs and eighteen troops of Pagans had 
been put to the sword, the Pagans gained the victory, 
although not without great loss on their side. The Christians 
were nearly all killed ; and this happened through the insub- 
ordination of the Templars. Here also fell the flower of 
knighthood, John de Merlawe, a brother of the HospitaL 

Lewis of France embarks for the Holy Land. 

Lewis, king of France, commenced his journey to the Holy 
Xand on the seventeenth of the calends of April [16th March] ; 
-and embarked on the Mediterranean Sea at Aigues-Mortes 1 
on the feast of St. James [2oth July]. Earl Warrenne 
assaulted the lord Alan de Zouche in Westminster-hall, on 
the bench before the justiciary, on the octave of St. John 
£lst July], and so severely wounded him, that he died on 
the feast of St. Lawrence [10th August]. His eldest son 
Hoger had recourse to flight, but narrowly escaped. 

Eleanor, wife of the lord Edward, the king's eldest son, gave 
"birth to a daughter at Windsor, and called her Eleanor. 
Eogcr Bigod, earl of Norfolk and Suffolk, marshal of England, 
died at Cuhahe, on the feast of the Translation of St. Martin 
[4th July], He was buried at Monks-Thetford, on the eve 
of the Translation of St. Benedict, and dying without issue 
had for successor in his inheritance and honours, Roger, son 
•of Hugh Bigod, the brother of the deceased. 

Prince Edward departs for the Holy Land. 

Edward, the eldest son of the king of England, Henry 
of Almaine, and some others of the English nobles, set sail 

1 Aquam mortuam ; Aigues-Mortes, a town still retaining its ancient 
fortifications, between Aries and Montpelier, in the delta of the Rhone, 
communicating with the Mediterranean by one of the numerous streams 
which intersect the marshes. 

a.d. 1270-71.] i'uince edwakd's crusade. 347 

from Dover on the morrow of St. Lawrence [11th August], 
on their way to the Holy Land, through Gascony. On 
M it'll ae I tuns day they embarked on the Mediterranean Sea, 
and in company with the kings of France and Italy, and 
some nobles of Loth those countries, instead of making a 
direct course, sailed towards Africa, and entered the terri- 
tories of the king of Tunis, where the ancient and celebrated 
city of Carthage stood; and entering into treaty with thin 
pagan king, concluded a truce with him for fifteen months. 
The lord Edward, doparting from Africa, spent some time in 
Italy. Lewis IX., king of France, died during the expedition, 
leaving his son Philip his heir. He was buried at St. Denis. 

Boniface, archbishop of Canterbury, died at Baloys, his 
country seat, on the fifteenth of the calends of August [18th 
July], and Adam de Chittenden, prior of that place, and a 
native of Kent, was elected his successor. The king and 
his eldest son opposing his appointment, he was compelled 
to resort to the court of Home. Guy de Montfort married 
at Yiterbo the daughter and heiress of count di Ruvo, 1 on the 
feast of St. Lawrence [10th August]. Adam de Wieh, abbot 
of Wahham, died on St. Lambert's day [17th September], 
and was buried at Waitham on the morrow. The moon was 
eclipsed on the night preceding the first of October. 

[a.d. 1271]. Walter Delaville, bishop of Salisbury, died 
on the octave of the Epiphany [13th January]. He was 
succeeded by Eobert, the dean of that church, who was con- 
firmed by the chapter there, the see of Canterbury being then 
void. Edmund, son of the king of England,' crossed the 
sea to visit the Holy Places and his eldest brother. On the 
fifth of the calends of February [28th January], the tower 
of the church of St. Mary-at-Bow, in London, fell, and 
crushed to death numbers who were in .the church at the time. 

Henry, the eldest son of the king of Germany, passing 
through Titer bo, on his way from Africa, was cruelly murdered 
while devoutly attending divine service in the church of St. 
Silvester in that city, by the lords Simon and G. de Montfort, 
count di Ruvo, and several others, who joined in the attack, 

1 Rulei, now Ruvo, a town in Apulia, near Bari. He was of the 
Aldobrandhii family. 
- Earl of Leicester and Lancaster. 


on the morrow of St. Gregory [13th March]. His attendants 
brought his remains to England, and buried them at Hayles 
on the twelfth of the calends of June [21st May]. 

A divorce was pronounced at Norwich on the fifteenth of 
the calends of August [18th July], between Gilbert, Earl of 
Gloucester, and the countess Alice, his wife. On the sixth 
of the ides [the 8th] of August, the lord John of "Win- 
chester, eldest son of the lord Edward, the eldest son of 
Henry, king of England, was brought to Westminster for 

Philip [III.], king of France, was crowned at Bheims on 
the feast of the Decollation of St. John the Baptist [29th 
August]. On the twelfth of the calends of December [20th 
November], a son was born to Henry de Lacy; earl of Lin- 
coln, whom he caused to be named Edmund, after St. Edmund. 

About the hour of vespers, on the third of the ides [the 
11th] of September, such violent rain fell suddenly at Can- 
terbury over the city and adjacent country, that the greatest 
part of the city was suddenly inundated ; and the storm of 
rain continued until the first hour of the ensuing day. 

On the calends [the 1st] of September, Theobald, arch- 
deacon of Liege, who was then in the service of the lord 
Edward, eldest son of the king of England, in the parts of 
Acre, was elected pope, and took the name of Gregory X. 
Before his election, the see remained void two years, nine 
months, three weeks, and four days. 

The lord Philip Basset died at "VVeldon on the eve of All 
Saints [31st October]. Eulk, archbishop of Dublin, also 

[a.d. 1272.] Theobald, archbishop of Liege, who was a 
native of Piacenza, lately elected the successor of St. Peter, 
was consecrated priest on the eve of St. Cuthbert [19th 
March], and on the morrow, being Sunday, that is the second 
in Lent, he was raised to the summit of the priesthood, 
being solemnly consecrated to the papal see by the name of 
Gregory X. 

Death of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of Germany* 

Bichard, king of Germany, departed this life at Berkhamp- 
stead on the fourth of the nones [the 2nd] of April, ana 

J>. 1272,] KICItAUD UUKIBD AT UA1XES. 3-19 

■ns buried ftt the monastery of Hayles,' which lie himself 
moded and endowed with large possessions; his rtlWUMMi 
i-iiiir performed there with 'jivit solemnity on the ides [the 
3th] of April. 

jl deitruclUe Fire and great lliots at Norwich. 

At Norwich, on the feast of the apostles Peter and Paul, 
liile the monks wore at primes, the great tower of the 
mi-ell was suddenly struck by a thunderbolt on the north aide, 
itli such violence that some of the stones were torn away, 
id carried with great force to a t'oiiMderaUe distance ; an 
^eurrence which must have been considered dt:e|ily portentous 
, r all tlie sum of holy mother church. 

On the morrow of St. Lawrence [lltli August], after 
iviiig made somu frequent assaults on the priory [at Nor- 
ich], alter the gates of the convent had been violently broken 
awn by the enemies of the monks, and after they had suffered 
;her enormous injuries, just as they had taken their refection, 
Leirholy mother church was entered by the foulest rabblo of 
bp sons, namely, tho whole commonalty of the city of Nor- 
ieh, to the number, it is believed, of thirty-two thousand, 
.1 strongly armed. Joined by the women of the city, they 
:t fire to the priory in several places, and reduced the whole 
F it to ashes, together with tlie church, although it was built 
f stone; three or four buildings only, not worth mentioning, 
scaped, and nearly all tiic monks were forced to make their 
scape. Thirty of their servitors, or thereabout, were also 
ut to death with various kinds of torture, and that in the 
)ry bosom of their mother. Dragging others from the same 
lace, as from a mother's breasts, they brought them before 
icir own tribunal, and condemned them to the same fate, neither age nor rank. They also tore in pieces, or 
hindered and carried oil; all the valuables in the treasury, 
ic vestry, the refectory, and the other offices of the church, 
id the almonry. The monks, escaping privately, one by 
ie, with great difficulty saved their lives. 

In consequence of this, there was a convocation of the 
hole diocese at Eyam on the feast of the Decollation of St. 
n that 

350 FLORENCE OF Wolit'ESTEK. [\.D. V2'l2. 

John the Baptist [29th AagOst], at which tlie bishop and ill 
the assembled elon-y publicly and solemnly issued the sen- 
tence of excommunication, with the ringing of bolls anil 
lighted candles, against the perpetrators of this outrage, M 
well as all who gave their countenance, aid, or advice, or Lad 
any communication with them in any matter of business. 
This sentence was renewed and confirmed in a council of the 
bishnpsi held at London on St. Luke's day [18th October], »ad 
the king going towards the- neighbourhood of Norwich, in 
order lo take condign jumisliment on the heinous culprits, 
arrived at St, Edmund's on St. Giles's day [1st September], 
and summoned all tho peers and barons of England to meet 
hiui there and consult on the business. Having stayed at the 
abbey eleven days, on the feast of SS. Proteus and Tacmthus, 
ho set forth towards Norwich to take vengeance for the 
enormous crime ; but he abated somewhat of its fulness. 
For out of tiic vast multitude, only four men and one anRnU 
paid the forfeit of their lives for the rest, some of whom ml 
eased of their purses by the courtiers. Of those who suffered, 
Homo were drawn asunder in the streets of the i 
burnt, and others hung. 

Edmund of Almaine, earl of Cornwall, was married to 
Margaret, sister of Gilbert, ee.rl of Gloucester, on the morrow 
of St. Faith [Gth October], and was knighted, as well as 
Henry do Lacy, earl of Lincoln, on the feast of the Tin: lit- 
tion of St. Edward [13th October]. Adam de Cliillenden. 
the archbishop -elect of Canterbury, who sued in the court nf 
Home for his confirmation in that preferment, perceiving lha: 
from the influence of his determined rivals he made link- 
progress in the affair, and that even if he persisted, he should 
be nonsuited, a result which would attach no small disgraee 
to his name, he gave in his resignation both of tl 
Iiud dignity. Thereupon, tho pope, by his apostolical intho- 
rity, substituted for him friar Robert de Kilwftrdby, prior 
provincial of the order of friars-preachers in England. 

On the feast of St. Calistus [1 4th October], the king gave 
the Jews' synagogue, in the city of London, to I 
penitents of Jesus Christ; which building, to ltd 
mortification of the Jews, was consecrated by one vl tot 
bishops called in lor that purpose. 


Death of Kin;} Henry III 
iry, king of England, of happy memory, son of king 
after a reign of fifty-sue years and twenty-nine days, 

his days at Westminster, 1 on the feast of St. Edmund, 
shop of Canterbury [lOthKiivcmber], his eldest son Ed- 
iting then beyond sea; and on tiie day of St. Edmund, 
and martyr, iie.\t following November], he was 
rably interred there. And because, as we have just 
he lord Edward was then in distant parts, the earls, 
nd of Cornwall and Gilbert of Gloucester, were by 
an consent of the nobles appointed regents, and Con- 
ors of the peace, until the lord Edward's arrival, 
anor, the wife of the lord Edward, bore a son at Acre, 
,vas named John. Edmund, the sou of the king of 
nd, returned from the Holy Land, leaving in those 
his brother Edward, who had recently received a wound 

nearly caused his death, from some secret assassin;* 
trough Him who lias respect unto the humble, he was 
tly restored to health in a short time. This happened 
:. Botolph's day [17th June]. Roger, abbot of St. 
stone's, closed his days on the ides [the 13th] of De- 
t. The pope held a general council, two years after the 
:i the beginning of the calends of May [lith April]. 

Violent Mains and Inundations. 
■3. 1273.] March was very windy, and more rainy than 

been in any man's memory. Especially on the last day 
s month, the third of the calends of April [30th March] 
in continuing for nearly a night and a day, caused in- 
ions which almost equalled those of the year 1258 ; 
in some parts of England they appear to have exceeded 
lence those of the former year, for they rose five feet 

the bridge at Cambridge. Likewise at Norwich, their 
js were such that neither its being sacked by the islanders* 

;itt. Paris concludes his history with the death and some account 
character of Henry III. He relates that he was taken ill at 
itnd died there. It is singular that our continuator, who appears 
e heen a monk of that abbey, and mentions the king's coming 
JQ.=t previously, should h;Lve omitted the details given by Matt. 

and lie states that die kin- died at Westminster, 
re Matt. Paris, rol. hi., p. 378. 

353 FLOItE.VCE OF WORCESTER. [i.D, 1273. 

nor the recent proceed in gs of the royalists, caused so much 
disaster to the place. 

The lord Edward having been met by the eardunk it 
Orvietto, five stages from Rome, on St. Yal en tine's day, ivas 
received by the pope and the whole people [of Rome] with 
extraordinary honours. Count di Ruvo cleared himself of 
the murder of the lord Henry of Ahnaine before the lord pope, 
and the lord Edward and a large body of knights, by takiu; 
iin oath that ho was not privy fo his assassination. The pujHj 
granted to the lord Edward the tenth of all ccflesiaitii'il 
revenues, both temporal and spiritual, for one year, and 
another year's tenth to his brother; in recompense of the 
expenses rhey had incurred in the Holy Land. 

Master Raymond do Xogeres, prior of St. Capraisat Afcn, 
came into England to execute litis business. W'h 
convent of St. Edmund's compounded fur the tenth of ill 
their property, jointly with the abbot, for one yea* at oM 
hundred pounds, and in like manner for the second year the 
abbot paid fifty marks, and the convent one hundred marfo 
of their proper monies; with the addition of the 
spirituals as regarded the convent for the first year, but uot 
for the second. 

Adam, who had been archbishop elect of Canti'rlmrr, 
returned to England, and was reinstated in his priory. 

Story of an Evil Spirit. 
An evil spirit caused great alarm at a vill called 
in the district of Rouen, by audibly rapping with ki:i:M!'i. 
en the walls and doors. He spoke with a In: . 
although he was never visible, and his name, he 
William Ardent. He frequented the house of a certai 
man, to whom he did much mischief, as well as [u 
.and family; and the sign of the cross and the sprinkling a 
holy water failed to drive him away. Moreover, when the 
priests conjured him, in the name of the Lord, to 
place, he answered: "I shall not depart; nay more, if I 
please, I shall kill you all. The cross I know well enough, 
and as for your holy water, I have no fear of that. 1 
spirit haunted the manor and mansion of the pel 
mentioned, from the feast of All Saints [1st November] until 
after the Purification [2nd February], uttering m 

I.B. 1273, 1274.] COL'SCIL AT LV0K3. 353 

■ions and scoffing speeches. At last he went away at Septua- 
resima, saying that lie should return at Easter, which he 
lover did. 

Henry de Sandwich, bishop of London, ended his days at 
lis manor of Hornsey, after Iji'inp; in ilie uveaicst straits during 
he whole time of his episcopacy, on t lie octave of the Nativity 
if St. Mary [Ijili September] ; ;usd was sueceeded by master 
Folio de Chishull, the dean of that chnvch, who was elected 
m the, marrow of St. Nicholas [7th December]. 

Our lord the pope came to Lyons on the eleventh of the 
alends of Deocrnlkr [21st November]. Henry dc Beaune, 
irior of Ely, died on Christmas day, and was succeeded by 
John de Hemingstone, a monk of the same cloistered house. 
A son was born to the lord Edward, at Eeaune in Gasconv, 
jn the night following the feast of St. Clement [24th No- 
vember] ; to whom he gave the name of Alphonso, after the 
Ling of Spain, St. James, 1 and Pommel. Rodolph, count of 
Hapsburirh, was eleetcd kins' °^ Germany. 

[a.t>. 1274.] The pope held a council at Lyons, which 
lasted from the feast of the apostles Philip and James [1st 
May], untd the sixteenth of the calends of August [17th 
July]. In this council a grant of tenths was made, for the 
succour of the Holy Land, from all ecclesiastical persons of 
whatever condition, rank, or order, out of all their rent^ 
fruits, and ecclesiastical revenues. 

Robert, bishop of Durham, Lawrence, bishop of Rochester, 
and William, bishop of Bath and Wells, died. Robert de 
Haliland, a monk of that church, and prior of Enchale, suc- 
ceeded to Durham ; the lord Walter de Merton, a the king's 
chancellor, was preferred to the see of Rochester, and the lord 
Robert Bumel to that of Bath and Wells. Adam de Chil- 
lcnden, the prior, and formerly archbishop-elect, of Can- 
terbury, also died. The lord Henry, son of the lord Edward, 
and Eveline, the wife of the lord Edmund the king's son, 
and countess of Aumale, were buried at Westminster on 
the thirteenth of the calends of November [20th October]. 
Coronation of Edward I. 

The lord Edward, the eldest son of the king of England, 

1 Galicia? 

s Walter de Jlcrton, the founder of Merton College. 

354 FLORENCE OF WOHCESTKB. [A.I>. 1-74, 1275, 

having settled liia long-pen. Inig '.itlereiices with the countes 
of Flanders, came over to I'higland and landed at Dover "a 
tho morrow of St. Peter ad Vincula ; and on the feast of St, 
Magnus, the Martyr, [19th August,] nest following nu 
solemnly crowned king of England hy Robert, arohliishe.|i ■>!' 
Canterbury, hia wife Eleanor bring crowned at the same iii 
The king of France married the daughter of the duke of B-i 
gundy, reciprocally giving his sister in marriage to that 

[a,d. 127o.] Eleanor, queen of England, the king's wife 
gave birth to a daughter, who was named Margaret, and boru 
at Windsor, Margaret, queen of Scotland, and Beatrix, 
countess of Brittany, both daughters of king Henry, eniied 
their days. 

Our lord the king and queen Eleanor camo in pilgrimruw 
to St. Edmund's on the fifteenth of the calends of May [lTtb 
April], in performance of a vow they bod i 
Land; and the king, with tho advice of Ids eoui 
examining the muniments of the abbey of tit. 
granted to the convent the right of freely inspe. ■ i 
and measures, without any interference of his own 

John, bishop of Hereford, died, and was race 
Master John tie Canteloupe, a canon of that church. Ooeof 
tiie order of preachers at. London, called friar Eok-rt of 
Heading, an excellent preacher, and deeply skilled in tlw 
Hebrew tongue, apostatised, nud, being converted to Judaism* 
married a Jewess, was circumcised, and took the name of 
Haggal. The kin. 1 ,' having .summoned him, and finding luti 
argue in public with great boldness against the Christian U*» 
turned him over to the archbishop of Canterbury, On tlie 
third of the ides [the 11th] of September, about 
hour, there was a great eartlh|u;i[.eat London, aii'i 
nearly the whole of England. 

The barons of England granted to the ihc fil'u en:ii 
penny. Llewellyn, prince of Wales, revolted against the king 
of England. The Jews throughout the realm were prolsiliti'd 
from thereafter lending tm.ney upon usury, but they were in 
future to gain their living by commerce, under the same law* 
in buying and selling as Christian merchants. It was alw 
enacted that each oi' them, of whatever ago, condition, £ 
should pay the king annually a capitation tax t 

.d. 127;~, 1276.] edwawd i. amerces Norwich. 355 

ence, and (hat those who would not comply with this 
revision should depart from Enirliiud before Easter next 

Our lord the king pronounced sentence on the burgesses of 
'orwich that, for their profanation of the body of our Lord, 
ley should provide at their own cost a pyx of gold, of the 
ilue of one hundred ponndaj to contain the host. Also, 
lat for the damage done to the convent, they should eontri- 
ute three thousand marks, to be paid within six years. And 
lat the bishop, at the expense of the burgesses, should send 
> the court of Rome, jointly with them, and exhibit an 
ttestation of the accord thus settled, And that the convent 
light remove their gate to any parr tiu'v plc-nsed, except the 
rater-side, the town continuing, as to the privation of the 
berties of the burgesses, in the same state in which it was 
n the day of his father's death. 

The prior's chapel [at Bury] was dedicated to the honour of 
IS. Edmund and Stephen, martyrs, by the lord William of 
tagusa, 31'chbMinp " Mud<>rimi," on holy Innocents' day 
28th December]. 

The grant of tenths made at the council of Lyons caused 
Tievous and intolerable exactions ; fur the collectors of these 
enths were content with no man's taxation, and even com- 
elled nearly all and each to declare to them on their own 
."■ord, and upon oath administered to them in person, the true 
alue of all their incomes. Wherefore the tenth apportioned 
o the convent of Si. Edmund's amounted to two hundred and 
Drtj'-ono marks, three shillings, and sixpence, on the oaths 
f five of the monks specially sworn to make a true return. 
?he tenth at which the abbot was rated amounted to one 
iundred pounds. The Jews were expelled from Cambridge 
■y the queen-mother. The lay-brothers of Fiirnivol, of the 
Cistercian order, killed several of the monks. 

[a.d. 1276.] The lord Aymer de Montfort, with his 
ister Eleanor, who was bethrothed to Llewellyn, prince of 
Vales, were captured at sea, on their voyage to Wales, by a 
ortain knight called Thomas the Archdeacon, who came on 
hem unawares and delivered them to the custody of our lord 
lie king. 

Pope Gregory [X.], who had imposed the tenths, was 


decimated' himself, ending Ms days at the city of ltioti' on 
the tenth of the month of January ; he aat four years, four 
months, and nineteen days. Peter, bishop of Ostb, of ik 
order of preachers, succeeded him under the name of Inno- 
cent V.; hut ho died on the eve of St. John the ii:']'ii-: 
[23rd June]. He was succeeded by Ottoboni, a cardinal- 
deacon by the title of St. Adrian, who took the name of 

Adrian. [V.] ; but dying shortly afterwards, within tL ■::''■■■ 

of the Assumption [22nd August], Peter de Spun 
of Fraseati, a native of Spaiu, was elected liis successor 
on the eve of the Holy Cross [I3th September J, aud took 
the name of John XX. 

Great part of Cambridge, with the chureh of St. Sennet, 
was consumed by fire. One Michael Tovy, mayor i 
■was hung in the Tower, at the circuit of the . 
Edmund, earl of Lancaster, the king's brother, married llw 
queen of Navarre. Queen Eleanor gave birth to ■ dwlghMi 
to whom she gave the name of Berengaria. The recnaiM ol 
St. Richard, formerly bishop of Chichester, were traiiibird 
with great pomp on the eve of St. Botolph [16th Jane], 
in the presence of the king and queen of England, and some 
other Lrreat personages. One moiety of the fifteenth pwBJ 
granted to the king the year before was now collected. 

The kings of France aud Spain having quarrelled, the kinc 
of France marched a numerous army against the king of Spain 
with so little caution, that he retreated without bis 
having answered much purpose. A total eclipse ■. 
occurred on St. Clement's night [23rd November]. III 
moon being for the space of nearly two horns I 
obscured, that scarcely a vestige of it was visible. A murrain 
among sheep commenced tins year in Lindsey, and continuing 
for several years spread through nearly the whole of Euglaod. 

Invasion- of Wales. 

[a.d. 1277.] The king of England sent a numerous arm/ 

into Wales under the command of II. de Lacy, earl of Liwoln. 

The king himself, while the army proceeded on their mires 

1 " Qui decimas impnsuit deoimo die . . . decimate* est " 
3 Jpwi ur'iem Rtatiiiii'it. Awarding to others, Gregory X. » 
*t Aretium (Areizo). 


towards Wales, deviated From their route into the parts of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, and bavins kept the i 'east of Easter at 
Norwich, returned to London through (he maritime districts 
of Norfolk and Essex. But immediately after the feast of 
St. John, he led in person nearly the whole nulitary array 
of England into Wales. 

The, great khan of the Tartars, whose name was Moal, 
having sent six ambassadors of the highest rank among his 
people from the eastern part of tl;e world, they arrived about 
the feast of Easter [28th March], accompanied by an inter- 
preter, and apologised for their master not having met 
the king of England when he was in the neighbourhood of 
Acre; and they also iiiiplored Ins aid against the enemies of 
the cross, that is the Pagans, The lord pope [John XX.] 
closed his days at Viterho on the sixth of the ides [10th] of 
March ; from which time the see was vacant until the 
feast of St. Catherine's [-'0th November], On that day the 
lord John of Cfaiett, eai'ilinjUdeacon, by the title of St. 
Nieholas-in-Careere-Tulliano, WU eleeted pope, and took the 
name of Nicholas III. 

Tho sultan of Babylon, with an army containing nearly all 
the best troops in his dominions, encountered the Tartar 
hordes between Armenia and the river Euphrates, about tho 
sixteenth of the calends of August [17th July], when he 
and nearly all his army were put to the sword. In this battle 
forty-two thousand of the Hagarencs, and fifteen thousand 
men of the Tartar host, fell, the whole being nearly exter- 

There was violent and intolerable rain on the sixth of the- 
ides [the 10th] of October, which continued falling for two 
days and a night. -The rains were followed by such vast 
inundations that in some places, men, oxen and sheep, and 
other cattle in the field were overtaken and drowned during 
the storm in the night : they also levelled to the ground 
houses, walls, and trees, with other buildings which resisted 
the current. This storm was most violent about St. Edmund's, 
Essex, and the county of Cambridge while in other parts of 
England, it occasioned little or no damage. Walter de 
Morton, bishop of Rochester, ended his days, and was suc- 
ceeded by John, monk and precentor of the same church- 

158 FLORENCE OF WOKCESTEB. [i.D. 1277, 1278. 

Submission of UcwfUyn, Prince of Walei. 

After some losses on both sides, Llewellyn, prince of Wales, 
submitted himself entirely to the pleasure and disposal of the 
lord king with scarcely any conditions as to life or limbs, Ms 
territories and honours, or anything else. The king, after 
some deliberation, received him to favour and brought tiiin 
to London, to treat of the terms and form of peace. Llewellyn, 
having kept the feast of Christinas with the king, returned la 
"us own country. 

[a.d. 1278.] Roger, bishop of Norwich, died at 
of Suthlmgham 1 on the feast of St. Vincent, the Martyr 
[22nd January] ; and was buried at Norwich on tlie octave 
of St. Agnes [the 28th January]. He was succeeded 1 iv 
master William de Middleton, archdeacon of Canterbury, «'!m 
was elected on the feast of St. Matthew the apostle [Silt 

The other moiety of tlie fifteenth pennies, being c'dkcdvl, 
the abbot and convent of St. Edmund's compounded with die 
king for their fifteenth at ninety pounds, the abbot contribut- 
ing thirty pounds as his share, and the convent sixty, as 

Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, being summoned to the 
court of Home by the lord pope, was made bishop at U-u;, 
with the title of cardinal -bis hop of St. Rufma ; on his being 
thus removed, I'obei't Buinel, bishop of Bath and Wells, and 
the king's chancellor, was presently named as postulant for 
tlie archbishopric by the convent of Canterbury. 

A remarkable battle was fought at Aix-la-t'liapoile In C4rf- 
many, where the count de Cole, with three hundred of I'll 
followers, all of noble birth, and nearly tlie whole of their nv 
tainers, perished, not so much by human means as hv ;i diuw 
judgment. The king of Bohemia having revolted against 
Eodolph, king of Germany, after their treaty of alliantw 
had been broken by him, was slain by the king of Gernisny 
with fifty thousand of Ids troops, who perished to the last man. 

Llewellyn, prince of Wales, married at \VorCi'>S' 
the daughter of Sytnon dc Montfort, formerly earl of Leicester, 
on the feast of the translation of St. Edward [13th October], 
the kings of England and Scotland being there pn 
' Probably So-.ith-BorilEgUir, a manor of the bishop of No 

a.d. 127S, 12T9.J treat ircsT of the jews. 359 

The king and queen came to St. Edmund's on St. Clement's 
day [23rd November], in their way lo Norwich to attend the 
dedication of the church, which took place on the fourth of 
the calends of December [28th November], the greatest part 
of the noble* of England being present with the king. 

Itobert, bishop of Carlisle, died ; and was succeeded by 
Ralph, prior of Gisburn. A circuit was made by the judges, 
the lord Jolm die Wallibus, and the associates assigned him, 
in the county of Cumberland ; the lord Roger Loveday, with 
those assigned him, gying into Herefordshire. 

TJie Homes of the Jevst and Goldsmiths searched. 

All the Jews in England, of every condition, age, and sex, 
■were suddenly arrested on the octave of St. Martin [IStli 
November], and placed in s;de custody in different castles 
throughout the country. While they were thus detained, the 
interior of their houses was carefully searched, and in many of 
them were found tokens of their being m on ey -clippers, with 
their tools ; must elenr evidence of the fact. In like manner, 
all the goldsmiths throughout England, being money-changers, 
were arrested on the morrow of St. Nicholas [7th December], 
and being placed in safe custody, their houses were searched. 
By the king's orders, who in tins business paid no respect to 
the liberties of any place, five goldsmiths and three others be- 
longing to the town of St. Edmund's were taken to London^ 
in the custody nevertheless of the bailiff of the said town, to 
the injury, as appeared to many persons, of the liberties there- 
of. But when this came to the king's knowledge, be ordered 
all the before-mentioned persons to be sent back, to abide 
their trial there according to their deserts, whether guilty or 
not guilty. 

The Tartars take possession of the kingdom of Jerusalem. 
The king commanded that all persons having twenty pounds 
fa-year] in land, should receive knighthood. 

[a.d. 1279.] The king levied seutage for the expedition 
to Wales, at the rate of forty shillings for every seutage. 
Eleanor, queen of England, gave birth to a daughter at Wind- 
sor, on the eve of St. Gregory [11th March], and named her 


A great number of Jews executed for clipping tlte Coin. 

The ting caused all the Jews, and some Christian*. - 

vieted of clipping, or mating base coin, to be hun . 
fore two hundred and sixty-seven Jews suffered the sen- 
tence of death ; some were banished, others condemned to 
perpetual imprisonment, and some remained in England. As 
for the money-changers, they were cither admitted to main- 
prise, or placed in safe custody in their own houses, and 
having ransomed themselves were allowed their liberty. To 
make this inquest, the lords John of, and WUMt 
de Hcliun came to St. Edmund's with a commission from oar 
lord the king, and acting in an unprecedented manner against 
the liberties of the abbey, without regard to any of its 
charters, papal or royal, gave final judgment in the Quitd- 
hall on the goldsmiths of the town, and others I 
indicted or arrested on suspicion, and brought the fines wliieh 
ensued from their proceedings into the royal exchequer : tliey 
even compelled the sacristan to ransom himself for one hun- 
dred marks. 

The pope having quashed the election of Hub 
gave the archbishopric ui' V an tori jury to friar John de Peckham, 
of the order of Minors. The pope also gave the arch- 
bishopric of Dublin to friar John de Darlington, of the order 
of Preachers. 

On the death of Syuion, abbot of St. Edmund's, the king 
took possession of the portion of the convent as well as tin) 
TKtrouy of the abbot, a proceeding before unheard of; ttW 
could the convent get their portion out of his ham 1 
love or money, but all their possessions, both withi 
of St. Edmund's and without, were placed under ll 
nient of John de Eerewich, the king's attorney, a sufficient 
exhibition being provided lor the monks, and the homages' ui 
the conventual manors being faxed for the king's service. 

The queen of Spain, lady of Ponthieu, mother 
queen of England, ended Iter days ; in consequent v 
about the beginning of May, the king of England crossed In 
sea to do homage to the king of France for the 
Ponthieu, which fell to him in right of his wife, as (laughl t 
snd heiress of the aforesaid queen, now deceased. Where/orr, 

1 HomagiU — tha free tenants ; a term still used in manorial 

51(11 ' 

D. 1279.] EDWARD I. CEDES MIftAMIM. 381 

a parliament held at Amiens, at which the kings of Franco 
il England, and many of the nobles of both kingdoms, met, 
e kin;* of England quitted claim for the duchy of Normandy 

thc king of France for ever: reserving only a perpetual 
arly rent charge of three thousand livres of Paris, payable 
>m the treasury of Eouen. He also received for his qnit- 
lim Angoumois, the Llmosin, Ferigord, and Saintogne; 
d this being settled returned to England. 
John, archbishop of Canterbury, having summoned all the 
shops under his jurisdiction, h-.hl his synod at Reading mi 
e feast of Si. James the apostle [L'"'tii .July]. Walter, arch- 
shop of York, died, and was succeeded by master Wiltitm 
: Wikewane, chancellor of that church. 
At Northampton, a boy was crucified by the Jews on the 
jjf of the Adoration of the Holy Cross [1-lth September], 
it was not quite killed ; notwithstanding, under this pre- 
it, numbers of the Jews in London were torn to pieces hy 
rses and Imng, immediately after Easter [2nd April], 
An alteration was made in the English coinage, the tri- 
L'ulai- farthing 1 boil!'* ehnnired for a round one, but the old. 
rrent money was for a time allowed to remain In eii-eulatiu;! 
>ng with the new coins : the pennies, however, being, con- 
Li'y to precedent, entirely disused, a great penny' was struck, 
ual to four 

Properly speaking, there were no such coins as "triangular far- 

njvs.'' ' I ' ; i o currency .a! thai slme, as well as during the Saxon period, 
isisted of silver [jennies, which sometimes, during their circulation, 
re divided into two or four pieces, to make halfpence or farthings, 
occasion required, for small payments. Tho metal being thin, and 
> coin- Imvijij; th.i britv-:-. on ono face, of a cross forming right 
lies at. the centre, (hey could be cut neatly and exactly into these 
Tea and quarters, which were nearly triangular. Indeed, in some of 
r silver pennies the cross is formed of double lines, apparently to 
ilitate the operation, the cut being made between them. Bat this, 
ivcvcr <i>iiYC!iu.m., being, in strictness, a clipping of the coin of the 
.lm, I>.!iv;iv..l I. prohibited i; ; calling In the angular segments, and 
ling ;i (linage of "round" silver farthings in their place. Speci- 
ns of these, as well as of (he halved and quartered peonies, are 
iserved in the British Museum. 

In the. same collection there may also be seen some of these 
rent pennies," or silver groats, but they are somewhat rare. The 
[it clause of this passage being rather obscure, the original is sub- 
icd, in order that those who are curious in such matters may form 

■ \\i»u :^.t::i:. 

John, archbishop-elect of Dublin, was consecrated at Will- 
thain on tin; sixth of the calends ol' 8i. j i>tL:inl n.-v [-Till August], 
by John, archbishop of Canterbury, with the assistance 9 
Nicholas, bishop of Wind i ester, Hubert., bishop of Eaih and 
"Wells, and William, bishop of Norwich. Cardinal Robert <le 
Kihvardeby, formerly archbishop of Canterbury, died, as it is 
reported, of poison. 

Our lord the lung enacted, provided, ami ordained, tlwi 
men of religion should not get possession of other peopWi 
lands or toneinents. 1 

John, the abbot-elect of St. Edmund's, having accomplished 
his business in (lie Roman court, and received liis lieiicdidiira 
at the hand of our lord pope Nicholas, as well as being put in 
possession of his barony by the king, with all thai 
both to his own portion and that of the convent, was solemnly 
inaugurated in his church on Holy Innocents' day [28th Oc- 
tober]. His expenses in the journey to Rome amounted to 
eleven hundred and seventy-five marks, ten shillings, aadniac 

Bichard, bishop of Lincoln, departed this life; and wu 
succeeded by master Oliver do Sutton, dean of that church. 
The king celebrated the feast of our Lord's Nativity at Win- 

[a.d. 1280.] Nicholas, bishop of Winchester, died on the 
sixth of the ides [the 8th] of February. On bis death, Robert, 
bishop of Bath and Wells, was the postulant' for the succession 
to the bishopric of Winchester, but his suit was quashed in 
the court of Rome, and, contrary to expectation, the pope 
granted to the chapter of Winchester free liberty of elect tof J 
their choice fell on master Kiehard de Mora, archdeacon of 
that church. 

their opinion of its drift : — " Ultra vera cansuetum, olmlis penilm «*■ 

jtensit, /'.ir.lus at mum tleii'iiim ihixjiiiis, (eyuipblltnl is dcaariii turn- 

' Non adquirant. This was the first statute of Mortmain. 

3 A postulant was one who, having k<ii duly Hnol'Tl to a bishopra, 
sued for his confirmation to the superior ecclesiastic*! authority i 
but in the stricter sense of the term, it was applied to a bishop-d«ti 
who had been chosen from s. different diocese, in which case ad»- 
pensation was required. Tins was not a matter of right, but depend"] 
upon the pleasure of the pope, who often set aside the election, anil 

father referred it tn the chapter to make r 

appointment himself. 

A.D. 1280, 1281.] THE SEW COINAGE. 303 

John, bishop of London, died on the sixth of the ides [the 
8th] of February, and tha lord Fulk Luvel, archdeacon of 
Colchester, was elected in his stand ; but as ho immediately re- 
signed, master Eichard do Grave send, a re lido aeon of North- 
ampton, was elected to sueecod him. 

There was a total eclipae of the moon on the sight of the 
Feast of St. Edmund, king :md martyr ; the moon being dyed 
the colour of blood fur Die space of nearly two houra. Am- 
bassadors came to the king of England from the great kalra 
if the Tartars, on an amicable errand. 

It was enacted that no persons should negotiate the old 
nonoy after Assumption day [15th August] : the new pennies 
^ere made round. 

"Walter, bishop of Exeter, died ; and was sneer vded by mas- 
ter Peter of Exeter, a canon of that church. Ralph, abbot of 
C'royland, departed this bfe. 

Violent thunder and lightning were heard in many parts of 
England on the eve of St. llartin | li'rh November], whielt 
itruck down houses and trees, ami tilled the. noliulders with 
istonishment and alarm. 

Theelcrgyof Englandyraiited to theking the fifteenth of their 
ecclesiastical property, according to the valuation of Walter, 
nshop of Norwich, for three years. Magnus, king of Nor- 
vay, died. Pope Nicholas [IV".] yielded to fate at Castro 
Mariano, 1 on the eleventh of the calends of September [22nd 
lugust], and the sec remained void six months and fourteen 
lays. John, archbishop of Canterbury, held his visitation, in 
he dioeose of Norwich ; that is to say, in Norfolk at the end 
>f the present year, and in Suffolk at the beginning of the 
rear following. 

[a.d. 1281.] The king tarried in Norfolk until the feast 
if the Purification [2nd February] was past. There was a 
otal eclipse of the moon on the nones [the 7th] of March. 

Svmon of Tours, cardinal-priest of St. Cecilia, was elected 
tope by the name of Martin III, There was an eclipse of the 
noon on the day before the calends of September [31st 
\.ugust], the moon for a considerable time appearing of a 
lusky line, 

Uenry, bishop of Lh'ge in Germany, who was deprived of 
.i.-i bishopric by the late councilof Lyons for his incontinence 
1 In the diocese of Viterbo. 


(having, it is said, begotten 

diuighiers), killed his auccessi 

eighth of the idea [the 6th] of September, comic ; 

tnmntrea in the night. Master Hugh, of Evesham, 

created cardinal-priest by the title of St. Lawrence. 

A new charter was obtained from the king, 
division between the possessions of the abbot, and i! ; 
convent of St. Edmund's, so that thenceforth ih 
under no circumstances Lie held in common : for wir 
sand pounds were paid to my lord the king, besides the qoeoA 
gold in respect to this payment, and other e ' 
penses, which amounted to an immense sum. The subsiauce 
of this charter i.s entered at the end of the ehartulary of the 
ninth year of this bang's reign. The king celebrated the fart 
of ( 'hristmas at Worcester. 

On the feast of the Purification of St. Mary [2nd Febru- 
ary], the bishop of Sidon performed mass at Jerusalem, when 1 
for a long time past divine offices bod been tiiscon 
account of the invasion of the Saracens. 

Roeolt of Llovelhjn, Prince of Wales. 
Llewellyn, priuee of Wales, regardless of the treaty of peac* 
and alliance between himself and the king, which he hid 
already evaded, broke into open rebellion against the lord ilii 1 
king, with his brother David. Wherefore, on the eve of 
Palm-Sunday [-1st March], laving in ruins some of 
castles in Wales and the Marches, and setting fire to othen, 
and threatening further enormities, he massacred great numbm 
of the king's liegemen ; and having captured the lord Eoger 
do Cliilbnl in his bod, before day-break, he carried him (£ 
into Wales, whither he returned with a vast booty. Where- 
upon, the king, having to send an army to Wales to ivengt 
the injuries he had sustained, levied a subsidy in the nature 
of a loan, from all his own cities aud boroughs, and also froa> 
the cities and boroughs belonging to ecclesiastics, for carryin? 
on tiio war. The lord John de rurkby, archdeacon of Coven- 
try, was commissioned by the king to conduct this affair, <" 
all parts of England, and lie obtained at London a contribu- 
tion of eight thousand marks in the maimer just a 
Having then, first made his visitation in the boroughs mi 

" Yarmouth and Norwich, and received at " 


Uh 1281.] 

noutli a, thousand marks, and a: Norwieh live hundred pounds, 
ic came to St. Edmund's, where, having; taxed the burgesses 
it five hundred marks, he entrusted to the prior of the abbey 
he assessment of those who did suit and service at the monks' 
■ourt, that they might not be taxed by the burgesses, whicli 
lad never been done; their assessment amounted to the sum 
if twenty-six marks. The gQd of Dusze,' in the town of St. 
Edmund's, was also taxed by the prior at twelve marks ; and 
te extorted from the abbot and convent of St. Edmund's one 
mndred marks, under colour of a loan. 

Meanwhile, Eleanor, the daughter of Symon de Mont fort, 
ormerly earl of Leicester, who was married to Llewellyn, 
>rince of Wales, died in giving birth to a daughter, who sur- 
i-ived her and was named Gwenllian, on the feast of 88. 
Qervasius and Protasius [10th June], and was buried at 
Llandmais,* in the house of the friars-minors. The king levied 
for his expedition fifty marks for each knight's fee, but dealing 
moderately with the abbot of St. Edmund's, he accepted three 
hundred pounds for the service he owed.' Of those who took 
part in this expedition, three fell in West Wales, William, son 
and heir of William de Valence, and several others with him ; 
Mid in North Wales, the lords Luke de Tany, Roger de Clif- 
ford the younger, William de Lindsey, William de Audeley, 
and many more with them ; some of them being stopped by 
die rivers and drowned in crossing them in their flight, and 

1 Duodena. "This was the Gild of the Translation of St. Nicholas, 
rutgarly called the Gilde de Dusze. A leaden bull in the possession 
if the Rev. H, Hasted, of Bury St. Edmund's, bears on the obverse a 
n::r-id ball- figure and the legend Sioii, Gilds Sci. NicnoL., and 
jn the reverse the letter T between S and N of a smaller size, with 

the legend Conokeoacio Doode It was otherwise called 

Dasgilde, and was hidden in the college at Bury. See Tymm's History 
jf St. Mary's Church, pp. 1)2 -<>7." 'Thorpe. ' 

* Probably Llanvais, near Beaumaris; a house of Franciscans, or 
r'riirs-nimnrs, founded by I.luwcllyn-ap-Jorwerth, prince of North 
Wales, before the year 1240. It w'as the burial-place of many barons 
nu\ knights slain in the Welsh wars. 

J The extent of the king's moderation in dealing with an ecclesiastic 
"■! those days, or what a churchman, in struggling as well as he could 
:r-aia-t Miese exactions, would think a good bargain, cannot, of course, 
ije calculated ; but we might conclude, from the data here given, that 
hi? abbot of St. Edmoiidsbury's knight's fees were at least ten. How. 
wer, in a subsequent passage of the Continuation they are stated at 



otters falling by the sword, without the Welsh having suffered 
any loss. 

Death of Prince Llewelh/n. 
Affairs being in this state, Llewellyn, jn'inec of Wales, *H 
intercept ctl by the king's troops in South Wales, ami lost tai 
life and his head on Friday the fourth of the ides [the lUtli] 
of December ;' on the next day his head was brought to W 
king in North Wales, and lie forthwith sent it to his array sta- 
tioned in Anglesey; and after the people of Anglesey Wen 
satiated with the spectacle, he ordered it to be immediate]) 
conveyed to London. On the morrow of St. Thomas tiu 
apostle [22nd December], the Londoners went out to meet it 
with trumpets and cornets, and conducted it through all tkt 
streets of the city, with a marvellous clang. 3 After tlita, 
they stuck it up for the rest of the day in their pillory, ami 
towards evening it was carried to the Tower of London, nail 
fixed ou a lofty pole. As for the body of the p 
mangled trunk, it was interred in the abbey of Cunheir, 1 be- 
longing to the monks of the Cistercian order. 

The Coast infested ly Dutch Pirates. 
Pirates from Zealand and Holland, making a 
descent in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth and Dunnidi, 
plundered all that fell in their way, butchered the people, ami 
carried off some ships with their cargoes. Florence, earl of 
Holland, game I a glorious victory over the Flemings, with the 
slaughter of fifteen thousand of their troops, in r ■. 
the death of his father, William, whom they bad recoi 
and buried in their country without honour; some of theta 
also from fear of the count abandoned their country, and salf- 
mitting to voluntary exile, transported themseln - 
lands. He, therefore, conveyed to bis own coin 
solemn pomp the body of his father, which had been 
iously buried among the Frisians with a small atl 

1 Ho met his death in a copse- wood, on the banks of the Irion, w 
Euilth. in Radnorshire. 
1 Knighton relates that Llewellyn's head w 

Clio; i'.' ii ith a .-ilvi'i- crown on i(, in f'ulhlment 
pbecies. Holinshi'i! sisys that the crown was 

3 Catniteir- .Omilivre, (.Vininr, a. I.' Latere! an abbey ii 
founded in the year 1143 by Codwallon-an-Madoc 


uid there deposited it in a tomb with great honour and cere- 

Richard, archdeacon of Winchester, who was lately elected 
jishop of that, we, resigned his appointment to the bishopric 
nto the pope's hands, who immediately oon&Red it oti John 
le Punteyse, archdeacon of Exeter. The king of the Tartars, 
oining his forces to the Hospitallers, fnuglit a battle with the 
ultan, in which engagement the Pagans were defeated, and 
he suttan himself was taken prisoner ami detained hi close 
custody at Babylon. 

Eleanor, queen of England, gave birth lo a daughter at 
[Ihuddlan, and named her Elizabeth. Isabel, countess of 
fLrundel, having ended her days, was buried at 
Master Thomas de Canteloupe, bishop of Hereford, died at 
;he court of Home, and master Richard ilc Swiucneld, arch- 
ieaeon of London, succeeded him by election. 

Herman, the son of the king of Germany, who was to have 
«en married to the king of England's daughter, carelessly 
walking ou the ice while it thawed, the iec broke and he fell 
in and was drowned. The eldest son of John do Hastings, 
whom he called William, was born on St. Francis's day. The 
ord Thomas Li-'iiebaud, jiri'iidL'iLeoii of Snifulk, died at Horham, 
»n tlie eve of St. Lucia [12th December]. The king spent 
:hc feast of Christmas at Rhuddlan, in Wales. 

A Subsidy granted. 

[a.d. 128.1.] The commons of all England granted the king, 
is a subsidy fur his war, the thirtieth penny of all their mov- 
ibles, with the exception of horses, armour, ready money, and 
the wardrobe ; in levying this subsidy, the king caused the 
ivholo amount lie had received the preceding year, in the 
shape or under colour of a loan, to be allowed in the payment. 
On the Sunday in Mid-Lent, which fell that year on the fifth 
of the calends of April [28th March], the king seized all the 
money arising from the tenths, which the pope had granted as a. 
subsidy for the Holy Land, and which was deposited in different 
places in England ; breaking the looks, and carrying it off and 
disposing of it according to his own arbitrary will. 

John, bishop of Rochester, died, and was succeeded by 
master Thomas de Ingoldsthorpe, dean of St. Paul's, London, 


who was consecrated at Canterbury, on the feast of SS. Cosmo 

mid Damianus [27th September]. 

Subjugation of Wales, and Execution of Prince David. 

After the death of Llewellyn, prince of "Wales, and the 
o&capc by flight of his brother David, all the rest of the Welsh, 
both the nobles and common people, having voluntarily sub- 
mitted to the king's pleasure, he reduced under his dominion 
the whole of Wales to the Irish sea. All the castles and for- 
tresses were delivered up to 1dm ; he introduced the English 
laws, and appointed justices and other officers to keep the 
peace, and fixed the exchequer of Wales and the officers of 
the treasury at Chester. Meanwhile, the before-mentioned 
David, having lost his whole army, and wandering about with- 
out a home, at last, as ill luck would have it, having sought 
out some cottage for the purpose of concealing himself, was 
surrounded by some of the royal army; and being made pri- 
soner, with one of his sons and ten others, was brought before 
the king on the eve of St. Alban's-[21st June], and by his 
-command was committed to close custody in Chester castle. 
TVen, at a general parliament, held at Shrewsbury in the 
Ling's court, on the morrow of St. Leodegard [3rd October], 
of which, by royal appointment, John de Wallibus was pre- 
sident, David, the brother of Llewellyn, formerly prince of 
Wales, who had assumed the right of prince since his brother's 
death, was convicted of rebellion, high treason, and sacrilege, 
iuul condemned to be drawn, hung, and quartered. His head 
was carried to London, and his body, divided into quarters, 
was sent to Winchester, Northampton, Chester, and York; 
his bowels were sentenced to be burnt, as a punishment for 
Lis guilt of sacrilege in frequently burning churches. Mabadin, 
Lis steward, a man even more barbarous in his deeds than in 
his name, having been at the same time convicted of treason, 
was drawn asunder by horses, and at length an end was put 
to his sufferings by his being hanged. 

liobert, bishop of Durham, died, and was succeeded by 

tho lord Anthony Bek, archdeacon of the same church. 

Zsicholas, abbot of St. Augustine's at Canterbury, pretending 

lo go in pilgrimage to St. Nicholas at Bari, 1 betook himself 

1 See the legend of the translation of the relics of St. Nicholas, 
bishop of Myra, to Bari, in Apulia. Ordericus Vitalis, b. viL, c. xii. 
(vol. ii., p. 384, Antiq. Lib.) 

A.D. 1283.] PETEB OF AItRA60V. 36D 

to the court of the pope, and resigned the staff' and ring, the 
badges of his dignity, into the pope's hands. Having done 
this, he entered the order of the Carthusians, and the pope 
conferred his abbey on one Thomas do Findon, a monk of 
diat monastery. 

Peter, hing of Arragon, gains possession of Sicily. 
Peter, king of Arragon. chimin:; for himself' t lie inheri- 
tance of the territories of Sicily, Calabria, and Apulia, in 
right of his wife, as the d:mghii'r uf Manfred, son of Frederic, 
formerly emperor of the Romans, who died, as it is said,, 
seized of and invested with those territories ; arid iiaving 
gained the support of the nobles of those territories, by 
promises and gifts, with their general consent and approbation, 
secured in one day, by artifice or stratagem, all the castles 
and munitions of Charles, king of Sicily; slew all he found 
in them, seised his treasure, and entirely destroyed his fleet, 
after putting the crews to death. Having expelled king 
Charles and taken possession of his dominions, he caused his 
son to be crowned king of Sicily by the emperor of Con- 
stantinople, by whose advice and aid ho had accomplished all 

The clergy grant a subsidy. 

The clergy of the province of Canterbury granted the 
king, as a subsidy for his war, the twentieth part of all eccle- 
siastical revenues for two years, according to the valuation 
of Walter, formerly bishop of Norwich. Richard, abbot of 
Westminster, the king's treasurer, died on the first of the 
month of December, and his interment took place at West- 
minster on the third day afterwards: he was succeeded by 
Walter de Wenlock, a mor.k of the same house. 

The king spent the feast of Christmas at Rhuddlan, in 
Wales. The sultan of ISabylon died. At London, and in 
divers parts of England, such wonderful flashes of light and 
awful thunder were seen and heard on St. Stephen's day 
[26 tli December], that those who beheld and heard it were 
struck with exceeding terror and alarm. Daring the whole 
summer, and the greater part of the ensuing autumn, there 
were such violent rains, that nearly all the hopes of the sowers 
in the spring proved illusory at the season of harvest. 


[a.d. 1284.] Friar John of Darlington, of the order of 
friars- preachers, archbishop of Dublin, died in the neigh* 
bourhood of the city of London, on the fifth of the calends 
of April [38* Starch], and was buried in the New Church 
U'l'iuuirii; t" 1 1 io t'ri.ii-K-piviK'liors in Barnard -castle at Loudon. 

On Easter day, which fell on the lifth of the ides [the Mi] 
of April, about the first hour of the day, there were at St. 
Edmund's such a sudden and unexpected flash of lightning, 
and such loud and continued chip* of thunder, thai tho« 
who heard them could scarcely hold tlieir footing. And, 
although the storm was so violent in that place, it did no 
harm in the country, or but very little?. We iiave board tlial 
the same storm occurred in parts beyond the seas, the same 
day and hour. 

Prince Edward born at Carnareon. 

On the feast of St. Mark the evangelist [2$t* 
son was born to the king of England, at Carnarvon in Wale*, 
who was named Edward. Robert, bi-lioji of Salisbury, -Y]'* 
in the Lord ; and was succeeded by master Richard SeameL 
dean of the same church. 

In Germany, a certain low fellow suddenly appearing i 
public, and pretending that lie was Frederic, the late emperor 
of the Romans, who died long before in the year of our 
Lord, 1250, collected a numerous household, with the good- 
will of nearly all tiiat country, and a powerful army. King 
Itodolph was so far from opposing him, that he rather aided 
the deception, so that he caused himself to be treated nitk 
reverence bv all as their king and emperor. 

The lord'Alphonso, son of the king of England, died U 
Windsor, on the feast of St. Magnus, the martyr [lfltli 
August], and was carried to Westminster and buried witli 
great pomp on the eve of the Decollation of St. John ll"' 
Raptist [28th. August]. 

A storm of thunder and lightning occurred at St. Edmund's, 
on the morrow of St. Faith [7th Oct,], before the firrt 
hour, with such sudden flashes and loud claps, that all who 
saw or heard it, were struck with the greatest terror. At 
Dunwich, on the fifth of the calends of December pW 
November], from the third to the sixth hour of this day. " 
sea appeared to be on ftre, with not a very bright bat * 

A.D, 1284, 1285.] PETEK OP ARRAGON DEPOSED. 371 

a yellow florae. Our lord the pope, in consequence of the 
rebellion, contumacy, and disobedience of Peter, some time 
king of Arragon, gave Lis kingdom to Philip, *cm and heir of 
the king of France, reserving to the apostolic see, for the 
said kingdom, a hundred pounds annually. This Philip 
married the heiress of the kingdom of Navarre. John, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, held his visitation of the dioeese of 
Lincoln, and continued it to Easter [7th April], in tJie year 

That part of the church of St. Peter at Rome, in which 
the altar of the apostles stood with their principal images, 
suddenly and unaccountably fell hi ruins. Hugh ile Lusignan, 
king of Cjprus, with his son and some others of his family, 
were poisoned to death by the knights' Brothers of the Temple. 
In the church of St. Mary-nt-Bow, in London, one of the 
Londoners named Lawrence, was wounded by some evil- 
minded men of that city, anil at last hnng from one of the 
beams of the church. The king of I'lugland, i«_'ing- greatly dis- 
turbed at this outrage, ordered some of the offenders, the least 
guilty indeed bat the most wealthy, to be drawn asunder by 
horses, and then hung ; but the real culprits, who were rich, 
he sentenced to pay a fine in money. The king spent the 
feast of Christmas at Bristol. 

[a.d. 1285.] Charles, king of Sicily, died at Barletta in 
Apulia, 1 on the eve of the Epiphany [5th August]. After 
his decease, the Sicilians espousing the cause of Peter of 
Arragon — who had, even during Charles's life, usurped the 
government of Sicily in opposition to the Eoman church — 
and keeping in custody Charles, prince of the Morea, that 
king's son, their captive in war, returned home in triumph. 

John, archbishop of Canterbury, during his visitation of 
the diocese of Ely, dismissed all the obedientiaries,' the prior 
only excepted. 

The king and queen go to Bury. 

Our lord the king of England, with the queen and three 

of his daughters, arrived at St. Edmund's on the tenth of 

the calends of March [20th February], and paid, with great 

' Barletta, near Rari, I 

1 The obedientiaries i 

the superintendence of it 


devotion and reverence, the vows which he had made tu God 
and St. Edmimd during his war in Wales ; proceeding on 
tlie morrow in his journey to Norwich, where he spent the 
whole of the following Lent. The king, treating as null 
his own charters, and those of several of his progenitors, 
caused the weights, measures, and ells of the town of St. 
Edmund's to be inspected by the marshal of his measure 
alleging that this was once done in his father's time. But 
the profits accruing from that inspection, and from ail oilier 
inspections during liis visits and those of hi- licit-- . . 
for the repair and ornament of the shrine of St. Edmund's, and 
confirmed this hy a charter. And whereas it was alleged by 
the burgesses of the place, that this inspection ought only » 
be made on a royal visit, so that the sacristan and his bailifis 
had hitherto been prevented from making the inspection of 
measures, it was ordained, after consultation between our 
lord the king and the sacristan, on peril of the liberties of 
the town being forfeited to the king, that the saen-: 
make this inspection twice in every year, and enforce it on the 
corporal oath of the burgesses and other inhabitants "I fl* 
town ; and that those who refused to submit should, for the 
first offence, be punished by fine ; and for the second, it ita 
contumacy was excessive, by imprisonment, until thy Ling 
should take order touching their offence. 

The townsmen of Ipswich imprisoned andfowd. 

While the king was staying, as it has been observed, in 
the parts of Norfolk, the whole commonalty of the town of 
Ipswich having been accused to him of divers misdemeanour*, 
of which they were partly convicted, were sentenced to [»y 
a heavy fine ; and beside?, thirteen of the townsmen of th<? 
better sort were sent to prison in different parts of England 
for half a year. 

About the middle of Lent [4th May], Philip [III], iungof 
France, marched an army against the king of Arrngon, who 
having lost a great number of his troops in bafil.-. 
and land, as well as by want, at last, being seized v, i 1 1 ■ 
went the way of all flesh, at Pampeluna-. 1 The king 1 

' An error for I'erpignan, where Philip the Hard j breath* d hi 

4.D. 1285.J RELICS OF ST. DAVID. 373 

entombed with great solemnity, among his ancestors at St. 
Denis, on Si. .Martin's day [11th November]. 

Thomas, prior of Christ's Church in Canterbury, became 
a Cistercian monk, at KingVIIeanlieu, on the eve of Palm 
Sunday [17th March] ; and was succeeded by Henry, the 
treasurer of the church of Canterbury. The pope died at 
Peragio, on the fourth of the calends of April [J'Jtli March], 
and was buried there on the first day of the same month ; 
and the see was void [four] days. Hfe was succeeded 
by the lord James de Sabella, cardimd -deacon of St. Mary 
in Cosmedin, who took the name of Honorius IV". 

A smitage granted. 

Our lord the king levied a scutate of forty shillings each 
for the army in Wales, the former one being spent. The king 
made a solemn procession from the Tower of London to West- 
minster, with the head of St. David, called also Dewy, and 
other relies which lie had brought with him out of Wales. 

There was an appearance of two moons on the eighth of 
the ides [the 8th] of May ; and in Suffolk armies appeared 
fighting in the air. 

In a parliament held at Westminster on the feast of St. 
John [24th June], the king made and published many 
statutes, some of which, as many think, are intended, in 
great measure, to do away with tie ecclesiastical juris- 

The pretender, who assumed the name of Frederic, having 
been convicted of heresy and other crimes, was condemned to 
the flames, and burnt to death in the presence of some of the 
archbishops and bishops of Germany, on the second of the 
ides of July [14th July]. William, archbishop of York, 
died at Ponthieu, in parts beyond the seas, and was succeeded 
by master John, surnamed Komanus, precentor of the church 
of Lincoln. 

Mary, daughter of the king of England, took the veil as a 
nun, at Ameslmry, on the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary 
[8th September], Alexander, king of the Scots, married the 
daughter of the count de Dreux, a cousin of the king of 

There was a circuit of the justiciaries in the county of 

374 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [a.d. 1285, 1286. 

Northampton, by tlio lords justiciaries John de Wallibus, 
William de Sahatu, John de Hetingham, Roger Loveday, and 
others; and in Essex by the lords justiciaries Solomon de 
Rochester, Robert do Reading, Richard do Royland, Walter 
do Sarchele, and others. Tlio king kept the feast of Christinas 
at Enter, in Devonshire. 

[a.d. 1286.] Philip [IV.], king of France, sou of Hritip 
HI., was crowned at Rheims, as kmg of France, on the feist 
of the Epiphany [lith January], Our lord the king held a 
great parliament at Westminster, lifter tiie Purification [2nd 
February], in which parliament were present the envoys of 
the king of France, namely, Maurice de Croim, count of 
Burgundy, and the lord John D'Acre, two of the French king*? 

Alexander [IFf.,] king of Scotland, went the way of all 
flesh on the fourteenth of the calends of April [19tb March]. 
Our lord the king crossed tho sea after Easter, in the month 
of May, to confer with the king of France ; and, appearing in 
person at the parliament held at Paris, about the Rogation 
days [l!)th May], did homage to tlio king of France for the 
territories which he claimed to hold under him. 

On the fifth of the ides [the 9th] of June, Hugh, bishop at 
Ely. ended his days at his manor of Dunham, in the isle of 
Ely; he was succeeded by master John de Kirkeby, treasnrer 
of our lord the king of England, who was solemnly enthroned 
on Christmas eve. William, abbot of Ramsey, being alleeted 
with palsy, resigned his dignity, in which he was succeeded by 
John de Sauter, a monk of the same house. The priory of 
canons, at Westacre, with the church and all the offices, ww 
consumed by fire, about the Nativity of St. Mary [8th 

Eleanor, mother of the king- of England, took the nun's veil 
at Ameshury, in the month of July. Walter, bishop of Salis- 
bury, departed this life, and was succeeded by master Henri 
de Branteston, dean of that church. The lord William de 
Warrenne, son and heir of John de Warrenne, earl of Surrey, 
was encountered and cruelly slain, as it is said, by his enemies 
in a tournament held at Croydon, in the month of December. 
The king spent the feast of Christmas at the isle of Olercffl, 
in Oascony. 

[i.D. 1287.] On the night of the Circumcision 

ion ftM ■■: 

A.D. 1287.] A6EA-FIG11T. 375 

was so violent, and the sea stormy, at Yarmouth, Donwieh, 
Ipswich, and other places in England, as well as on the coasts 
of other countries bordering on the sea, that many buildings 
were thrown down, especially in that part of England called 
the Fens ; nearly the whole district was converted into a lake, 
and, unhappily, great numbers of men were overtaken by the 
floods and drowned. On the morrow of the octave of the 
Epiphany [14th January], sudden Hashes of light were seen, 
which much terrified the beholders. 

The pope 1 died at St. Peter's, at Eonie, on Wednesday, in 
Palm week, being the morrow of the Annunciation, and was 
buried there on Friday in Easter week following. The see 
was void eleven months and thirty-four days. 8 

The Jews imprisoned. 

The Jews in all parts of England, of every age and sex, 
were committed to s;ifo ctwtn ly on Friday, the morrow of the 
apostles 89. Philip anil Jacob [2nd May] ; but after a time 
they were permitted to return to their homes on giving the 
king security for the payment of twelve thousand pounds. 

Sea-fight between the Roman, French, and Greek fleet*. 

On the third of the calends of August [30th July] there 
iras a gallant sea-fight between the fleets of the Roman 
church and the king of France, on one side, and of the em- 
peror of Constantinople, who espoused the cause of the king 
if Arragon ; in which, after the Greeks had obtained some 
nartial success, and several of the nobles in both armaments 
ivere taken prisoners and the rest cruelly slain, the victory 
•ested on the enemy's side. 

Rebellion of Rhys-ap-Meredyth. 

Great part of South Wales, under their chief, Rhys-ap- 
Ueredyth, broke into rebellion against the king of England. 
But in the end, after great slaughter of the English, of all 
•anks, and other useless expenses, severe losses, and no small 

1 Pope Ilonorius IV. 

5 This reckoning is manifestly erroneous. According to Matt. 
Westm. Honoring IV. died April 4th, and his successor was elected 
February 16th following. 

376 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [a.D.1287, 128(1. 

perils, he slunk away, and for some time no one knew whew 
lie was concealed; and thus Rhys himself having, as it were, 
disappeared, the land had rest and was quiet. 

There was a total eclipse of the moon on the night of tin 
feast of SS. Komanus and Severinus [22nd October;. 
Stephen, bishop of Chichester j ended his days, and'was suc- 
ceeded by master G. de St. Leobhard. In the month of 
December, the sen overflowed its bank a in fhe parts of Ncrftjl 
and Suffolk, particularly at Yarmouth, and caused nmcb 

The king of England received a solemn embassy from the 
khan of the Tartars while he was in Gascony, intended 
to renew the former alliance with himself and the kings, 
his predecessors. Also, the king celebrated the feast of our 
Lord's Nativity at Bmirdcaux., in Gascony. 

[a.d. 1288.] On the third of the nones [the 3id] ■ i' 
February, about ni^litiLill, (lushes of light were suddenly ami 
iniuNpoctedly seen at St. Edmund's, there having been no 
signs prognosticating it ; and, at the same instant, there was 
a tremendous crash, I will not say of thunder, followed by an 
insujtoruhle stench. The storm was accompanied by visible 
sparks of fire, which fearfully dazzled the eyes of the be- 
holders. The tower of the church of Barnwell was set on 
fire by the violence of the thunder-storm, and further damage 
done to the convent there, and one third part of the town 
was a prey to the flames. At last the lightning also struck 
the refectory at St. Edmund".', but the fire was quickly ei- 
tiu^uished by the monks. 

The lord Jerom, cardinal -bishop of Prrcnoste, of the order 
of friars-minors, was elected pope on the feast of St. Peter-in- 
Catheilru [22nd February] and took the name of Nichols 
TV. Henry, bishop of Salisbury, departed this life, and on 
his decease there was a double election of master William Je 
la Oorne and master Lawrence de Hakebrun, a canon of 
same church; but as Lawrence died immediately aftewufe 
the before-mentioned master William was re-elected. 

On the day before the nones [the 4th] of June, a bttt 
was fought between the duke of Brabant on one side, and ih'' 
archbishop of Cologne and the count of Gueldres on tltf 
other, in which a great number of the nobility fell on both 
and the archbishop of Cologne and the 


Gueldres were taken prisoners and confined under the custody 
of the duke of Brabant ; mid thus the Brabantcrs secured the. 
victory. Great part of the market at St. Botolph's, with the 
house of the friars -pre ackers was burnt io the ground on the. 
morrow of St. James [26th July]. 

On the fifth of the ides [the 11th] of October, the moon 
was almost totally eclipsed, wlunh lasted from nearly midnight 
nntil the dawn of day. Tlte king spent Christmas at 
I-k'Uesarde, in the territory of Bearne. 

[a.d. 1289.] Reginald, abbot of Walt ham, ended his days 
about the feast of fit. Peter-in- Cathedra [22nd February], 1 
and was buried at Waltham on the morrow of St. Matthew 
the apostle [22nd September]. He was succeeded by Hobert 
deElington, a canon of the same church. 

The king and queen, after being four years abroad, came 
over to England, and lauded at Dover on the day before the 
ides [the 12th] of August ; and after a short stay, first in 
Kent and then in Esses, arrived at St. Edmund's on St. 
Lambert's day [17th September], proceeding on the morrow 
into the parts of Norfolk. Going theme by sea to the isle of 
Ely, on their way to London, tin.' king ei'lo united the feast of 
the Translation "of St. Edward [13th October], with great 
solemnity at Westminster. 

Thomas Weyland, chief justice of the King's JBench. 

The lord Thomas Weyland, the king's chief justice of the 
lower bench, having been indicted and convicted on trial for 
harbouring some of his people who had lately committed a 
murder, and fearing to throw himself upon the king's mercy, 
took sanctuary in the house of the friars-minors, then living 
at St. Edmund's. Having been closely guarded there by the 
country for several days, by the king's order, he assumed 
their habit, when it was least expected. The king being 
informed of this, sent a knight belonging to his guard with 
instructions to employ the whole power of the country to 

1 This is the reading of the text in all the editions, but it appears to 
be erroneous, and that instead of St. Peter-in-Cathedra, it should bo 
St. Peter -ad -Yincul a, which feast occurs in the Roman calendar on the 
2nd of August. Even then, the time which elapsed between the abbot's 
death and interment was very long. St. Peter's day is on 24th June. 

378 FLORENCE OF WORCESTER. [>.». 1289,1260. 

keep him there with greater security. At length, this Thomas, 
after being blockaded two months, during which nearly all the 
friars dispersed themselves in various places, throwing off tie 
religions and re-assuming (In. 1 secular habit, came out of uoo- 
tuary, and, being brought before the king, was committed to 
safe custody in the Tower of London. 

The pope raised to the throne Charles, prince of the Morei, 
the son of Charles, late kins; of Sicily, and solemnly crowned 
him on Whitsunday [i'fltli May]. 

The city of Tripoli was taken by the Saracens, and laid in 
ruins, with the towns ami village*, and the whole neighbouring 
country, with great slaughter of the Christians. The king 
solemnly celebrated the feast of Our Lord's Nativity at West- 

A parliament— .Proceedings ac/ainst delinquent judges. 

[a.d. 1290.] In a parliament held at Westminster. kWn 
sat from the (.'ire u incision of Our Lord [1st January] until 
the feast of St. Valentine [14th February], divers sentence 
were pronounced by the king and his council in the cases of 
several of the judge*, whose misdemeanours were tin-: 
into, according to their respective merits. Among these, lord 
Thomas Weyland was condemned to perpetual banishment, 
with tiie forfeiture of all his property, movable and immov- 
able. Many also of the justices, both of the bench and iriio 
liad been in eyre, were committed to safe custody in the 
Tower. Among these the Hiief were the lords John de Love- 
tot, William de Brunton, Roger de Leicester, and Robert de 
Littlebury ; these were of the bench. Of the justices in IfR 
were the lords Solomon of Rochester, Richard of Boy haul, 
Thomas de Sudendon, Walter de Hopet, and Robert de 
Preston. But the first of these were released at the close of 
this parliament, after paying 1 large lines for their ransom ; the 
last remained in the Tower, the king going into another 
quarter; but, in the end, they obtained their « 1 barge, on tht 
same terms as the others, with the king's connivance, « 
rather by his order. 

John, bishop of Ely, the king's treasurer, died at El)' oo 
the narrow of the Annunciation of St. Mury [26th March], 
and, being honourably interred on Holy Thursday folio* '"" 
he was succeeded by master William de Luda, arclw' 

lay follturifli, 
irchdeaeon * 


Durham, denn of St. Martin's-the-Great at London, and 
keeper of the king's wardrobe, who was elected on the fourth 
of the ides [the 4th] of May. 

Tlie earl of Gloucester marries the princess Joan of Acre. 

Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, married at West- 
minster, on the last day of the month of April, the lady Joan, 
suroamed of Acre, from her having been born there, the 
daughter of the king of England. 

A great sea fight. 

On the same day there was a desperate naval eogUfSMtf 
in the sea of Marmora, near St. Matthew's, between the fleets 
of Bayonne, the Cinque Ports, and the Genoese on one side, 
and of the Flemings on the other, in which lire and water, as 
well as arms, were used as instruments of destruction ; and 
after many of the ships were sunk, and the rest had consulted 
their safety by flight, the victory remained with the adverse 

Removal of the body of Henry III. 

Our lord the king caused the body of the king his father, 
which was interred at Westminster, to be suddenly and unex- 
pectedly removed on the night of the feast of the Ascension 
[10th May], and deposited in a more elevated situation, near 
the tomb of St. Edward. 

A bloody battle between the Danes and Norwegians. 

A. most savage and bloody battle was fought between the 
kings of Norway and Denmark, at Skonor in Denmark, in 
which twenty-five thousand of the Norwegians fell, without 
much loss on the part of the Danes. 

Eoger Bigod, earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, 
brought over as his wife Alice, the daughter of John d'Aveynes, 
count of Agenois. 

John, the son and heir of John, duke of Brabant, solemnly 
Jspoused Margaret, daughter of the king of England, at 
Westminster, on the sixth of the ides [the 10th] of July, 
n the presence of his father and a great assemblage of 


Tlie crop of fruit entirely failed through all parts nf 
England, botli in the gardens anil hedges, except apples and 

William, the bishop-elect of Ely, having been ordamwl 
priest on the first of October, in the parish church of St. Mary 
at Ely, was consecrated by the lord John, archbishop of 
Canterbury, extrrtonlhm-y pomp, bishop of Ely. 

A synod at Ely; grant of a tenth and fifteenth. 
On the* morrow of this solemnity, the archbishop held Lis 
synod at Ely, with his suffragans and others of the clergy 
there assembled. In this syuod the clergy granted to tlie 
king the tenth of all their spiritual possessions for otic yeir; 
but so that the tenth should not be collected before the feast 
of St. Michael in the year next to come. The Iting ikl 
obtained from the commons of England the fifteenth of all 
their temporal property ; and he condemned ail the Jews, of 
both sexes and every age, living in all parts of England) u 
perpetual banishment, without hope of returning, 

Roger, abbot of St. Alban's, departed this life about tba 
feast of All Saints, on the morrow of All Souls [3rd Novem- 
ber], and was succeeded by John de Berk ham pstead, a monk of 
the same abbey. Robert, abbot of Reading, resigned his 
dignify, and was succeeded by William do Sutton, chamberlain 
of the same house. 

Death of Margaret, maid of Norway, lu-ircts of SeotUmd. 
Margaret, daughter of Erie, king of Norway, and of Mar- 
garet, daughter of Alexander, king of Scotland, who lately 
died, without leaving any hi»ir of his body, and of hi- qnet'H 
Margaret, tlie daughter of Henry, king of England, and sbwr 
of king Edward, his son,— to whom, as nearest of blood, the 
hereditary right of the kingdom of Scotland belonged, and 
who, also, was on the point of being married to Edward, the 
son of king Edward before mentioned, a dispensation having 
been procured from the court of Home, — died in the Orkntr 

Death of queen Eleanor. 
Eleanor, queen of England, the king's consort, ended hsf 
Lys at Herdeby, in the county of Lincoln, on the fourth <i 

L.D. 1290, 1291.] tJUEES ELE AS OK BURIED. 381 

tie calends of December [l-'Sth November], and was buried at 
tt'estminster with extrordmaiv statu and magnificence, on the 
sixteenth of the calends of January [17th Ik- comber], After 
which the king set out for AyisrfggB, 5 a hermit aire OT the earl 
of Cornwall, lo celebrate our Lord's Nativity there. 

[a.d. 1291.] On the fifteenth of the calends of March 
[lath February], there was an eclipse of the moon. On the 
sixth of the ides [the St!i] of February, lit London, about the 
first hour, on a sudden, and when it was least expected, the 
Lord thundered from heaven with a loud aud sharp report, 
iimiL.' the hearts of all who heard it with awful terror. 

Peace between the Pope and Skity, Arragon and France. 

A peace and alliance was made and ratified between the 
Roman church and (.'liarle.-, kiuj: of Sicily, on the one part, 
and Peter, king of Arragon, on the other : also, between the 
king of France on the one part, and the king of Spain on the 
other (after great looses, Ui.iodslK'd.aml calamities), principally 
through the mediation of the king of England, who sent 
solemn embassies into foreign parts to negotiate and settle 
the peace. But it was soon afterwards weakened and 
nullified, when, on the death of Peter, king of Arragon, his 
brother James took possession, by force, of the kingdom of 
Sicily. Ambassadors came from the great and mighty khan, 
of the Tartars, both to the pope and the kings of France and 
England, for the renewal and ratification of peace, as well as 
touching his acceptance of the Christian faith, and the grant 
of succour to the Holy Land. 

Joan, countess of Gloucester, the daughter of the king of 
England, gave birth at Winehcombe to her eldest son, who 
was named Gilbert. The lord Thomas, bishop of Rochester, 
slept in the Lord at Rochester, in a good old age, on St. 
Pancras day [12th May] : he was succeeded by Thomas, prior 
of that church. Eleanor, mother of the king of England t 
ending her days at Amesbury, on the morrow of St. John 
[25th June], was interred with great solemnity on the third 
day after the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September] with a 

1 Aahridgc, in Buckinghamshire, where a college of Bon-hommeB 
was founded by Edmund.tho son of Richard, earl of Cornwall, in 1283. 
It afterwards became the magnificent seat of the Bridgewater family. 


great attendance of the most powerful nobles both of France 
and England. 

Edward I. asserts his claim to the suzerainty of Scotland. 

On the death of Alexander [III.], king of Scotland, lately 
deceased, 1 and the death and total failure both of his issue 
and kindred by blood, some persons began to claim a right 
of inheritance to the kingdom of Scotland. Considering 
which, the kin;; of England alleged that the supremacy of the 
crown was vested in him, To make tills more clear he went 
to Norham, in the marches of Scotland, and assembled there 
the men of religion from some of the English churches with 
their chronicles, which having been carefully inspected, 
examined, and considered by his whole council, it appeared 
plain to all and each, that the supreme right to tiio kingdom 
of Scotland was vested in and belonged to him ; all which 
having been recounted before the great men of Scotland, a; 
well bishops as earls, and some others, and having been 
deliberately weighed, the Scots having nothing to allege on 
their part, acknowledged him as their suzerain lord. They 
also committed to his custody the castles of Scotland, both on 
this side the sea and beyond soa, together with the seal of 
Scotland, and swore fealty to him, and made it sure by their 
letters patent, and declared that those who claimed a right tu 
the kingdom of Scotland ought to abide the judgment of the 
court of the king of England. 

In this state of affairs, the lord John de Baliol, aud tin 1 lord 
Bobert de Bruce, with others hereafter named, 
themselves to claim their right. At length they agreed to 
this, that they would submit to the arbitration of forly 
liegemen of each of the two kingdoms, forty on one side and 
forty on the other, with twenty on the king's part; and that 
the arguments and rights of all having been produced before 
them, they should promulgate? and publish their award on tfac 
morrow of St. Peter-ad-Vincula [2nd August], This being 
settled, the king of England appointed the bishop of Caithness 
chancellor of Scotland, and joined with him one of his oim 
clerks, Walter de Agmondesham, chancellor of England, com- 

1 Alexander III. died 19th. March, !2Sfi, Mis qneen, MugiM, 
■i '■.'.' :■ ..!' Il'.'siry, du'd lj-A-icv him. in tin; year li'7o. S<* I '" 
pp. 364, and 374. 

AJ>. 1291.] SCOTTISH AFFAIKS. 383 

manding all things to be done with their concurrence and 
assent- He also distributed the castles amung his adherents, 
as to him seemed fit. He Bkewbe ^pointed keepers of the 
peace and order, and otheroth'eers of the royal administration, 
both on the mainland and in the islands. 

Therefore, on the morrow of St. Peter already named, it 
was determined, with common coBMDt, by Sw nobles of both 
countries at Berwick, and by those who claimed a right to the 
kingdom of Scotland, that the pleas of all should be con- 
sidered null and void, except those of the lords John de, 
Baiiol, Robert de Bruce, and John de Hastings, and the 
others hereafter mentioned. A day was assigned to the 
parties at Berwick for arguing their rights on the morrow of 
the Holy Trinity next coming [18th June] by onr lord the 
king and his liegemen, who should meet him there. After 
tliis, Florence, earl of Holland, Robert Bruce, earl of 
Anandale, John de Baiiol, lord of Gal way, John de Hastings, 
Jord of Abergavenny, John Cumming, lord of Badenoch, 
Patrick de Dunbar, carl of March, John do Vesci, on behalf 
of his father, Richard do Soules, and William de Ross, in 
whom, or some of whom, the right to the crown of Scotland 
was considered to be vested, returned to their homes to de- 
liberate touching the allegation and assertion of their right 
or rights, against the day before appointed for them. 

Wherefore, our lord the king, taking into consideration and 
fully weighing, that by the tenor of the chronicles of divers, 
religious men, his right to the kingdom of Scotland was de- 
clared to be far from trifling ; and desirous of leaving a 
record of this fact and of his own proceedings to be handed 
down to future generations, he wrote to the greater monas- 
teries of England in the following form : — 

" Edward, by tlte grace of God, king of England, lord of 
Ireland, and duke of Aqititaine, to his beloved t» Christ, the 
abbot and convent of St. Peter at Bury, greeting, 

" We send you appended to these presents, under the seal 
af our exchequer, a transcript of certain letters which are en- 
rolled in our treasury, of which the following is the tenor : — 

" ' To those who shall tee or hear these presents : Florence earl 

384 FLORENCE OP WOECESTEB. [.i.I>. [291, 

of Holland, Robert Bruce, earl of Anandale [John da Butiol,' 
lord of GahoayA Johnde l[<i$tin>j*,lord of Abergavenny, JoiU 
Cwnmitiff, lord of Badcuoch, Patrick de Dunbar, earl if 
March, John de Vesoi, on behalf of hU father, Rkhard dt 
Souks, and William de Row, greeting in God. 
J\ " < Whereas we pretend to have right to the kingdom of Scot- 
land, and this right to exhibit, challenge, and aver before kira 
ivho has the moat power, jurisdiction, and reason to try our 
right ; ami the noble prince, Sir Edward, by the grace of 
Cud. king of England, has informed us on good aii' 
grounds, that to him belongs and is due the suzerainty of tin 
said kingdom of Scotland, and the cognisance of hearing, 
trying, and determining our right : wo, of our own free 
choice, without any manner of force or duress, will and 
grant to receive right before liim as the sovereign lord of 
the land. And we will and promise that we will bold and 
keep his act iirm and stable, and that he among QS 
possession of the kingdom to whom right shall belong befin 
him. In testimony of which we have set our seals to this in- 
strument. Done at Korham, the Tuesday aHd 
Ascension, -in the year of grace one thousand two hundred 
and ninety-one.' 

■ ■ : ■■ - ' ,.' r ■■ .- ■ .'.■• , ■ .-,■■ ." .■■ '/,■■■.■■■■ ■ .'■ ■■■ . 
earl of Holland, Robert de Bruce, lord of Anandale, John dt 
Baliot; lord of Gahaay, John de Hastings, lord of Abergavenny. 
John Corny*, lord of ISadowch, Patrick de Dunb 
March, John de Vesey, for hit father, Nicholas de Soviet, ana 
William de Rous, health in God. 

"'Whereas, we have consented and granted, of our own free 
will and common assent, without any duress, to I 
prince, Sir Edward, by the grace of God, king of EnglauJ, 
that he, as suzerain lord of the territory of Si.. 
hear, try, and determine our challenges and demands, which 
we intend to exhiliU and allege for our right to rl i- 
of Scotland, and justice have before him, as suzerain lord ol 
the land, promising that we will hold his act firm 

is •■mi (li'il, .■vidi-Milv itirrniL;!i inadvertence. It V" 
"■'"S, both French ami Latin. The transcript in ""- 
.- :- -; ren j rl ,!,,, ui ] j.-i-fncll. 

D. 1291.] SCOTTISH AFFAIRS. 3&> 

ill that he shall possess the kingdom to whom right shall 
ve it before hiiu. 

" ' Batoousiilei-iii.c thai the aforesaid, king of England cannot 
ake and accomplish this L-«)Lrisia:ini::i> without judgment, and 
dgment ought not to be without execution, and execution 
nnot he done without possession and seisin of the same 
rritorios, auil of the castles : wo therefore will and grant that 
!,as sovereign lord, in order to i>i?i-fi n-ui the things before men- 
oned, have the seisin of all the hind and castles of Scotland. 
itil right be done and perfected as we demand, in such 
inner that before he has the before mentioned seisin, he give 
x)d and sufficient surely, on demand, to the protectors and 
)mmons of the kingdom of Scotland; lor the restoration of 
te same kingdom and castles, and all royalties, dignities, 
irdahips, franchise*, eusloms, rights, laws, usages, and pos- 
■ssions, with nil manner of appurtenances, in the same state as 
icy were when the seisin was to him given and granted, to 
icli one of us to whom the right shall belong by judgment of 
ie court, saving to the king of England the homage of him 
ho shall be king ; the restoration to be made within three 
lonths after the rig) it shall ie tried and affirmed. 

" 'And that the revenue of the said territories received in the 
; ean time shall be safely deposited, and well kept, in the hands 
Fthe chamberlain of Scotland that now is, and of one to be 
tsigned to act with him by the king of England, and under 
leir seals ; saving reasonable maintenance for the lands and 
istles, and the ministers of the realm. In testimony of what 

before declared, we have set our seals to this writing. Done 
; Norliam, on Tuesday after the Ascension, in the year of 
race one thousand two hundred and ninety-one,' 

"Wherefore wo command you that you record these mat- 
ers in your chronicles for a perpetual testimony thereof. 
Witness, Master W. de Marche, our treasurer, at Westminster, 
ri the ninth day of July, in the nineteenth year of our reign, 
y writ of privy seal." 

Description of Northumbria. 

Hyring was the first king who reigned after the Britons in 
iorthumbria. Northumbria extends from the great river 
[umber (so called from Humber, king of the Huns, who 
■as invited there) as far as the Frisian — which is now called 

A A 


the Scottish— Sea, because it divides the English and Scotch, 
ras called in old times tin; Frisian Sea, because the Prisons 
and the Danes were wont very frequently to bring thefi sWfO 
to land there, and then, being joined by the Scots and Pints, 
ravage Northumbria. This country was afterwards much 
divided on various occasions and from various calamities ; but 
in the course of a short time it was severed into two provinces, 
namely, Deira ami Beruieia. Deira extends from rite afore- 
said river Humber to the Tyne, and was ruled, by St. Oswine, 
king and martyr, whose body now rests at Tynemouth. St. 
Oswald, king and martyr, reigned in Bernieia, that is, from 
the Tyne as far as the Scottish Sea. By the name of Norih- 
umbria was, therefore, sometimes understood the country be- 
tween tins Humber and the Tees ; at other times it extended 
to the Tyne, at others to the Tweed ; but at present iurfudu 
only the district between the Tyne and the Tweed. This, 
may suffice respecting its territory. 

Genealogy of the kings of Bernicia. 

Hyring, then, who has been already mentioned, begat king 
Wodna ; Wodna begat kiug Wlthgiht; Withgils begat king 
~ :sa; Horsa begat king Uppa; Uppa begat 1\. 
Eppa begat king Ermeriug; Evmering begat king Ida; all 
of whom reigned in the territory of the Northumbrians on 
the north side of the river Humber, on the Norwegian ah 
None of these kings, from Hyring to king Ida, appear in any 
of the historians, either from omission or ignorance, and the 
records of them were either burnt in the country or earned 
away from it. 1 

However, king Ida begat king Ethelred ; Ethelred baal 
king Ethell'ert ; Ethelfert begat kintr Oswy ; Oawy begat kin? 
Egfort ; Egfert begat king .Elfrid ; iElfrid begat king .Ella ; 
MWa begat a daughter named Ethelreda. The 
afterwards had the government of Northumbria were all 
sprung from king jEUa. Ethelreda bore earl Eadulf; ead 
Eadulf begat earl Oswulf; earl Oswulf begat earl Waltkeof: 
earl Waltheof begat earl Wibtred ; earl Wihtred begat earl 
Aldrcd; earl Aldred begat a daughter named Elnoda: the 
valiant duke Siward married her, and had with her thelrinj- 
dom of Northumbria. She boro him a son named Wsitueut 
1 "A very remarkiiLle passage. " — Thurpe. 

A.D. 1291.] EAKL3 Off XORTEUMBHIA. 3S7 

who was afterwards earl. I!ut as at the time of duke Siward's 
death liis son Waltheof was still very young, his earldom was 
given by St. Edward, the king, to Tosti, the son of earl 

In the twenty-fourth year of king Edward, the North- 
umbrians expelled iViiiu the kingdom their earl Tosti, who had 
caused them much bloodshed and disaster, putting to death 
all his household, and by grant and permission of St. Edward, 
the king, appointed Morear, the son of Algar, earl of Chester, 
to be their earl. 

In the second yisr of king William 'ho first, that king gave 
the earldom of Northumbria to Bar] Robert ;' but the people 
of the province slew him and nine hundred men at the same 

Id the third year of king William, Waltheof, the son of 
duke Siward, who has been already mentioned, having been 
reconciled with the king, obtained tiie earldom of North- 
umhrta after the death of Morear, the aforesaid earl. 

In the ninth year of king William, Ralph, earl of East- 
Anglia, conspired to dethrone the king, with Waltheof, the 
before-mentioned earl of Nortlmtubria, and 1 loser, the son of 
William Kii/.-O-b'-'i'ii, whoso lister earl Waltheof married, and 
at whose nuptials the conspiracy was hatched. However, the 
king, returning to England, threw earl Ralph, his cousin, 
into prison ; but he caused earl Waltheof to be beheaded at 
Winchester, and ho was buried at Croyland, where the monas- 
tery of St. Guthlac stands. 

All those before-mentioned were sub-kings or earls in 
Xorthumbria, from the period the English people settled 
there ; and of this Northumbria the city of York was the 

Koto, that the following are the names of the kings of 
the Scots, who reigned in Scotland after the Picts. 
Kenneth Mac- Alpin, the first after the Picts, 16 years. 

Donald Mac- Alpin 3 years. 

Constantino Mac-Kenneth 19 years. 

Kenneth Mac-Kenneth 1 year, 

Tirged Mac-Dugal 12 years. . 

Donald Mac-Constantino 11 years. 

1 Robert ie Comvn, t.». 1069. 



[a.d. LSSL 

Constantino Mao-Beth 4& years. 

Malcolm Mac-Donald 9 years. 

Jndolf Mac-Constnntine 9 years. 

Duff Mao-Malcolm 3 years G months. 

Colin Mac- 1 ndu If 4 years C months. 

Kenneth Mae-Malcolm 22 years 2 months. 

Constantino Mac-Colin 1 year 6 months, 

Kenneth Mae-Duft' 1 year 3 months. 

Mah-olm Mac-Kenneth 30 yean. 

Duncan, nephew oi'Enis 5 years 9 BOI 

M.ichet Mae-Finlay 17 years. 

Lusach 4 years C months. 

Malcolm Mae-Duncan, married St. Mar- 
garet, and reigned 37 years. 

Donald, his brother, usurped the crown.., 3 years. 

Duncan, bastard, son of Malcolm 1 year 

Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret ... 9 years. 

Alexander, his brother 17 years 3 months. 

David, their most glorious brother 29 years; 

and begat Henry, earl of Huntingdon. 

Malcolm, son of earl Henry 12 years 6 months. 

William, son of Henry, the aforesaid earl 40 years. 

Alexander, son of the aforesaid William 35 years. 

Alexander, son of Alexander. He mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Henry, king 
of England, and was father of Mar- 
garet, queen of Norway. 
Here also is inserted the convention between I i 

England and Scotland, concluded at Lincoln, in 

[1200], 1 in which the king of Scotland did bom- 
king of England. 

i blank in the JIS. which il filled up in the felt will 
:r William, kin# of Scotland, iliti humu- .■■ 

y instrument executed on this oroi- 

1 There ii 
1200, in which „ 
John at Lincoln. If there w 

e continuntor r>f Florence here leads m. 

that which he has inserted in this pluce is a vorv dilferont in-l""- 
raont. For the "charter" which follows was granted at York." 1 
1175, in confirmation of the agreement entered iiuo at l'alaisc nil* 
Henry II. on his releasing the king of Scots from his captivity. Sw 
before, the note at p. 302; ;iu<1 Hoveden, vol. i,p. 308, where ll" 
charter is given ; and vol. ii., p. 502. See, also, Wendortr, ToL »•< 



" William, king of Scotland, becomes the liegeman of our 
lord the king of GngUwl against every man in Scotland, and 
nil other his territories, and lias done fealty to him as hia liege 
lord, as, his other vassals are wont to do. In like manner he 
lias done homage to king Henry, his son, saving always the 
fealty to our lord the king, his father. 

"Moreover, all the bishops, abbots, and clergy, of the 
kingdom of Scot bind, and their sneeersors, from "horn he may 
require it, shall do fealty to our lord the king, as their liege 
lord, as his other bishops are wont to do; and also to king 
Henry, his son, and their heirs. 

"Also, the king of Scotland, with David, Lis brother, and 
his barons and other vassals, hath granted to our lord the king 
that the church of .Scotland shall henceforth pay such sub- 
jection to the church of England as it ought, and was wont 
to pay in the time of his predecessors, kings of England. 

"In like manner, Riehanl, liislioji of St. Andrews, Richard, 
bishop of Dunkeld, UeoliVey, abbot of Uumferlinc, and Her- 
bert, prior of Col din oil a; ii, have ;dso agreed that the church 
of England shall have such jurisdiction over the church 
of Scotland as it can lawfully claim; and that they will 
not oppose the rights of the church of England. And for 
this agreement they have given sureties to our lord the king 
and to Ins son Henry, in the same manner as when they did 
fealty to him as his liegemen. The other bishops and the 
clergy of Scotland shall do the same, according to the con- 
vention made between our lord the king and the king of 
Scotland, and his brother David and bis barons. 

'■ The carls, also, and the barons and others holding lands 
under the king of Scotland, shall do homage and fealty, if 
our lord the king shall require it, to himself and king Henry, 
his son, and their heirs, against all the world, saving only the 
fealty due from him to the king his father. In like manner, 
the heirs of the king of Scotland and of his barons, and of 
their mesne tenants, shall pay homage and allegiance to the 
heirs of our lord the king against all the world. 

" Further, the king of Scotland and his liegemen shall not 
henceforth harbour any fugitive from the dominions of our 
ord the king for cause of felony, either in Scotland or other 


Lis territories, unless lie sliall be trilling to take his trial in the 
dominions of our lord tho king, and abide by the judgment 
of the court. But the king of Scotland and his liegemen 
shall arrest him with all possible speed, and deliver him a] 
to our lord tho king, or to his justiciaries and bailiffs ii 

" Moreover, if there shall be in England any fugitive fron 
the territories of the king of Scotland on account of felony, 
unless lie sliall he willing to take his trial either in the court 
of the king of Scotland, or in die court of our lord the kinc, 
and to abide by tlie judgment of such court he sliall not bf 
harboured by our lord the kinc but ahull be given up to the 
men of the king of Scotland by the bailifii of our lord the king, 
when he shall be found. 

"Further, the liegemen of our lord the king shall hi 
their lands which they have held, and ought to hold, of our 
lord the king, and of tho king of Scotland, and of tlieir 
vassals. And the liegemen of the king of Scotland shiH 
hold their lands which they have held, and ought to hold, of 
our lord the king and his vassals. 

"For the due performance of this final convention «i:!i ant 
lord the king and his son Henry and their heirs, by the king 
of Scotland and Ids heirs, the king of Scotland has given 
possession to our lord the king, at the mercy of our lord tfca 
king, of the castles of lioxlnirgh, Berwick, and Jedburgh, and 
the Maiden castle, and the castle of Sterling. And the kiiig 
of Scotland will assign to our lord the king out of his reve- 
nues, sums in due proportion at the pleasure of our lord flw 
king for the expi.;:ses of the custody of the said castles. 

" Besides, for the due and final performance of the conven- 
tion aforesaid, the king of Scotland hoi delivered to our lord 
the king as hostages, his brother David, and ear] Duncan Mid 
many others. When, however, the castles shall be given up, 
William, king of Scotland, and his brother David shall ke 
liberated. Each of the before-mentioned earls and btrtmi 
shall also be set at liberty, when he shall lmve given » 
hostage, namely, a legitimate son, if ho have one, and in U> 
case of those who have not, nephews or next lieii- : 
having been also surrendered, as before mentioned. 

"Further, the king of Scotland and his before-named 
barons have pledged themselves with good faith, and n 
raud or covin, that, all excuses apart, they will c~ 


Lsbops, baron?, anil lie fern en of their land, who were not pre- 
tfit when the king; of Sco;[aml concluded this treaty with our 
>rd the king-, to make the same allegiance nnd fealty to our 
ird the king- and Ms sou Henry, which they themselves have 
lade ; and deliver hostagea to our lord the king of aueh aa 
e shall choose, in the same manner aa the barons and liege- 
len who were here present. 

" Moreover, the bishops, carls, and barons have agi'eed 
rith our lord the king and his son Henry, that if the king of 
icolland by any chanee should withdraw his fealty to our 
ord the king and hia son, and from the aforesaid covenants, 
bey will hold with our lord the king, as their liege lord, 
Lgainst the king of Scotland, and against all the enemies of 
>ur lord the king ; and the bishops will put (lie territories of 
he king of Scotland under an interdict, until he shall return 
;o hia fealty to our lord the king. 

"For the due performance of the aforesaid convention 
without fraud or covin, by Williriju, kin« of Scotland, and 
David, his brother, and by the tar&BS befiwe named and their 
lieirs, the king of Scotland himself, and David, his brother, 
md all hia said barons, have pledged their faith against all 
persons, as liegemen of our lord the king, and of his son 
Henry, saving their fealty to the king his father; of all which 
ire witnesses, Richard, bishop of Avranches, &c. &c." 

This instrument having been read in the church of St. 
Peter, at York, in the presence of the aforesaid bishops of 
England, and before the king of Scotland and David his 
brother, and all the people, the bishops, earls, barons, and 
knights of the king of the Scots, swore fealty to our lord the 
king of England, and to Henry, his son, and their heirs, 
against all men, as well as against their own Uege lord. 

"Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of 
Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, to the archbishops, 
nsliops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciaries, sherifis, and all his 
jfHcers and faithful people throughout the whole of England, 

1 This charter was granted in 1194. See Hoveden (vol. i!., p. 
118, &c.) for the transactions connected with it. He refers to another 
barter, the substance of which will be presently given, bnt does not 
nention the restoration of tho castles of Roxburgh, Berwick, &c. 

OP WORCESTER. [a.!}. 1291. 

" Know ye that we have restored to ouv most beloved 
cousin William, by the same grace, kino: of Scotland, his 
castles of Roxburgh ami Berwick, to be held us his own inhe- 
ritance by him and his heirs for ever. 

" Moreover, we have released hi in from all covenants and 
agreements which our father Henry, king of England, extorted 
from liim by new charters, or In consequence uf his capture; in 
such manner, nevertheless, that he fully and entirely perforin 
to us all that his brother Malcolm, king of Scotland, lawfully 
performed, or ought to have performed, to our nredeoeeM, 
And we will perform to him all that our predecessors performed, 
or ought to have performed, in respect of the aforesaid Malcolm 

namely, safe conduct in coming to or returning i'r 

and in abiding there, and in procurations, and all liberties, 
dignities, and honours which he can lawfully claim, a cording 
to what shall be recognised by four of our barons chosen by 
king William and lour of his barons chosen by us. 

"Further, if any of our liegemen have seized, without 
lawful judgment, the borders or marches of tlio kingdom rf 
Scotland from the time that tho aforesaid king WiUuUBffH 
taken prisoner by our father, we will that they bo restored 
entire, and replaced in the same condition in which they were 
before his capture, 

"Moreover, with respect to the lands which he lias in 
England, whether they be held in demesne or fee. namely, in 
the county of Huntingdon and elsewhere, let him hi i 
him and his heirs for ever as fully and freely as the said !U-i- 
colm possessed them or ought to have possessed them, save 
such of them as the said Malcolm or his heirs afterward! 
ini'eotl'ed. So, however, that if any snch lands , 
terwards enfeoffed, the service for those fees shall belong to 
tho said king of Scotland and his heirs. 

" Whatever also was granted by our father to the aforesaid 
William, king of Scotland, we ratify and confirm. 

" We restore to him the fealty of his liegemen, and all 
charters which our lord and father obtained from lam tj 
reason of his capture; and if by any chance there should & 
others retained from forget fulness, or afterwards discovered, 
we command that they shall be treated as null ami vuid. Hut 
he has become our liegeman for all tho lands for which hi* 
ancestors, were liegemen to our predecessors, and s' 

and swow blty 

D. 1.291.] SCOTTISH CHABTEEtS. 393 

■ iia and our heart. Witnesses, Baldwin, Archbishop of 
anterbury, &c. &c." 


" Alexander, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, to all 
io faithful in Christ wbo shall see or hear this writing', health. 

" We would have you know, that we have covenanted and 
itlifully promised, for us and our heirs, to our most beloved 
id liege lord, Henry, by the grace of God, the illustrious 
kg of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and 
quitaine, and count of Aiijou, and bis heirs, that we will keep 
jod faith and amity with him for over hereafter. And that 
e will never, ourselves, or by any persons on our behalf, enter 

to any alliance with the enemies of the kings of England or 
ieir heirs, for the purpose of procuring or making war from 
hich loss may happen, or can by any means ensue, to them 
; their kingdoms of England and Irelaud, or their other 
■rritorics, unless they shall unjustly aggrieve us. 

" All this leaves entire the covenants between us and our 
id lord the king of Enghiid lately made at York in the 
resence of the hud Oiho, deacon of St. Xicliolas-in-careere- 
uliiano, at that time legate of the apostolic see in England, 
id is without prejudice to the treaty made respecting a mar- 
age between our son and the daughter of the said king of 

" And that this our covenant and agreement, for us and our 
eirs,may have perpetual force, we have caused Alan the cham- 
erlain, H. de Baliol, and others, to swear on our soul that we 
ill firmly aud faithfully maintain all the rights aforesaid. And 
i like manner we have also caused to swear the venerable 
ithers, David, William, Geoffrey, and Clement, the bishops 
f St. Andrew's, Glasgow, and other sees. And further,. our 
uthful subjects Patrick, earl of Dunbar, Malcolm, earl of 
ife, and others, [have sworn] that if we or our heirs should 
antravene the aforesaid covenant and promises (which God 
irbid), they and their heirs shall lend to us and our heirs 
either aid nor counsel against the said covenant and promise, 

1 Alexander II., king of Scotland, died on the 3rd July, 1249, 
:d liis son's marriage with the daughter of Henry III., referred to in 
, took place on the 20th December, 1252 ; so that this engagement 
as probably entered into shortly before the father's death. 

[a.d. 129L 

nor will, to the best of their power, suffer them to be given by 
others; but shall use their endeavours honestly with us and our 
heirs that all the aforesaid provisions shall be firmly and tkitli- 
fully kept, botli by us and our heirs, and by them and tlieir 
heir;, tor ever. In witness whereof, we and our prelates, earls, 
and barons, have confirmed these presents by affixing our 
seals. Witnesses, the earls and barons before mentioned, in the 
year of our reign, &c. &c," 


" To (he most holy father in Christ, John, by the grace of 
God, pope, Alexander by the like grace, king of Scotland, 
earl of Patrick, earl of Stratherne, sends greeting with all 
due honour and reverence. 

*' We certify to your holiness (hat we have taken our cor- 
poral oaths before the venerable father Otho, cardinal deacon 
of St. Nicholas -in- ciireere-TuIl., at that time legate in EoclsJid 
of the apostolic see, and have made our charter, commencing 
thus : ' Know all men, present and to come, that it has beea 
agreed, as follows, in the presence of the lord Otho, of St. 
Nicholas,' &e. 

" By another, which begins : 'We will you all to know, is 
appears from the tenor of our former cuvenants,' we have sub- 
mitted ourselves to your jurisdiction, so that we :n ■ 
may be restrain yd by ecclesiastical censures, if we shall at my 
time contravene the before mentioned treaty of peace. Aw 
if it, should ever happen that we, or ail or any of us. shMH 
rashly presume or attempt to contravene the same, and from 
thence grievous peril should ensue both to our souls and 
those of our heirs, besides great injuries in our persons ul 
states, we entreat your holiness that you will issue your 
mandate to some one of the suffragans of the archbishop of 
Canterbury, enjoining him to compel us and our 1 
observance of the aforesaid peace, as shall be more fully wi 
forth in the instruments to be executed on such occasion ; 
otherwise that you decree by your authority, according to tfc# 
«anous, against all gainsayers, in regard to the aforesaid pet* 
And in confirmation of this our petition, ire have set Wf 
seals to the present writing." 

o the pope must correspond 

1 Trill Hi' 

1,0. 1291.] SCOTTISH AFFAIRS. 395 

WiUtam, ling of Scotland, clair,u Nortliwnberlaite[, §-c. 

In the year of grace, 110-1-,' king Richard appointed his 
pronation -day at Winchester, at the close of Easter [17th 
Ijiril]. On the second day the king wont as far as Clips tono, 
■> meet William, Icing of Scotland, and requested all who had 
sen taken prisoners hi the castles of Nottingham, TickhiU, 
Tarlboi-ough, und Lancaster, and at Mount St. Michael, to 
ttend him at Winchester on the morrow of the close of Easter. 
►n the third day of the same mouth, being Palm- Sunday, the 
inp; of England rested at Cliostone, and the king of Scotland 
t "Worksop, on account of the solemnity of At day ; and on 
ie morrow both kings came to Southwell. On thu fifth 
ay of the same month they went together to Sontlmvll, 
•here the king of Scotland requested the king of England to 
instate him in the dignities and honours which his prede- 
sssors held in England. He also asked that the earldoms of 
Tortliuniberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancaster, 
lonld be restored to him in right of his predecessors : to 
'hich the king of England replied, that he would give him 
itisfaction after lie had consulted bis barons. On the seventh 
ay of the month the kings proceeded to Gaidington, 1 and 
bode there until the morrow ; and on Easter-eve they arrived 
t Northampton, and abode there the following day. 

While there, the king of England, having taken deliberate 
aunsel with the bishops and nobles of England, made answer 
> the king of Scotland that he could by no means grant his 
jquest, as far as regarded Northumberland, and especially in 
iose times, when nearly all the principal men in the kingdom 
f France had become his enemies ; for if he were to do so, it 
ould appear rather to proceed from fear than from love. 

ir of Florence is still engaged in recording a series 
r documents and facts connected with the claims of the English tings 
i the suzerainty of Scotland, putting them together, however, with- 
it any regard to the order of dates. The subject of this section is 
ilated in much the same terms by Roger of Wendover. See vol. ii., 

318, and the following pages ; and see also king Richard's charter, 
ranted in this same year (1194), before, p. 391. 

1 Geddington, between Southwell and Northampton, an ancient 
istlc [sre Orderic. Vital., b. xiii., p. 917, Duehtme], and a rojal seat, 
here Henry II. held a parliament in 1188 to raise money for a 

390 FLORENCE OP WORCESTER. [.l.D. 1201. 

Soto the king of Scotland is to be received in coming to lie 
English court. 

However, in the presence of his mother Eleanor, and many 
of the bishops, earls, and barons of both kingdoms, the king 
of England granted and confirmed to William, king of iScot- 
land, and his heirs for ever, that whenever they should cimi: 
to the cGiirt of the kings of England, at their summon?, Itlt 
bishop of